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Hadrat Bu 'All Shah Qalandar. 



An Introduction to the Study of Suftsm with 
Special Reference to India 


or THB 














At the very outset I desire to acknowledge with 
deep gratitude the invaluable assistance given to me 
by my revered friend and counsellor, Rev. L. Bevan 
Jones, Principal of the Henry Martyn School of Islam- 
ics, Lahore, in the composition of this book in proper 
English. He has helped unstintingly by going over the 
whole manuscript, sentence by sentence, correcting 
and improving its language and thus making its publi- 
cation possible. Without his help and encouragement 
this book would, probably never have seen the light. 
I am also deeply indebted to my friend and colleague, 
Rev. J. W. Sweetman, for kindly re-writing Ch. II, and 
translating into English the original passages quoted in 
this book, and also for his generous help in Proofs 

I also desire to express my great indebtedness to 
Dr. L. E. Browne, my former colleague and to my friend 
and benefactor Dr. M. T. Titus for thir most valu- 
able criticism and helpful suggestions most of which 
have found their way into this book. 

I am conscious that the subject here dealt with has 
not received adequate treatment. But in view of the 
fact that the resources for our knowledge of such parts 
of it as, the history of the Religious Orders and details 
of the Saints, are so obscure and at times so unacces- 
sible, readers who are in a position to see the book's 


shortcomings will kindly forgive the deficiencies and 
favour me with their criticisms. 

The book claims no originality and no great re- 
search. It is an effort to place before English readers 
in systematic form, the varied and extensive, though 
often hidden, material on the subject of Mysticism and 
Saint worship in Islam, available in Urdu and Persian 

A word must be added on the system of translitera- 
tion adopted in this book. While it has not been poss- 
ible to give an exact idea of the pronunciation of 
Arabic and Persian words, the following method has 
been adopted. 

The elision of alif is indicated by an apostrophe ('), 
e.g., 'Allu'l-Hujwiri. The cases where apostrophe is 
used for hamza or for the elision of alif can easily be 
determined by persons acquainted with Arabic and 
Persian. The Arabic 'ayn is represented by an inverted 
apostrophe O e. g. Shara\ 

The long vowels are represented by a short hori- 
zontal overline, a, I, u, and have approximately the sound 
of the vowels in the following words: father, seen, 
loot. , 

Diacritical points or lines appear under h, s, z,t, o, 
th, kh, gh, to represent certain Arabic values. Some 
few words, however, such as current proper names, are 
spelled according to usage, e. g., Muhammad, Quran, 
Islam. In footnotes and headings Arabic or Sanskrit 
words are spelled in Roman without any diacritical 


Lastly, I offer my thanks to my wife for the sym- 
pathy, encouragement and wise counsel that I have 
received from her in writing of this book, which other- 
wise because of the peculiar nature of its subject and 
being my first effort to write for English readers would 
not have been an easy task. 

Lahore, India. J. A. S. 

March, 1938. 



Introduction ... ... 1 

I. The early History of ufism ... 6 

The derivation of the word ufl The 
beginning of ufism The earliest 
form of ufism. 

II. Later Development of ufism ... 17 

Speculative elements in ufism ufism 
wins recognition in Islam The classic 
period of ufism Farldu'd-Dln, 
4 Attar Jalalu'd-Dm Ruml Sa'dl 
Later ufl peots Shabistari Hafig 

III. The ufl Gnostic System ... 52 
ufl speculative concerning God 

Tanazzuldt, the descent of the Abso- 
lute The Haqlqatul-Muhammad- 
diyya The Latd'if, the organs of 
spiritual apprehension. 

IV. The Path ... ... 67 

The Stages of the Path The Divine 

Effulgence and mystic Illumination 
Fand, Annihilation. 


V. The Path (Continued) ... 87 

Devotion to the plr ufi devotions 
General acts of devotions Special 
acts of devotions. 

VI. Notable f eatutes of ufl Practice . . . 102 
Veneration of Saints The hierarchy of 
the Saints Visitation to a Shrine- 
Miracle Sama\ musical festivals 
Khidr and Ilyas. 

VII. The Introduction of ufism into India 118 
Baba Ratan Bibl Pakdamanan Sayyid 
Salar Mas'ud Ghazi 'Allu'l-Hujwiri. 

VIII. The Relation of uf ism to Indian Thought 1 32 
The ufi attitude towards Hinduism 
The ufl plr and Hindu guru ufl 
speculative concerning God compared 
with the teachings of Hindu Philo- 
sophy Wahdatul-WujUdiyya and 
Advaita Philosophy Shuhudiyya and 
Vishistadvaita LatcCif and Chakras 
Fand and Nirvana or Moksa. 

IX. The Origin of Religious Orders ... 159 

Hasan of Basra The Zaydiyya The 

X. The Four Main Orders ... 174 

The Chishtl Order The Qadiri Order 
The Suhrawardll Order The Naqsh- 
bandl Order. 


XL The Chishti Order ... ... 193 

Khwaja Mu 4 inu'd-Din Chishti. 

XII. The Chishti Order after the death of 

Mu'inu'd-Din ... ... 209 

Khwaja Qutbu'd-Din M u s i c in the 
Chishti Order Faridu'd-Din Shafkar- 

XIII. The Nizami and abiri Section of the 

Chishti Order ... ... 220 

The Nizami S e c t i o n Hisamiyya 

Hamza Shahi 
The Sabiri Section of the Chishti 


XIV. The Suhrawardl Order. . . ... 228 

Baha'u'd-Dm Zakariya - Sadru'd-Din 

Shaykh Ahmad Ma 4 shuq Sub-sections 
of the Suhrawardl Order. 

XV. The Sub-divisions of the Suhrawardl 

Order ... ... 236 

Bd-Sara Sections The Jalali Section 
The Makhdumi S e c t i o n The 
Ismail Shahi Section-The Dawla 
Shahl Section Be-Shara Sections 
Lai Shahbaziyya and the Rasul Shahi 

XVI. The Qadirl Order ... ... 253 

Some early Saints of the Order The 
Qumesiyya The Bahlul Shahi Section 


The Muqlm Shahl Section The 
Nawshahl Section, 

XVII. The Qadirl Order (Continued) ... 265 

The Husayn Shahl and Miyao Khel Sec- 

XVIII. The Naqshbandl Order ... 275 

The early Saints of the Naqshbandl 
Order in India Ahmad FaruqlMuj- 

XIX. The Naqshbandl Order ... 285 

The doctrine or Qayyumiyat The four 

XX. Some Minor Orders ... ... 299 

The Uwaysi Orders Tha Madari Order 
The Shattarl Order-The Qalandari 
Order The Malamati Order. 

Epilogue. ... 319 


A. A List of the Principal Saints of 

Indian Sufism ... 331 

B. The Principal Anniversaries of the 

Saints in India. ... 369 

INDEX. ... 377 



TONIGHT is Thursday night, the night which is 
specially sacred to the ufl. Come, let us visit some 
shrines and see for ourselves what strange religious rite5 
are practised almost at our very doors. 

We enter a dimly-lighted room where a number of 
men are gathered. As we do so a signal is given by a 
man who appears to be the leader of the assembly and 
the doors are shut. There is a hush as twelve men 
form into two parallel lines in the centre of the room. 
The glimmer of a solitary hurricane lamp falls on dark 
faces in which only the eyes seem to live. The rest of 
us fall back to the sides of the room. The dhikr is 
about to begin. 

With a startling clap of the hands the leader starts 
swaying from right to left. Very slowly he begins and 
the men fall into the rhythm of his swaying. Every 
time they sway to the left, they call "Hu !" in chorus, 
tl Hu....Hu...Hu..." So the monotonous chant proceeds 
with at first hardly any perceptible increase in tempo. 
But gradually the movement of their bodies becomes 
more rapid and the sound of "Hu ! Hu ! Hu!" comes 
faster and faster and with a crescendo corresponding 
with the quicker time. At last the excitement becomes 
so intense that a man there, and a boy here, slip to 
their knees, still swaying in unison with the others till 


finally they fall in collapse on the floor. One man goes 
forward and looks at the faces of these two and leaves 
them where they lie. Thus course after course of this 
chanting and swaying beginning from the slower and 
proceeding to the wild orgy of motion and shouting, 
according to the leader's direction, who brings the 
whole course to its end by a loud shout of "Huf ' and a 
wild jerk to the left. Then dead silence prevails, 
succeeded by the low undertone of prayer in which all 
who have not fallen unconscious join. 

We leave the room as the unconscious begin to 
revive, in order that we may witness a more extraordi- 
nary performance in a neighbouring shrine. Wending 
our way through the narrow lanes, we eventually reach 
our destination. We pass the threshold and enter a 
maze of rooms in the dark, till we find ourselves in a 
gloomy hall. Against the end wall, five men sit facing 
us. The middle one is the leader, but the other four 
are also elders. Upon the wall to the right of the 
leader, knives, cutlasses and other pointed instruments 
of iron are suspended. In the front of him a group of 
some twenty men are seated forming a semi-circle. 
Here the performance seems to have been in progress 
already for some time. The leader is repeating some- 
thing and swaying his body from right to left. The 
rest in unison with him sway in the accustomed manner 
from side to side and shout in chorus, "Allah!" Sudden- 
ly in the midst of the performance one man on the right 
of the leader begins to chant a prayer ; all change the 
movement of their bodies and begin to sway backwards 


and forwards, continuing the chorus of "Allah." Thus 
they proceed for about an hour when all rise up, and 
the two elders on each side of the leader begin an 
antiphonic chant, responding alternately. The rest with 
a rising and falling movement from the hips, now shout 
in chorus 44 Ya Hu! Ya HU!" and at the same time is 
heard a mingled sound of sob, sigh and cry. Soon they 
become more excited; rising to their feet they form into 
a circle and begin to stamp their feet on the floor, ac- 
cording to the rhythm of the singing elders. Then at a 
measured pace they make the circuit of the hall. At 
the point when their strength seems to be exhausted, 
the scene takes a new turn. Some of the men take 
down the sharp weapons and heat them in the fire 
which has all the time been burning in the corner. 
When these are red-hot they are taken to the leader 
and he breathes on them. The men, filled with fresh 
energy and with a frenzy almost amounting to madness, 
rush to the leader and take these red-hot irons from 
him, snatching them, licking them, holding them be- 
tween the teeth. Those who cannot get irons, take 
hold of the knives and cutlasses still hanging on the 
wall, and with indescribable fury stick them into their 
sides, legs and arms. It does not take long for them to 
lose their strength, and one after another they stagger 
and fall on the floor. They utter no word of complaint 
and do not show any sign of pain. All is quiet : the 
yells and shrieks have given way to a fearful silence, a 
strange contrast to the pandemonium only a little while 
before. The riotous scene has changed into a horrible 


spectacle of wounded men lying all over the floor. The 
leader now walks round the hall, examines each person 
and applies his saliva to their wounds. As we turn to 
leave the hall, one of the elders comes up to us and in 
quite a confident tone assures us that in twenty-four 
hours they will be perfectly healed and not even a scar 
of their wounds will be left. 

It is now past midnight and we shall visit one more 
shrine where the dhihr continues all night long. We 
leave the city and come to a place which appears like 
a village. In an open space with a small shrine in the 
background we find a large number of people gathered 
and a musical festival in progress. People are sitting 
close to one another and a large crowd of spectators is 
standing all round. The entire gathering strikes us by 
its disorderliness. One man in a corner is shrieking 
"Hu !", another is raving like a madman, a third is 
whirling round and round, and yet a fourth is lying un- 
conscious, while all the time the musicians, paying no 
heed to the behaviour of these men who are in frenzy 
or, as they would say, in a state of religious ecstasy - 
go on with their singing and keep on playing their in- 
struments. Then certain men, apparently appointed to- 
do this* come forward and seize the men far gone in 
ecstasy, carry them off to some nearby trees and hang 
them up by their heels. In the dim light of oil-lamps 
burning here and there, we had not noticed that there 
were already some suspended in this way. Some of 
these are now recovering their senses and they are 
loosed. They go back and join the crowd to listen to 


the music. We are told that this treatment meted out 
to men in a state of ecstasy is a part of their mystic 

The following pages will throw some light on the 
history of the ufis, ^and an attempt will be made to set 
forth some of their mystical doctrines which have in 
some instances degenerated into these strange spectacles 
and orgies of emotion. 



ufism is that mode of the religious life in Islam in 
which the emphasis is placed, not on the performances 
of external ritual, but on the activities of the inner-self 
in other words it signifies Islamic mysticism. This 
term has been popularised by Western writers, but the 
one in common use among Muslims is Tasawwuf, while 
its cognate, ufi, is used for the mystic. 


A variety of opinions exists among scholars as to 
the meaning and derivation of the word ufi. Some of 
the ufis themselves associate it with the Arabic safa 
(purity). Others again see in it an historical allusion 
to Ajhdbu's-safd, or the people of the bench. They 
spent their time in worship, imitation of the Prophet 
and searching the Quran and Hadlth- They did not 
engage in any worldly business; men who married were 
expelled from their company; they wore little dress and 
were devoted to poverty; for a living they gathered 
sticks and they often fed on fallen dates; Muhammad 
fed them and commanded his companions to do like- 
wise.* The porch of the temple (i. e. where they 
used to assemble on the benches) became their man- 

*Bukhari, Sahih Book 8Ch. 58; Book 9Ch. 41; Ibn Sa'ad, 
Vol. I. 


sions, and hence they obtained their name. But the 
word, however, can be traced with greater certainty to 
$uf, wool, inasmuch as we know that in the early days 
of Islam woollen garments were frequently worn by 
ascetics, not only as their distinctive garb, but also as a 
symbol of their voluntary poverty, and renunciation of 
the world and all its pleasures. 

According to QushayrI (988 A. D.) and Shihabu'd- 
Din Suhrawardi (1234 A. D.) the term ufi first came 
into use at the end of the second century after Hijra 
(815 A. D.), and their claim receives further support 
from the fact that the word does not find a place either 
in the Sittah compiled in the 9th and 10th century 
A. D. or even in the Qamus, the standard Arabic Dic- 
tionary compiled in 1414 A. D. 


It is asserted by M uslims that ufism had its rise in 
Muhammad himself, and that all the religious orders 
trace their lines of succession back to him. "He is said 
to have been the recipient of a two-fold revelation, the 
one embodied in the contents of the Quran, the other 
within his heart. The former was meant for all and is 
binding on all; the latter was to be transmitted to the 
chosen few through these lines of succession. Hence 
it is that Muhammad's knowledge is described as being 
'ilm-i-safina, book knowledge, and 'ilm-i-sina, heart 
knowledge. The former is incorporated in the doctrinal 

* t. e. The Six Correct Boobs of Traditions. 


teaching of the 'Ulama; the latter is strictly esoteric, 
the mystical teaching of the Sufis." : 

As a matter of fact ufism passed through several 
phases in the process of its development. From certain 
passages in the Quran it would appear that its germ did 
exist in Muhammad himself, for that book is propably 
best understood as reflecting his own mind. In it are 
to be found also justification and support for the my- 
stical tendencies so strongly manifested by some of 
Muhammad's companions and friends, tendencies which 
inevitably resulted in a life of detachment, poverty and 
mortification. So that one may say that the companions 
of Muhammad and their successors were, in a sense, 
forerunners of the ufis. 

The ufism of these early Muslims was characterised 
by the renunciation of worldly pleasures and an intense 
fear of Allah and His judgments. It was not till some 
three hundred years after the death of Muhammad, 
that pantheism and idealism came to be outstanding 
features of ufism. In other words the early ufis were 
strictly speaking ascetics, with poverty as the ideal of 
their religious life. 

Ibn Khaldun (1406 A. D.) has express**! a somewhat 
similar view in the Prolegomena to his great historical 
work: "The way of the ufis was regarded by the 
ancient Muslims and their illustrous men the Com- 
panions of the Prophet (ds-$ahaba)i the Successors 

*Bevan Jones. The People of the Mosque, p. 265. 


n), and the generation that came after them 
as the way of Truth and Salvation. To be assiduous in 
piety, to give up all else for God's sake, to turn away 
from worldly gauds and vanities, to renounce pleasure, 
wealth and power, which are the general objects of 
human ambition, to abandon society and to lead in 
seclusion a life devoted to the service of God these 
are the fundamental principles of ufism which prevail- 
ed among the companions and Muslims of the old 
time.' 1M) 


It thus becomes evident that the earliest phase of 
ufism was a form of asceticism, and this was a product 
of Islam itself, since it arose as one of the direct 
consequences of the Islamic conception of Allah. That 
conception, as commonly held, has, from the beginning 
of Islam, been such as "produce fear and servility, also 
listlessness and formality in life and practice. Allah is 
one to be feared rather than loved. Islam would 
propound as the greatest commandment of all, Thou 
shalt fear the Lord thy God/ " (2) 

The Traditions provide us with striking illustrations 
of what has just been said, in the lives of certain 
companions of the Prophet and their successors who 
had an exaggerated consciousness of the sin of dis- 
obedience and extreme dread of Divine punishment. 

(1) Muqaddima (Beyrut, 1900), p. 467. 

(2) Be van Jones. ov. cit. p. 265. 


Thus we read that Tamlmu'd-Dri, one of the Prophet's 
companions, who was formerly a Christian, passed the 
whole night until daybreak, repeating a single verse of 
the Quran (Ch. 45:20) "Do those who commit evil 
deeds count that we will make them like those who 
believe and work righteous deeds, equal in their life 
and in their death? Ill do they judge! 11 (1) Abu'd-Dards, 
another of the companions, used to say: "If ye knew 
what ye shall see after death, ye would not eat food 
nor drink water with any relish; as for myself I wish 
that I were a tree which is lopped and then 
devoured/ M2) Another tradition to the same effect is 
recorded by Ibn Sa'ad and Ibn Hanbal that one 
day 'Uthman b. Maz'un said to Muhammad: "O 
Apostle of God, my heart urges me to become a 
devotee; to go to the mountains and adopt the monastic 
life; that I should take to wandering on the face of the 
earth and get rid of all my wealth; that I should divorce 
my wife, Khawla, eat no meat and abstain from the use 
of perfumes.* 1 (8) 

A further reason for the adoption of a life of 
asceticism is to be found in the political condition of 
the period immediately following the reigns of the first 
four khalifas. For there were many pious Muslims 
who, becoming disgusted with the tyrannical and 
impious rule of the Umayyad Khalifas, withdrew from 
the world to seek peace of soul in a life of seclusion. 

(1) Sha'rani, Lawaqihul-Anwar (Cairo 1299 A. D.), p. 31. 

(2) Ibid. 

(3) Ibn Sa'ad, Tabaqat Vol. III. Part I. p. 287. (Lcyden 
1904-8) Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I. 176 and 183 (Cairo 1313 A. H.) 


The outstanding figure in this early ascetic 
movement was Hasan of Basra (728 A. D.). It is sauj 
that the fear of God seized him so mightily that, in the 
words of his biographer, "it seemed as though hell-fire 
had been created for him alone." It is said that "one 
day a friend saw him weeping and asked him the cause. 
"I weep/* he replied, "for fear that I have done some- 
thing unintentionally, or committed some fault, or 
spoken some word which is unpleasing to God, then 
He may have said, "Begone, for thou hast no more 
favour with me."* 

Towards the end of the first century A. H. there 
arose a class of people who were not merely ascetics but 
something more. In them the life of seclusion led on to 
contemplation, and contemplation to vision and ecstasy. 
At this stage renunciation and poverty were regarded 
by the asceties not as meritorious works in themsleves, 
but as expressions of one's selfless devotion to God. In 
the earlier days of Islam renunciation and its rewards 
were conceived of in a material sense. To have as few 
goods as possible was believed to be the surest means 
of gaining paradise. The following illustration will serve 
the purpose of showing the ideal of poverty as held by 
the ascetics of those days. It is said that a certain man 
dreamed that he saw Malik b. Wasi* being led into 
paradise. Malik was admitted before his companion. 
The dreamer cried out in astonishment, for he had always 
thought that Muhammad b. Wasi* had the superior 

*Faridu'd-Din 'Attar, Tadhkiritul-Awliya, (Lahore) p. 28 
Translated by Prof. Nicholson, Part I, p. 37. 


claim. A voice explained: "Yes, but Muhammad 
b. Wasi' possessed two shirts and Malik only one. 1 ' 

But to the ascetics of this later period the ideal of 
poverty meant not merely lack of wealth, but lack of 
the very desire for it, As their phrase had it, it signified 
the empty heart as well as the empty hand. Perhaps 
nothing marks the development in the outlook of the 
later ufis more than this change in their conception of 
true poverty. It came very close to the Christian 
conception of it as defined by a modern writer in the 
following words: "By poverty the mystic means an 
utter self-stripping, the casting off of immaterial as well 
as material wealth, a complete detachment from all 
finite things." : 

These early ufis, however, were orthodox Muslims 
in regard to their beliefs and practices. They laid 
great emphasis on certain points in the teachings of the 
Quran and Traditions. They had not yet begun to 
indulge in pantheistic and theosophical speculations, but 
confined their thoughts to matters bearing on practical 
theology. The distinctive features of their creed 
consisted in self-abandonment, self-mortification, fer- 
vent piety, and quietism carried to the extreme. 

The outstanding figures during this period were 
Ibrahim b. Adham (d. 783 A. D.), Fudayl b. l lyad 
(d. 801 A. D.), Rabi'a al-'Adwiyya (d. 802 A. D.) 

Ibrahim b. Adham is described by the ufi bio- 
graphers to have been the king of Balkfa. His royal 
dignity is indicated by the fact that when he walked 

'Underbill, Mysticism; p. 205. 


abroad forty golden scimitars and forty golden maces 
were borne in front of him and behind. One day, while 
hunting, he was warned by an unseen voice which 
cried, "Awake! wert thou created for this?" Therefore 
he renounced his throne and all the world's pleasures 
for a life of ascetism and piety. One of his sayings is 
reported as follows: "O God, Thou knowest that in 
mine eyes the eight paradises weigh no more than the 
wing of a gnat compared with that honour which Thou 
hast shown me in giving me Thy love, or that 
familiarity which Thou hast given to me by the 
commemoration of Thy name, or that freedom from all 
else which Thou hast vouchsafed to me when I meditate 
on the greatness of Thy glory" (1) 

Fudayl b. lyad, before he became an ascetic, was a 
captain of banditti. It is said that one night when he 
was determined to gratify a lawless passion, he heard 
some pious person reciting the following verse of the 
Quran, "Is it not high time for those who believe to 
open their hearts to compunction?" These words 
pricked him to the heart and produced in him profound 
contrition. "Yea, Lord/ 1 he exclaimed, "it is indeed 
high time." Thus broken in spirit by sense of his sin, 
he passed the night in solemn meditation. The next 
morning he renounced all his possessions and became a 
disciple of 4 Abdu'l-Wahid b. Zayd, a successor of 
Hasan of Basra. (2) In time he became widely cele- 

(1) cp. Prof. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs t 
p. 232. 

(2) 'Attar; op, cit. p. 69. 


brated for his sanctity, and was appointed a vice-gerent 
and successor by his master. Fudayl gave a rule of life 
to his disciples, which is believed to be the original 
monastic institute of Islam. 

Rabi*a belonged to the tribe of Qays b. *Adi from 
which she was known as al-'Adawiyya or al-Qaysiyya, 
but she is most commonly spoken of as Basari (al- 
Basariyya), from Basra, her birth place. Faridu'd-Din 
4 Aftar, the author of the Memoirs of the Saints, speaks 
of her in the following words: "She the secluded one 
was clothed with the clothing of purity, and was on 
fire with love and longing, and was enamoured of the 
desire to approach her Lord and be consumed in His 
glory. She was a second Mary and a spotless 

She was born in the poorest of homes, and her 
father and mother died when she was only a little girl. 
She was fourth of a family of sisters, as her name 
indicates, They were all scattered by a famine and she 
was sold as a slave for six dirhams. Her master made 
her work hard. She, however, continually fasted in 
the daytime and carried out her appointed tasks. One 
night her master happened to look down through a 
window of the house and saw Rabi'a absorbed in prayer, 
and he heard her praying: "O my Lord, Thou knowest 
that the desire of my heart is to obey Thee, and that 
the light of my eyes is in the service of Thy court. If 
the matter rested with me, I should not cease for one 
hour from Thy service, but Thou hast made me subject 

*'Attar; op, cit. p. 54. 


to a creature and much of my time is spent in his 
service/' While she was still in prayer, he saw a lamp 
above her head suspended without a chain, and the 
whole house was illuminated by its light. The master, 
greatly afraid at the sight, set her free at the dawn of 
the day. Thenceforth she devoted herself to the love 
of God, living a life of extreme poverty. 

As an ascetic, Rabi'a followed all her life the path of 
tawakhul, the resignation and dependence on God, with 
unwavering step to the end. Again and again she was 
offered assistance by her friends but she as often 
declined it and her customary reply to those who 
desired to help her was: "Verily, I should be ashamed 
to ask for worldly things from Him to whom world 
belongs; how, then should I ask for them from those to 
whom it does not belong. 11 Another story to the same 
effect tells how one day when Hasan of Basra came to 
visit her he saw a wealthy man of Basra at the door of 
RibiVs cell with a purse of gold, weeping. Hasan 
asked him why was he weeping. He replied: "On 
account of the ascetic of this age; if it was not for her 
blessings, mankind would have perished. I have 
brought something for her and my fear is that she may 
refuse it. If you plead for me, she may accept it." 
Hasan went in and gave the message to Rabi'a, who 
looked at him out of the corner of her eye and said, 
"Shall He who provides for those who revile Him, not 
provide for those who love Him? He does not refuse 
sustenance to one who speaks unworthily of Him, how 
then should He refuse sustenance to one whose soul is 


overflowing with love to Him? Ever since I have 
known Him, I have turned my back upon mankind." 

RabiVs great contribution to the Islamic mysticism 
was the conception of prayer as free and intimate 
intercourse with God. Prayer, even the prescribed 
namdz and other religious observances were not 
regarded by her as meritorious acts, or as means of 
avoiding hell and of gaining paradise, but they were to 
her the means of gaining access to God's presence. Hers 
is an outsanding figure in Islamic hagiology as of one 
who held communion with God, and gave utterance to 
prayers which were the spontaneous outpouring of her 
heart to God. Among her prayers are the following: 

"O my Lord, whatever share of this world thou dost 
bestow on me, bestow on Thine enemies, and whatever 
share of the next world Thou dost give me, give it to 
Thy friends. Thou art enough for me." Another runs 
as follow: 

"O my Lord, if I worship Thee from fear of 
Hell, burn me in Hell, and if I worship Thee from hope 
of Paradise, exclude me thence, but if I worship Thee 
for Thine own sake then withhold not from me Thine 
Eternal Beauty/'" 

* For RabiVs life s*e Tadhkiratu 'l-Awl\ya, Professor Nicholson's 
Translation and Margaret Smiths* Rain' a the Mystic. 

Later Developments. 

(a) Speculative Elements in $ufism. 

While ufism was thus gaining ground and attracting 
the pious by its promise of escape from formalism and 
its encouragement of ideals of personal devotion, it was 
soon subjected to a further modification, the beginnings 
of which may be traced to the time of Ma'mun in the 
eighth century. That was an age of speculation. 
Ma'mun encouraged the discussion of religion by repre- 
sentatives of various creeds and in this manner 
speculative elements were soon assimilated into ufism. 
Now the ascetic, while not losing altogether his 
ascetic ideal, tends more and more to centre his 
attention in Gnosis and the Zdhid becomes the 'Arif 
(Gnostic). As Professor Macdonald says, "We pass 
over the boundary between Thomas a Kerapis and St. 
Francis to Eckhart and Suso."* Neo-Platonism played 
its part in this change but not exclusively. Persian, 
Indian, and Buddhistic thought each had its share, 
and also Christian speculative mysticism after the 
type of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and Bar 
Sudhaili the Syrian. It would be a mistake to conclude 
that ufism in its speculative form was derived solely 
from one source or that it contains no original 

*D. B. Macdonald, Muslim Theology, p. 180. 


elements. It would be equally a mistake to regard it 
as a unity, although some unifying principles can be 
discerned in it and, of course, Islam lent it a superficial 
unity. But it is not within the scope of the purpose 
of this book to go at all deeply into such matters. 

It is sufficient to remark here that towards the end 
of the eighth century of the Christian era, there 
appeared in ufism a new phase of its development. 
The old asceticism and quietism, described in the 
previous chapter, were subordinated to theosophical 
and gnostic speculations. The great teachers of ufism 
in whose sayings the influence of such ideas is discerni- 
ble, were Ma'rufu'l-Karkhl, Abu Sulaymanu' d-Darani 
and Dhu'n-Nun Misri. These three, as has been 
pointed out by Professor Nicholson, lived and died in 
the period which began with the accession of Harunu'r- 
Rashld and ended with the death of Mutawakkil, that 
is, from 786-861 A. D.* During these seventy-five 
years Hellenic culture greatly influenced the current 
of Islamic thought. Works of the Greek philosophers 
were translated and eagerly studied. Hunayn b. Ishaq 
(809-873 A. D.) and his son, who were Christians, 
translated Plato, Aristotle and Porphyry. A strong 
rationalistic movement resulted, under which ufism 
took on its new form and was so moulded that it could 
in the course of its later development absorb other 
speculative elements. Thus certain extraneous and 
non-Islamic elements such as theosophy, gnosticism, 

* Professor Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, p. 232. 


ecstasy and pantheism became characteristic features of 

Ma/ruful-Karkhl (815 A. D.) and Abu Sulaymanu'd- 
Darani (830 A. D.), both natives of Mesopotamia, were 
tHe first to give expression to theosophical and gnostic 
ideas. Certain utterances of theirs which have come 
down to us contain such expressions. The former is 
reported to have said that ufism is "the apprehension of 
divine realities and renunciation of human possessions." 
Another of his sayings runs as follows: 'The saints of 
God are known by three signs. Their thought is of 
God, their dwelling is with God, their business is in 

The following are some of the sayings of Abu 
Sulayman: kt None refrains from the lusts of this world 
except him in whose heart there is a light which 
always keeps him busied with the world to come." 
44 Whenever a man on account of his actions is in despair 
of his future welfare, that despair shows him the way 
to salvation and happiness and Divine mercy. 
It opens to him the door of joy, purges away sensual 
corruption from his heart, and reveals to it Divine 
mysteries." ' 

In the same century we come to the great mystic 
Dfau'n-Nun Misri, who gave a definite turn to ufi 
doctrine by introducing into it teachings about ecstasy 
and the theory of gnosis. His repentance is attributed 
to his meeting with desert ascetics. His reputation as 
an alchemist and a worker of miracles is the theme of 

*See, Tadhkiratul-Awliya. 


many a later ufi writer. Professor Nicholson regards 
him as the source of the Neo-Platonist elements in Islam. 
When we remember that he was an Egyptian, it is not 
too much to suppose that the school of Alexandria had 
somewhat to do with the shaping of his thought. The 
introduction of the idea that true knowledge of God is 
to be obtained in ecstasy is attributed to him. A story 
is told of how he fell into a swoon while at prayer, and 
apparently he did not look unkindly at music in so far 
as it induced this condition of ecstasy. There is then 
in his advocacy of ecstasy a link with Neo-Platonism. 
It is said that he described the mystic apprehension as 
the communication which God makes of his spiritual 
light to the depths of man's heart. It seems certain 
that Dhu'n-Nun was a man of great learning and it was 
that which in all probability got him a bad name and 
roused suspicions of heterodoxy. Elements of specula- 
tion and free-thought are not lacking in his recorded 
words and acts. His present-day apologists are some- 
times concerned to explain these so that orthodoxy may 
not be outraged. Such, for example, is his advising a 
fellow ascetic to omit his ritual prayer. But in all the 
accounts of him he appears as a saintly figure, and this 
was the impression he made on the zealous Khalifa 
Mutawakkil by whom he was first imprisoned on 
suspicion of heresy but later released and held in high 
esteem. Some of the stories told of him remind one of 
the Christian ascetics of the Thebaid. In Jami's 
Nafhatu'l-Uns, which contains notices of most of the 
Qfl saints, we read that he was the first Shaykh to 


profess the tenets of ufism. Among the sayings 
recorded of him is the following: "There are two sorts 
of repentance, the repentance of conversion and the 
repentance of shame. The former is simply repentance 
through fear of God's punishment and the latter is 
repentance through shame at God's mercy/ 1 

Somewhat later in the same century appeared Abu 
Yazldu'l-Bistaml, or Bayazld as he is called, one of the 
earliest ufis of the pantheistic school. He was of, 
Persian ancestry and belonged to Bistam a town in the 
Province of Qumis near the south-east corner of the 
Caspian Sea. His - grandfather, Sharwasan, was a 
Zoroastrian, and his master in Sufism was Abu 4 Ali of 
Sind. Abu Yazid first propounded the doctrine of fand, 
annihilation, in its negative aspect, and in his teaching 
Gfism became practically identified with pantheism. 
Some of his sayings are as follows: "Beneath this cloak 
of mine there is nothing but God." "Glory to me! 
How great is my majesty!" "Verily I am God; there is 
no god beside me, so worship me!"* 

But the name which came to be held as the greatest 
of all among the early pantheists was that of Husayn 
b. Mansur, a wool-carder by trade, though some say 
his name is simply one adopted to mark the unpreten- 
tious and humble character of the ascetic or a nickname 
given with the same intention. However this may be, 
HalUj, a name by which he is known, means wool- 
carder. MansGr, the name by which he is most fre- 

*See Tadhkiratu'l-Awliya, the Chapter on Abu Yazid. 


quently known, is really the name of his father who was 
a convert from Zoroastrianism to Islam. Husayn was 
a Persian. He was born in 858 A. D. In the first 
place he was the disciple of several Sufi teachers, in 
particular, Tustari, Junayd and l Amr Makkl, but he 
finally broke with them. He travelled as a missionary 
in Khurasan, Ahwaz, Persia, India and Turkistan. 
After his third pilgrimage to Mecca he settled at 
Baghdad and gathered many disciples about him. He 
was a man of original genius and vehement spirit, a 
profound mystic and a daring metaphysician. He has 
been variously described as a dangerous intriguer, a 
Christian, a rank blasphemer, a charlatan and a 
martyred saint. In the year 922 A. D. after eight years 
imprisonment, he was scourged, mutilated, hung on a 
gibbet, and finally beheaded and burned. The charge 
against him was that he had made use of the phrase 
Ana'l-Haqq, I am the Truth, and that this was a claim to 
divinity and, as such, blasphemy. The chief of his works 
which have come down to us is Kitdbu't-Tawdsln, which 
has been edited and annotated by Louis Massignon 
(1913). This book is written in Arabic rhymed prose. 
Each of its eleven sections, with the exception of the 
last, is called Td Sin, as "The Td Sin of the Decree/' 
"The Td-Sin of the Unity," and 'The fa Sin of the 
mysteries of the Unity*', etc. These names are from 
the two unexplained letters at the beginning of certain 
chapters of the Quran. The resultant name of the 
whole book is an artificial plural formed from the 
compound of fd and Sin. Massignon has most probably 


done all that is possible in the interpretation of Hallaj 
with the material at present available. If we had all 
the material to reconstruct the doctrine of Hallaj, and 
could follow him in his travels, much that is obscure in 
later ufl speculation would, in all probability, be clear 
to us. The style adopted by Hallaj is recondite and 
allusive. It is vehement "hyperdialectic", as Massignon 
so aptly calls it. His editor makes it abundantly plain 
that the ejaculation Anal-Haqq was not the mere 
raving of a demented mystic out of himself in ecstasy, 
but only one mode of expressing a deep conviction 
and, in addition, the formula of a philosophy. Later 
conceptions of huwiyyat and aniyyat are no doubt 
definitely related to this philosophy, and a study of Ibn 
*Arabi and Jill throws light on the meaning of Hallaj in 
his mystical theology. Of this more will be said in a 
later chapter. 

One of the reasons why some have thought that 
Hallaj was a secret Christian is the very high place 
which he gives to Jesus in his system. Jesus is the Seal 
of the Saints, while Muhammad is the Seal of the 
Prophets. Jesus is the perfect witness and representa- 
tive of God, Al-Haqq. He is the deified man. His 
being is in God. Take for example that famous tercet 
in which Hallaj extols the manifestation of God in 

"Praise be to Him Who manifested His humanity, the 
secret of His glorious divinity. 

And then visibly appeared to His creation in the form of one 
who eats and drinks. 


So that His creation could perceive Him as in the flicker of 
an eyelid." 

In the first part of this the reference is to Adam and 
in the second part to Jesus. Both Ibn 'Arabl and Jill, 
among others, follow Hallaj in this conception, and the 
former has that extraordinary statement that Jesus is 
the Creator who restores to life and the creature who 
is restored. It is difficult to escape the conclusion that 
Hallaj 's doctrine of Ldhut and Ndsut shows evidence of 
the influence of the doctrine of the two natures in the 
person of Christ, for these are the very words used in 
Syriac to express the divine and human natures respec- 

The circumstances of Hallaj's execution were most 
revolting. Condemned to be crucified, when he saw 
the cross and the nails he turned to the people standing 
round him and exhorted them not to let the spectacle 
of his sufferings lead them to doubt the goodness of 
God. tl God treats me in this matter as a friend treats 
his friend. He passes me the cup of suffering which 
He has first drunk Himself. 11 When he was put to the 
torture, he is said to have prayed, and if the words we 
have from Ibrahim b. Fatik are really the words he 
used, then we have in this final prayer of his the revela- 
tion of a great spirit. For thus he prayed : "O Lord, I 
entreat Thee, give me to be thankful for the grace Thou 
hast bestowed upon me, in that Thou hast concealed 
from others* eyes what Thou hast made manifest to me 
of the glories of Thy shining countenance and in that 
Thou hast made it lawful for me to behold the myster- 


ies of Thine inner consciousness which Thou hast made 
unlawful to others. As for these Thy servants who, 
zealous for Thy religion and desirous of Thy favour, 
have gathered to kill me, forgive and have mercy upon 
them, for verily if Thou hadst revealed to them what 
Thou hast hid from them, then should I not have 
suffered this anguish. Praise be to Thee in whatsoever 
Thou decreest."' 

(b) ufism wins recognition in Islam. 

It is not a matter for surprise to find that because of 
this later mixture of theosophical and pantheistic ele- 
ments, the ufls came to be regarded as heretics, if not 
actual unbelievers (kdfir). It was not till the time of 
the renowned Imam al-Ghazali that ufism attained a 
firm and assured position in Islam. 

Abu Hamid Muhammadu'l-Ghazall, generally 
known by the title of Hujjatu 'l-Islam, the proof of 
Islam, was a native of Tus near Meshed in Khurasan 
Left an orphan at a comparatively early age, he was 
brought up by a ufi friend of his father's, and after- 
wards studied at one of the colleges of his native city 
Subsequently he went for further study to Nishapur. 
He seems not to have been attracted much in his earlier 
years by ufism but early showed marks of the sceptic- 
ism which is an outstanding feature of his temperament. 
He had turned from ufism to speculation before he 

* Sec M assignor* Kitab al Tawastn, Parsis 1913, and Quatre 
cextes inedites relatif 'a la biographic d 'al-Hosayn Ibn Mansour al- 
Hallaj (1914). 


was twenty years of age. Taqtid, or the slavish follow- 
ing of tradition became anathema to him. A man of 
brilliant gifts, he soon found his way to the Seljuql 
court and under the patronage of the great minister 
Nigamu '1-Mulk, he became a teacher in the Nigamiyya 
College at Baghdad. This was in the year 1092 A.D. 
While here he sunk into complete agnosticism. Philo- 
sophy he studied but came to the conclusion that it was 
a vain thing. He wrote books on canon law (fiqh) 
and entered into controversy with the irreconcilable 
Ta fimites, who were a political force to be reckoned 
with. His restless mind and sceptical temperament, 
associated with a deeply religious nature, could give 
this man no rest. He seems to be trying to save 
something from the ruins of his agnosticism. He tried 
philosophy and found it wanting, and finally returned 
to ufism. 

He experienced a period of spiritual crisis and con- 
version. The fear of God was upon him and the idea of 
the coming judgement was ever present. In 1095 A.D., 
physically and nervously exhausted, he was converted. 
He turned his back on the promises of the world and 
the rich prizes which his intellect might have com- 
manded and became a wandering devotee, seeking in 
the ascetic life peace of mind and heart, and striving all 
the while for a new rationale of his religious experience. 
The system which resulted was pragmatic. The ground 
of his assurance was his experience, and to this all 
speculation and philosophy must be considered sub- 
ordinate. He might disdain philosophy as the ground 


of belief and had to repudiate it as it was taught by con- 
temporary exponents, but he could yet use its methods 
to clarify his thought and give a form to his intuitive 
pragmatism. Indeed the influence of all the stages 
through which he had passed can be seen in his mature 
works, and he is himself a mirror of all the intellectual 
activity of his age. On every page of the Ihyau 
Ulumi 'd-Dln, the Revivification of the Religious Sci- 
ences, the traditionalist is exhibited. He employs 
dialectic Cllmu 'l-Kaldm) against the dialecticians 
(mutahallimun) . In answer to the esoteric doctrine of 
the Isma 'ilis and kindred spirits, he too has his secret 
teaching, hinted at but never fully elaborated in Mish- 
kdtu 'I- Anwar, The Niche for Lights. But all is made 
to serve the cause of Kashf, and bows to the sovereignty 
of his all-commanding spiritual experience. Without 
that mystic illumination his intellectual life would have 
fallen into complete scepticism. 

His great achievement is in giving the clearest and 
highest expression to orthodox Muslim theology. He 
is the greatest theologian Islam has ever produced. 
His work has given a place to ufism in orthodox 
Islam. This he has done partly by modifying the 
extreme pantheistic tendency of ufism. His work 
shews evidence of Christian influence. Scriptural and 
apocryphal sayings of Christ are ever on his lips. In 
line with this influence we find that his view of the 
eighth stage of the ufi path, Unity with God, is no 
longer conceived in the negative manner which would 
regard the goal as absorption in God and identification 


with Him. This, in his opinion, is sin. Ghazall's view is 
much closer to the Christian conception of an ethical 
unity which is the beginning of a new life. So here we 
find him breaking away from the abstruse and meta- 
physical conception and maintaining the religiously and 
spiritually valuable. Tawhid and Tawakkul, Unity and 
Trust, are inseparably bound up together. In the 
Ihyaul-Ulum we also find a complete spiritualising of 
prayer, and insistence on prayer from the heart rather 
than mere performance of ritual. Again and again he 
stands out as the champion of the ethical and spiritual. 
This was no mean service to perform and it is doubtful 
whether Islam has ever really risen to the point of 
realisation of all that Ghazall has done or would do for 


But while we can say all this it must still be said 
that there are distinct weaknesses in Ghazali's view of 
tawhid or unity, and some ufi interpreters would use 
his words to establish tawhidu'l afal, unity of acts, in 
such a way as to make it impossible to conceive that 
there is any actor or originator of action in the universe 
but God. This is, of course, the extreme doctrine of 
Qadr, or predestination, which results in a pantheism of 
will which is hardly less pernicious than other forms 
of pantheism. We give here a translation of part of 
the fourth volume of the Ihya'ul-Ulum on this sub- 

"There is no actor other than God, and all things 
which exist, creature and provision, giving and withhold- 
Ihya'u'l-'Ulum, Vol. IV, 213. 


ing, death and life, gain and loss, wealth and poverty 
and everything for which a name can be found, the 
Cause, Originator, and Initiator is God who has no 
partner. When this dawns upon a man then he will 
not look anywhere else but will be in fear and awe of 
Him and put utter trust and confidence in Him only. 

For He alone is the Doer. There is none else 

A wayfarer who had the Light of God as a 

torch for his path saw a piece of paper the surface of 
which had become black with ink. Said he: 'Your 
face was white as wool; why have you made it black?' 
The paper made answer: 'What justice is this that you 
should ask me such a question. I didn't make myself 
black. Ask the ink, for it was sitting in the ink-pot 
which is its dwelling and it came out and made an 
assault by force on my surface.' Said he, 'You are 
right/ and then asked the ink, "What is the reason why 
you blacken the face of the paper?' The ink said, 
'Well, you ask me! I was sitting quietly in the ink-pot. 
I never intended to leave that place but the pen forced 
me by its wicked desire, exiled me from my home and 

scattered my company all over this page but why 

labour the obvious? You should ask the pen 

The pen said: *I was a reed which stood among the 
green trees on a river bank. The hand came with a 
knife and pulling me up by the roots, stripped me of 
bark, tore my clothes, cut me in pieces and then pared 
me and split my head and fashioned my point for writ- 
ing. Then it dipped me in the ink and exacts service 
from me, moving me along on my head. Why then do 


you question me and thus rub salt into my wound? Go 
away; enquire from the hand.' " 

In this way the interrogation is carried back and 
back through the power which moves the hand to the 
will which uses the power and the reason and knowledge 
which instruct the will. When knowledge is question- 
ed it excuses itself on the ground that it is but a figure 
drawn on the white surface of the heart and the ques- 
tion then proceeds upwards through the transcendent 
spheres till at last the one Agent is reached to whom 
must be ascribed all acts. The argument moves on with 
force and humour but the implications with regard to 
human responsibility are obscured by this tour de 

On the other hand, al-Ghazali appeals to man and 
regards him as responsible for his acts and there can be 
no doubt that he did a great deal to counteract the 
antinomian tendencies in ufism against which 
Qushayri had protested. 

Reference has been made above to the Mishkdtu'l 
Anwar. In this we find an exposition of the Lighf* 
Verse in the Quran (Sura 24 :35). The result is a sort 
of philosophy of illumination. Antitheses of light and 
darkness remind us of the traditional Persian philosophy, 
but there are in this work of al-Ghazali suggestions of 
Platonism and even Logos doctrine, The book pre- 
sents many problems. It gives us another glimpse of a 
many-sided nature. Shihabu'd-Dln Yahaya Suhrawardl 
is said to have built his philosophy upon this doctrine 
of illumination, and yet he considered it to be contrary 


to Islam, and his uncompromising attitude brought him 
to an early death. 

(c) The Classic Period of ufism and its ufi Poets. 

In the thirteenth century A. D. began the classic 
period of ufism. This new epoch was marked by the 
advent of three great mystical poets of Persia. These 
were Faridu'd-Dln'Aftar, Jalalu'd-Dln Rumi and 
Shaykh Sa'dl. The writings of these poets have greatly 
influenced the religious thought of Muslims in the 
East and they are now very widely and eagerly studied. 
No account of ufism would be complete without some 
reference to them so we propose to give a brief sketch 
of all three. 


Faridu'd-Dln 4 Attar was born about 1119 A. D., eight 
years after the death of al-GJiazali, in Nishapur. The 
name 4 A#ar signifies one who deals in 'itr, or otto of 
roses, and other perfumes, but in its wider significance 
means a druggist. He, like his father, kept a sort of 
pharmacy where he was consulted by patients for whom 
he prescribed, dispensing his own medicines. It was 
while he was thus engaged in selling perfumes and 
drugs that the call came to him to follow the reli- 
gious life. Dawlat Shah, in his Memoirs of the Poets, 
relates that one day, as he was standing among his bales 
surrounded by his clerks and servants, a holy anchorite 
appeared before him at the door, and gazed around 
with strange wild eyes, fast filling with tears. Faridu'd- 


Din sharply rebuked him for his seeming curiosity and 
bade him go away. "That is easily done/' said the 
darwish, "I have little to bear along with me: nothing 
but this poor habit. But you? When the time comes 
for you to go away with all this costly merchandise, how 
will you set about it? You will do well to arrange 
before that inevitable hour arrives, about the packing 
up of your treasures." ' Attar was profoundly affected 
by the words of the darwish and gave up his shop, 
abandoning his profession and entirely renouncing all 
his worldly affairs. 

Entering the monastery of Shaykh Ruknu'd-Din, 
who was then one of the most distinguished masters of 
the contemplative life, he gave himself up wholly to the 
things of God, so that at the close of his life he is said 
to have attained "the most perfect degree of spiritual- 
ity/' Finally he met his death at the hands of the 
Mongol invaders under Chengiz Khan (1229-30 A. D.) 

'Aftar must have spent the greater part of a very 
long life in literary work, for the number of his works 
is said to have been equal to the number of chapters 
in the Quran, one hundred and fourteen. But there is 
much that is legendary in what we read of him and this 
statement must be an exaggeration, for the number of 
his writings preserved or mentioned by name hardly 
exceeds thirty. Of these Tadhkiratul-Awliya, the 
Memoirs of the Saints, is the only one written in prose. 
The best known of his poetical compositions are the 
Pandndma, or the Book of Counsels, which is still widely 
read in the East, and Mcwtiqut-Tayr, or the Discourses 


of the Birds, which is to be found in various editions, 
an early European edition being that of Garcin de 
Tassy (Paris 1857, 1863) with a French translation. 
The Pandnama is a rather tedious book of maxims but 
generally speaking l A#ar has a very clear style and 
shews considerable ingenuity in choice of subject. He 
is very fond of paradox. Take for example the way he 
expresses the pantheistic theme of the Unity of all 

The world is full of Thee and Thou art not in the world. 

All are lost in Thee and Thou art not in the midst. 

Thy silence is from Thy speech; 

Thine hiding from Thine appearing. 

I see the way to Thee by means of the smallest atom; 

Then I see the two worlds as the face of Allah. 

For dualism there is no way into Thy presence. 

Thou and Thy power are the whole universe. 

A man of eloquent speech has well said in respect to the 


That Oneness is the dropping of all adjuncts. 
There is no doubt as to the meaning of what I have said. 
Thou art without eyes and there is no Universe ('A/am) 

or Knower ('A Jim) but one.* 

In this last stanza it is possible to read either word 
given in brackets and the implication is that the Uni- 
verse and the Knower (a name of God) are inter- 
changeable terms. 

The MantiqiCt-Tayr is a sort of Pilgrim's Progress 
with birds for pilgrims. In it, in allegorical fashion, is 
depicted the ascending stages of the Mystic's progress 

Shibli, She'ru'l 'A jam Vol. 2, p. 15 ff, (Ma'arif Press, Azamgarh). 


to Unity with God. The birds gather together under 
the leadership of the Solomon of the Birds, the Hoopoe, 
to seek the Slmurgh their mysterious King. The greater 
part of the book is taken up with his counsel to the 
assembled birds and anecdotes of pilgrims of the ufi 
Path. Then the birds set out and after traversing the 
seven valleys of Search. Love, Mystic Apprehension, 
Detachment, Unity, Bewilderment and Annihilation 
only thirty birds (st, thirty and murgh, bird) survived 
the privations and perils of the way and came to the 
threshold of the Simurgh's abode. Here there is a 
fanciful etymology for the name Slmurgh, which lends 
itself to the denouement in the identification of the 
thirty birds with the Slmurgh. In reality the name 
Slmurgh is a compound of the Pahlawi seen, the name 
of a bird of prey, with murgh. The Slmurgh is asso- 
ciated with early Persian mythology and stories of it 
are told in the Shdhndma of Firdawsi. 

The birds arrive at the threshold of the KiAg's 
palace, and the chamberlain of Grace admits them into 
the Royal Presence where they are presented with the 
record of their deeds. Says 'Attar: "Seeing the record 
of their deeds those thirty birds were so ashamed that 
their very souls and bodies sunk into utter annihilation. 
But being thus purged and purified they emerged into 
new life by the Light of the Divine Presence. But 
now a new sort of amazement seized upon them. What 
they had done and left undone in the past was utterly 
obliterated from their breasts. It was as though they 
had changed identity. The Sun of the Near Presence 


shone from them, and that life by its rays illuminated 
them all. By their own reflection the thirty birds saw 
the face of the Slmurgh. They were that and it was 
they. Lost in astonishment they could not tell whether 
they were this or that. Then they demanded of the 
Simurgh what this great mystery might mean. He 
t^lls them that his nature is like unto a mirror. Look- 
ing on theA they perceive their true selves". Thus 
the birds became lost in the Slmurgh and the shadows 
of phenomenal existence faded but in the light of the 
Sun of true existence. 

Here we return to the older idea of Fand, or annihi- 
lation. How far was 4 A#ar indebted to his stay in 
Hindustan for this picture of Maya and release? How 
far also are we to see the influence of that conception 
of the u Veiled in Light 11 who constitute the fourth 
division of mankind in al-Ghazali's Mishkat and who 
have utterly attained to the end and goal? 


Jalalu'd-Dln Rumi, commonly known among Muslims 
as Mawldnd, our Master, or simply Ruml, meaning one 
who lived in Asia Minor, where the greater part of his 
life was spent, was the most eminent ufi poet whom 
Persia has ever produced. He was the author of the 
most widely known poetical work on mysticism, the 
Mathnaw-i-Manaun, Spiritual Couplets, frequently 
referred to as the Mathnaw Sharif, the Holy Mathnawi. 
It is also said to be the Quran in Pahlawl, (i. e. in the 
Persian language). No other literature on mysticism 


is so loved and studied, at least in India, as this great 

Jalalu'd-Din was born in Balkh in 1205 A. D. His 
descent is traced to Abu Bakr, and his father was 
BahaVd-Dln who was related to Khwarizm Shah. In 
those days Fakhru'd-Din Razi, the philosopher, was 
friendly with Khwarizm Shah and Baha'u'd-Dln was 
opposed to philosophy. Khwarizm Shah was jealous of 
the influence which Bah'u'd-Dm had and so was Razi 
and the result of it was that Baha Vd-Dm found it 
expedient to leave Balkh. This took place when 
Jalalu'd-Dm Iwas five years old. They went off to 
Nishapur where it is said the aged * Attar met them and 
blessed the young child. The family wandered from 
city to city in Syria and Asia minor and at last came to 
Quniya, the ancient Inconium, when the lad was eight- 
een or nineteen years old. There they gained the 
patronage of *AlVd-Dln the Seljuqi to whom the 
family was related. Indeed it is on record that when 
'AlaVd-Din Kayqobad III died without issue, Jalalu'd- 
Din might have had the kingdom but he resigned his 
rights in favour of 'Uthman the founder of the 
'Uthnianll dynasty. In Iconium Jalalu'd-Din's father 
worked as a professor. He died in the year 1230 A. D. 
There seem to be some discrepancies in the accounts 
of the next few years. Apparently, Carra de Vaux 
says that, Jalalu'd-Dln did not leave Quniya except for 
a short journey after his father's death. Sipa Sslr t 
a favourite disciple of JalSlu'd-Dln, says he met 
Shamsu'd-Din TabrizI at Quniya when he was thirty- 


eight years of age. In Munaqibu'l-'Arifin, the work of 
Shamsu'd-Din Afcmad Aflakl, it is said that he was in 
Damascus till he was forty years of age. The generally 
accepted view is that Jalalu'd-Din studied at the famous 
schools of Aleppo and Damascus till 1240 A. D., or a 
little earlier. If this is correct then there is a possibi- 
lity that Jalalu'd-Din was nearly contemporary with 
Ibn Arabl at Damascus and it is strange therefore, that 
we find so little in the great poet which can be referred 
back to that great metaphysician. The explanation 
may be that up to this time he had no real interest in 

With regard to his education, it seems that first he 
was taught by his father and that later when his 
father was dead his old tutor Burhanu'd-Dln taught 
him the mystic path. Afterwards he studied in the 
schools of Syria. His real awakening is however due 
to his meeting with Shamsu'd-Din Tabriz!. 

But what do we know about that meeting or about 
the personality of Shamsu'd-Dm? The puerilities of 
the narratives which have come to us make it almost 
impossible to believe that the conjuring tricks (such as 
plunging books into water and bringing them out dry) 
which were alleged to have initiated the friendship 
between him and the poet really have been the influ- 
ence at work in the master mind of Jalalu'd-Din. All 
that we dare say is that through the enthusiasm of 
Shamsu'd-Din the smouldering fires of Jalalu'd-Dln's 
genius burst into flame and the doctor of law became 
the great poet. Shamsu'd-Din must have been a much 


greater man than the traditions of him would have 
us believe. The friendship was short but potent. 
Shamsu'd-Din disappeared after a riot raised about 
him and in that riot one of the poet's sons was killed. 
To commemorate the tragic end of his friend Jallu'd- 
Din founded the Maulawi order, introducing those 
peculiar gyrations which have earned for the members 
of the order among Europeans the name of "Dancing 

The most famous of the works of Jalalu'd-Dln are 
the Mathnam and the Diwan which is dedicated to 
Shams-i-Tabrlz. The former is found in many editions 
in India but alas ! they contain many couplets which 
cannot be considered genuine. In one edition in India 
we have counted some four-hundred additional couplets 
in the first book alone, taking the great edition edited 
by Professor Nicholson as the standard text. Seeing that 
there are some four thousand couplets in this first book 
this is an extraordinary proportion. Professor Nichol- 
son's edition of the text and translation is a great service 
to students of the poet and they look forward eagerly to 
his commentary. Professor Nicholson has also published 
an edition of the Diwan but to this unfortunately 
we have not had access. The Diwan has been published 
by the Newal Kishore Press of Lucknow under the 
name of the Kulliydt-i-Shams-i-Tabriz. This consists 
of a thousand pages, foolscap size, with two couplets 
to a line. It is from this that the translations given 
later have been made. Some little time ago a prose 
work called Flhi ma fihi was found in a manuscript 


at Rampur. This has been published by the Ma'arif 
Press at Azamgarh in the United Provinces. 

We give some translations from the DiwSn to illust- 
rate phases of ufi thought. 

The Man of God. 

"Drunk is the Man of God, drunk without wine; 
Sated the Man of God, full without meat. 
Aghast is the Man of God in utter bewilderment 
Knows not the Man of God slumber nor sustenance. 
Sprung not from earth nor air, God's Man is not so born; 
Nor is his origin, water nor flame of fire. 
King is the Man of God, wrapped in a beggar's robe; 
Treasure the Man of God, hid in a ruin's heap. 
Soul of devotion he - such is the Man of God- 
Yet is the Man of God heedless of merit's gain. 
Thus is the Man of God Faith and yet Unbelief; 
What to the Man of God is sin then and righteousness? 
Taught by Creative Truth God's Man is learned; 
Not wise in legal lore culled from a book. 
In the Abyss's void, God's Man on Chaos rode, 
But here he suffered shame from his unbroken steed."* 

The man of God is here considered to be the God- 
intoxicated, lost in bewilderment in an unreal world. 
His origin is spiritual and his true worth is disguised by 
his life in the body. He is above the externalities of 
formal religion and derives true knowledge by mystic 
intuition. From his proud pre-existent state he suffered 
abasement from this body of humiliation which is fre- 
quently referred to as an untamed steed of the soul. 

*Kulliyat-i-Sham3-i-Tabriz< P. 116 (The passage is the translation 
made by the Rev. J. W. Sweet man.) 

The following is an illustration of ufl ecstasy: 

"We have lost our heart in the way of the Beloved: 

We have sown dissension in the world. 

We have struck fire within the hearts of the people: 

And have thrown lovers into confusion. 

I have washed my hands of all my belongings: 

We have set fire to house and home. 

I had a heavy load on my back 

But thanks be to God we have thrown aside that heavy load. 

What is the wealth of the world but carrion? 

We have cast the carcase to the dogs. 

We have extracted the kernel of the Quran: 

And the husk we have cast to the dogs. 

We have scattered the seed of eternal felicity and joy 

From the earth to the sky. 

The patched robe (of the derwish), the prayer carpet and 

the rosary, 

We have cast away in the Tavern of Souls. 
The pious cloak and turban and the babbling of knowledge 

about jot and tittle, 

We have thrown it all into the flowing stream. 
From the bow of desire, the arrow of Gnosis, 
Taking straight aim, we have shot at the target. 
Thou hast well said O Shams-i-Tabriz. 
We have cast love glances at the Lord of the Soul. * ' 

Our next extract illustrates the idea of the pre- 
existence of the soul. 

From the depth I came to the height; 

I was seeking that lovely Beloved. 

I had friendship with that One in the world of Souls. 

And I return whither I came. 

I was an unthreaded pearl and suddenly 

I came into a breast of flint. 

*Kulhyat-i-Shams-i-Tabriz, P. 546. (The passage is translated 
by the Rev. J. W. Sweetman.) 


The Sun of His mercy warmed me 

Back from that place I appeared in Time. 

Once I had private converse with the Universal Reason 

And again I wandered demented in the desert. 

A hundred thousand years and centuries without number 

Even before Adam and Eve I was. 

Once I drew breath with the silent ones 

From that silence I now have become a speaker.* 

3. SA'DI. 

The third of the great poets of this period was 
Sa'di of Shiraz who was born in 1184 A. D. and died in 
1291. He enjoys to-day a great reputation not only in 
Persia but in India where he is as well known as Shake- 
speare in England in spite of the fact that his tongue is 
Persian. His Gulistdn, Rose Garden, and Bustdn. 
Orchard, are most widely read and are generally the 
classics to which students of Persian are first introduced. 
His full name is commonly stated to be Muslihu'd- 
Dln, but from the oldest manuscript of his works (India 
Office No. 876, transcribed in A. D. 1328, only a few 
years after his death) it appears to have been 
Musharrafu'd-Dln 'Abdullah. 

Sa'di was a great traveller though some of the 
stories of his travels must be taken with a grain of salt. 
He is said to have visited the Panjab, Somnath and 
Gujrat. Apparently he travelled in the fashion of a 
mendicant, hobnobbing with all sorts and conditions of 
men till he became a true citizen of the world. 

Ibid, P. 546. (translated by the Rev. J. W. Swcetman "SUent 
ones*' arc the dead or unborn.) 


The earlier part of his life was spent in study but 
about his thirtieth year he took to travel and writing. 
Thus nearly thirty years passed and the latter part of 
his life was spent in seclusion and probably in the 
practice of the way of the mystic. That he was well 
acquainted with the mystic path is made clear by his 
receiving instruction from 'Abdu'l-Qadir Gilanl and 
Shihgbu'd-Din 'Umaru's-Suhrawardi, the author of 
'Awarifu'l-Maarif. But it is exceedingly doubtful 
whether he was a ufi by temperament. In him the 
didactic subordinates the mystic. 

The Bustdn is a book of verse on ethical subjects 
and the Gulistan has the same character but is in 
prose, interspersed with verse. His RiscCil are prose 
treatises on ufism. Among his many writings his 
Qvubthiyot are a blot on his name, and his other works 
are not free from obscenities. His style is elegant. 
He is pleasant, easy-going, opposed to extremes. He 
frequently gives advice to his readers to be not 
righteous overmuch. His attitude to mystics is some- 
times one of reproach for their hypocrisy. His ethics 
are based on expediency, for the most part. But he 
is not really troubled about consistency, valuing far 
more independence. Dr. Browne has well said that 
his writings are a microgflSJELpf the East. 

As early as the seventeenth century translations 
of his works began to appear in French, Latin, Dutch, 
and English. Later translations of the Gulistan into 
English are by Eastwick and Platts. We give below 


some few translations of passages from the Bustan which 
the ufts sometimes quote. 

"The way of reason is nothing but a maze; 

In the opinion of the gnostics there is nothing else but God. 

All that is, is less that He; 

For by His being, they bear the name of being. 

When the King of Glory raises His standard 

The whole world bows its head in the bosom of Not-being." 

"In self-hood there is no way to God 

But of this point only the unconscious is conscious."* 

"Come Thou empty of claim that thou mayst be full." 


The last phase of the development of ufism with 
which we are concerned in this chapter is that which 
is associated with the Gulshan-i-Rdz and the poets 
Hafig and Jami. These poets are particularly known 
and loved in India. Their works are used as text-books 
by every student of ufism throughout the country. 
Many there are in India who learn Persian for no other 
purpose than to be able to read the Diwdn-i-Hafiz 
and Jaml's Yusuf-o-Zulaykhd in the original. 


It is necessary to say something about this book. It 
is a small Matknawi of little more than a thousand 
couplets. It is the work of Mahmud Shabistari or Shab- 
tari. We know very little about the life of the author. 
He lived apparently in the latter part of the thirteenth 
and the earlier part of the fourteenth century of the 
Christian era. But his work is important out of all 

'The "unconscious is the dead to self." 


comparison with the importance of the author be- 
cause it is a compendium of ufi terminology in the 
form of question and answer. 

It is a matter of frequent complaint by Eastern 
writers that Europeans do not understand and are un- 
able to interpret the mysticism of such writers as 
Hfcfiz and are apt to regard their poems as undiluted 
eroticism. There is no doubt that there is a very wide 
divergence of view as to what is proper and fitting in 
the emotional expression of religion and there would 
probably be much difference among Europeans them- 
selves about the propriety, say, of some expres- 
sions used by Madame Guyon. Appreciation and 
understanding of mystical poetry is not given to 
all and there is a whole host of considerations, 
preconceptions and associations which go to render 
such poetry acceptable or unintelligible to the 
reader. It would not be a matter of surprise, for 
example, if an Eastern reader were not able to under- 
stand the mystical character and value of Francis 
Thompson's Hound of Heaven. Anything, therefore, 
which can help us to realize the atmosphere and 
understand the metaphors acceptable to the various 
groups of thought should be welcomed. In the Gulshan- 
-i-J?az we find help in this direction. Thus the lip of 
the Beloved trembles with compassion. His frown 
lays waste the world; His kiss revives it. Gazing 
on Him the soul is intoxicated. The mole on His 
cheek is the centre of Unity. Locks are wide-spread 
works of His hands, half hiding and half revealing 


His beauty. Sometimes His locks are parted for a 
momentary glimpse of the beauty of His face. In His 
curls the longing soul is entangled as man is caught 
in the ephemeral beauty of the world. Wine is the 
symbol of the loss of consciousness of self in the 
rapture of union with Him. It is in this manner 
that the sensuous symbolism of Muslim mysticism is 

Gulshan-i-Rdzt 1 * is divided into fifteen sections, each 
beginning with a question to which the answer is 
then given with illustrations and amplification. The 
following will serve as an example. The question, 
"What is Thought?" is propounded. Shabistari replies: 

"Thought is to pass from falsehood to Truth, 

To perceive the Absolute Whole in the part. 

In the works of the wise who have studied this theme 

You may find they aver it must thus be defined: 

"When first an idea is formed in the heart. 

The name which is apt is Recalling to mind* ". 

The next stage of thought, as they commonly deem. 

Is called a Transition (from known to unknown) . 

O leave the long way of deductive proof! 

Like Moses forsake for a moment your rod. 

And enter the Valley of Peace that therein 

Unto thee Moses' bush may declare: I am God.(2) 

(1) Many editions and commentaries in India. The edition 
used is Mashkad-i-Naz, pubd. Kachaucha, Fyzabad. Winfields 
is the best English edition but we have not had access to it as it is 
out of print. 

(2) God's Word considered to be hyDoetasised in the burning 


The Adept beatified, seeing the One, 
His eye is first on the Light of Existence; 
But he who by Light and Purity seeth, 
Whatsoever he seeth, he first seeth God. 
Detachment from all is pure .thought's condition; 
Comes then God's confirming as lightning flashes. 
To whom God Himself has been Teacher and Guide, 
From the use of mere logic has profited naught. 
How the wise in Philosophy stands at a lossl 
For nothing except the Contingent he sees. 
Unconditional Being he'd fain prove from that 
But Necessity's nature perplexes him still. 
At one time he travels a circle of causes 
(From the hen to the egg and the egg to the hen.) 
Again he's involved in a chain without end, 
(A series of causes in endless regression). 
Poor fool, he goes seeking the Sun in its glory 
By the light of a lamp in the limitless desert. "(1) 

Mahmud Shabistarl loves to have a tilt at philoso- 
phy or rather the type of philosophy represented by 
the Muslim schoolmen, but at the same time he pre- 
sents his replies in philosophical form and his termi- 
nology is often abstruse and difficult. This does not 
lend itself to a very exalted form of verse but, in 
general, his style is easy and smooth. 

2. HAFIZ. 

KbwSja Shamsu'd-Din liSfiz (d. 1389 A. D.) spent 
most of his long life in Shiraz. His ancestors belonged 
to Isfahan but his father, BahVd-Dln had taken up 

(1) Translated by the Rev. J. W. Sweetman, Mashhad-i-Naz, 
p. 50 if. Words in brackets are comment. 


his abode in Shlraz where he earned his living as a 
merchant or, as some say, a baker. Just before he 
died Baha'u'd-Dln failed in business and so his young 
son and his wife were left in penury. The boy managed 
to obtain some education and learned the Quran by 
heart. It was for this achievement that he received 
the title of Hdfiz. Later in his life when Shamsu'd-Dln 
became a poet he adopted this title as his nom- 
de -plume. 

His collection of poems, the Diwdn-i-Hdfiz, would 
appear on the surface to be "strongly tinged with 
sensuality". Something has been said with regard to 
this but it remains to say that there are many poems 
for which it is extremely difficult to find any mystic 
meaning. Shibli in his Sherul-Ajam gives no place 
to mysticism at all in Hafiz. He says that the poet 
exhibits the philosophy of Epicurus. One cannot be 
unaware of a current of hedonism throughout, but at 
the same time, to deny the mysticism of Hafij would 
be absurd. It is true that it is not the mysticism 
of a school and, so far as we know, he never pledged 
himself to a pir, or recognised ufi teacher, though 
there is one tradition associating him with the Naqsh- 

His poetry is remarkable for its beauty and clarity. 
There is a freshness and sweetness in much of it which 
makes one regret the wilder accents of his songs. And 
throughout there is sincerity. He rings true. It is 
remarkable to notice his detachment when the passion- 
ate clamour of strife and bloodshed must have been 


constantly in his cars. The time might have made him 
a cynic but he never lost the sense of wonder, i 

The works of Hafiz are sometimes called Tarju- 
mdnul-Asrdr, the Interpreter of Mysteries, and Lisanw 1 /- 
Ghavb. The Tongue of the Invisible. The latter title 
is said to be due to an incident which happened imme- 
diately after his death. Some orthodox Muslims, on 
account of his antinomian habits, objected to the of- 
fering of a funeral prayer. Finally it was agreed to 
decide the question by taking an augury from his poems. 
The verse they lighted on was, 

"Withdraw not your footsteps from the bier of Hafiz, 
For though immersed in sin, he will go to Paradise." 

Since that time Muslims have sought omens in just the 
same way and various methods have been invented for 
this purpose. The one commonly practised is to open 
the book at random and to find the answer from the 
first line on the right hand page. Professor Browne 
in his famous Literary History of Persia gives a transla- 
tion of a little book called Latlfa-i-Ghaybiyya which 
contains instances of auguries taken by famous people. 

We conclude this brief sketch with a few transla- 
tions of odes with a mystical meaning. 

"O heedless one, strive thou to heed; 
Blind to the Path, how canst thou lead ? 
A Sire wouldst be? Strive thou O Youth 
Before Love's Tutor in the School of Truth. 
Self's dross purge out, as saints of old, 
And by Love's Alchemy become fine gold. 
Eating and sleeping, still of Love bereft 
Spurn sloth and feasting for the Love you left. 


I vow the heavenly Sun is not so bright 
As heart and soul indwelt by His Love-light. 
Lost Thou in God, sans life and limb, 
Art head to foot all Light of Him.* 

3. JAM! 

Mulla Nuru'd-Dm 'Abdu'r-Rahman Jami was born 
at the town of Jam in Khurasan on November the 
seventh, 1414 A. D. He was a great poet, a great 
scholar and a great mystic. 

Jam! was a prolific writer. His poetical works 
consisted of three Diwans of lyrical poetry and seven 
romantic Maihnauns. In prose he wrote on the exegesis 
of the Quran, the evidence of the prophethood of 
Muhammad and the lives of the saints. Besides these 
he was an author of several treatises on mysticism, 
theology, Arabic grammar, prosody, music and other 

The predominant passion of his life was mysticism 
and, in the words of Professor Browne, "The mystical 
and pantheistic thought of Persia may be said to find 
its most complete and vivid expression" in him. His 
ufi association was with the Naqshbandiyya. One 
of the central and fundamental conceptions in his 
mystical doctrine is that of the Absolute as the Eternal 
Beauty. Starting from the famous tradition, M I was a 
hidden treasure and I desired to become known; there- 
fore I brought the creation into being in order that I 

Translated by the Rev. J. W. Sweetman. Hafiz, Diwan, 
Radif-i-Ya, ode Ho. 5. 


might be known," his exposition was, that God is 
Eternal Beauty and that it lies in the nature of beauty 
to desire to manifest itself. Thus the purpose of crea- 
tion is to manifest the Beauty of God. The passion for 
beauty is a means to link the soul to God. This 
thought is brought out in his comment on that favourite 
proverb of the ufis, "The Phenomenal is the bridge to 
the Real", in a beautiful passage in Yusuf-o-Zulay^ta, 
from which we make the following translation : 

"Be prisoner of Love; for so may'st thou be free. 

Bear in thy breast its grief, so thou may'st blithesome be. 

Thousands of learned men and wise have gone their 


Have passed from ken, for strangers to Love were they. 
But now no name or trace of them the world retains; 
In the hand of Time nor tale nor fame of them remains. 
How many birds there are of exquisite hue and mould 1 
But never a lip moves their story to unfold. 
Lo \ When the wise in heart, love -taught, take up the tale 
They tell the story of the moth and nightingale. 
Triest thou in thy life a hundred tasks in vain; 
Thou from thyself, by love alone canst freedom gain. 
Scorn not that lower love, the symbol of the Real, 
Since by its aid thou may'st achieve the ideal. 
Till from the Tablet, thou hast conned the Alphabet, 
How canst thou from Quran, study the lesson set ? 
A novice once before his Soul's Director stood, 
Who shewed to him the Path of Mystic Brotherhood. 
"If thou'st not lost thy footing in Love's way", said he, 
"Go ! Be a lover ! Then return thou here to me. 
For shouldst thou still disdain to drink Form's cup of 

To drain the Ideal to the dregs can not be thine. 


But yet beware, beware ! In Form make no delay, 

And let that Bridge be crossed as quickly as it may. 

If to the stage's end thy chattels thou wouldst bring, 

Rapt at the Bridge's head, why standst thou lingering ?" (D 

In the Law&ih of Jam! we have a theosophical treatise 
of which we have an edition in English by Whinfield 
with translation and notes. There are English transla- 
tions of the Bahdristdn, by Rehatsek, of Sa/aman-o- 
Absal by Edward Fitzgerald and of Yusuf-o-ZulavkhH 
by Griffiths. Most of Jami's works can be procured in 
the original in India and there is an edition of his 
collected lyrics published in Lucknow. (2; ^ 

(1) Yusuf-o-Zulaykha, (Newal Kishore) p. 53 ff. This edition 
is accompanied by a commentary. The above is the translation of 
Rev. J. W. Sweetman. 

(2) Newal Kishore Press, Lucknow. 

The Sufi Gnostic System. 


In Muslim thought those who have speculated 
concerning the Divine Being are generally divided into 
three schools, viz. the Ijadiyya, which is definitely 
theistic and subscribes to the belief that God created 
the world out of nothing and' that His essence is 
distinct from His creation; the Shuhudiyya, a moderate 
pantheism, considers that the universe and all that it 
contains is so far transcended by the majesty of God's 
reality that all else counts for nothing. This school 
conceives the universe as a mirror in which the Divine 
attributes are reflected. The third school is the U?uju- 
diyya, which is monistic. It holds that there is only one 
essence and that is God's. Thus to this school every- 
thing is God and of the Essence of God, and its creed 
is Hama ost, "all is He". The Shuhudiyya and the 
IVujudiyya form the two great divisions of the ufi in 
respect to the doctrine of God. There are certain 
fundamental conceptions which underlie all the ufi 
speculations with regard to the Godhead and we must 
give a brief outline of these for the better understand- 
ing of the system. 

(a) Tanazzuldt. The Descent of the Absolute. 
Tanazzul (pi. tanazzulat) "the descent 11 , is, in the 
language of the Gfls equivalent to "individualisation 1 '. 


and indicates the process by which the Absolute, from 
the state of bare existence, gradually became "quali- 
fied". As Neo-Platonism started with a Triad in its 
emanational system consisting of the One, the Divine 
Mind and the All-Soul, so too we find a triad here 
whereby we trace from step to step the "descent" of 
the Absolute from what is in the initial stage almost 
parely negative or supra-existential, through a stage 
where the divine consciousness moves to the realisa- 
tion of Its Thought, to the third stage of Oneness in 
Multiplicity. In the first and highest plane the Abso- 
lute Being (al-Wujudu'l-Mutlaq) is conceived as simple 
Essence, (.adh-dhpit) devoid of all attributes and relations. 
This is defined by some ufls on lines which may be 
fairly represented by the words of Jill in his /ruan-i- 
KcmiL "The Essence means Absolute being, dropping 
all modes, adjuncts, relations and aspects. Not that they 
are external to the Absolute Being but that all these 
modes and what is ascribed to them are totally of 
and in Absolute Being, not of themselves nor by 
virtue of their own modes, but essentially one with 
the Absolute. And this Absolute Being is the Pure 
Essence in which there is no manifestation, no name, 
no quality, no relation, no adjunct or anything else. 
So when anything else is manifested in it that mani- 
festation is ascribed not to the Pure Essence but to 
that which is manifested. Then the Essence in the 
requirement of its own nature comprises Universals, 
Particulars, Relations and Adjuncts by the requirement 
of their continuance. Nay, by the requirement of their 


disappearance beneath the domination of the Oneness 
of the Essence. " (1) With this should be compared Ploti- 
nus, "Since the Nature or Hypostasis of the One is 
the engenderer of the All, it can be none of the 
things in the All; that is, It is not a thing; It has 

neither quality nor quantity It is essentially of a 

unique form or rather no-form, since It is prior tc 
form as It is also prior to movement and rest; afl 
these categories apply only to the realm of existence 
and constitute the multiplicity characteristic of that 
lower realm. 11(2) 

The inward aspect of this plane is called al-Amii, 
"the dark mist/' and it is explained as a state of bare 
potentiality. The outward aspect is called Ahdijyct, 
the abstract notion of Oneness, in which the Essence 
knows itself as transcendent Unity . (3) 

The ufis quote two traditions in support of this 
view. One is the Hadith-i-Qudsi (a special type of 
tradition which is supposed to contain a Divine 
revelation to Muhammad) which runs as follows, "I 
(i. e. Allah) was a hidden treasure: I desired to become 
known and I brought Creation into being that I might 
be known." The other is as follows: "The Prophet 
was asked by Abl Dara, 'Where was God before 
Creation?' Muhammad replied, 4 He was in the state 
of aZ-'Ama, a dark cloud or mist, above which there 
was no air, and below which there was no air. 1 

(1) Jili. Insan-i-Kamil (Cairo printed) Vol. 1. 43. Trans, by 

(2) Plotinus: Ennead, Book VI. 9. 3. [J. W. Sweetman. 

(3) Cf . Nicholson, Studies in Islamic Mysticism, pp. 94-95 and 
Khwaja Khan: Studies in Tasawwuf, p. 41. 


We next come to another plane of this triad in 
the scheme of devolution. This is Wdhdat and is also 
known as Haqlqatu'l-Mukammadiyya, *the Reality of 
Muhammad/ The world is a manifestation of that 
Reality. It is said that the realities or ideal prototypes 
of the souls and bodies of the world are details of 
the reality of Muhammad's soul and body.* 

Here too we have an inward and outward aspect. 
The inward is called Huunyyat, He-ness, and the out- 
ward Anlyyat, I-ness. Humyyat represents the Thought 
of the Divine Mind turned in to the One and Anlyyat 
the Thought going out, as it were, to the realisation 
or expression of itself in manifestation. The relations 
of these two terms to each other are to some extent 
shown by their derivation. Humyyat is the abstract 
noun formed from the third person singular pronoun 
"huwd". It is the Wahid, (singular) gha'ib, (hidden). 
It is that which is specified or contemplated. But 
this he-ness does not depend on a specifier outside 
the Divine Unity. Thus the divine thought turned 
inward in self-contemplation is the basis of the con- 
ception. Anlyyat is from the first person singular. Here 
the Divine Unity points to Itself, as it were, vis a vis 
the world, or rather universe, of individuation. Anlyyat 
corresponds to the Anal-Haqq of Hallaj and is appro- 
priate to the sphere of manifestation, while Humyyat 
corresponds more to the Hu of the dhikr, where the 
aim is to put off the fetters of individuation and 

*cf. Ibrahim Shattari: Haqa'iq Numa. p. 191. 


to be lost in the Hidden Oneness. (I) But the use of 
these two terms must not be taken as implying any 
duality. "Everyone who does not harbour doubt is 
aware that there is only one single existence". "But 
there is no duality for Creative Truth; In that there 
is no Tand 4 We' and Thouness'. T and 4 We\ Thou 1 
and 'He' are all one thing; For there is no distinction 
at all in Oneness". (2) . 

The third plane is called Wdhidiyyat, Unity in 
Plurality, or Singleness. It is in the use of this term 
that we see the intention to preserve the Unity when 
the plane of multiplicity has been reached. This also 
is parallel with the Neo-Platonist system. "The All- 
Soul includes and is All-the-Souls." (3) But in this there 
is no sacrifice of the Unity. "All degrees and hier- 
archies are but details of the Unity/ 1 says Jam! when 
treating of this subject in his Law&ih. By the use of 
this term then, the many are represented as identical 
in essence with the One. 

In the stage of Wahidlyyat, when the Essence came 
to possess the essential attributes, viz. Life, Know- 
ledge, Power, Purpose, Hearing, Seeing and Speech, 
it was called Ldhut, Divinity: when it became qualified 
with active attributes such as, to create, to make 
alive, to kill, etc, it was called Jabarut, Power. The 

(1) An interesting parallel to this is the use of person in a 
grammatical sense with reference to the Trinity by Tertullian. See 
Adv. Praxean Chaps, xi & xii. 

(2) Gulshan-i-Raz, couplets 445 ff. 

(3) Mackenna: Plotinus Vo. 1. p. 120 


Jabarut attributes were named according to their 
different manifestations. When they were manifested 
in the world of spirit and angels, they were called 
'Alam-i-Malakut the angelic world, when they were 
manifested in "similitudes" they were called l A/am-i- 
Mithdl, the world of Similitudes, and when manifested 
in the material world, they were called 'Alam-i-N&sut* 
the world of Humanity. 

It is thus that "the Single Essence as to Its being 
absolutely void of individualisations and limitations is 
Creative Truth (Haqq) and in respect to multiplicity 
and plurality by which It displays Its veiling in indi- 
vidualisations It is the created universe (Ma/cj). a) The 
appearing of the Creator in the form of the creature 
has a reference to the tradition recorded from Mu'adh 
b. Jabal and in various forms from others that Muham- 
mad saw his Lord in a beautiful form, or as a hand- 
some youth * (2) The assertion that the creature is in the 
form of the Creator is the converse and is considered 
the complementary aspect of the former conception. 
This is referred to that other tradition ultimately 
derived from the story of Creation in the book of 
Genesis, "God created Adam in His own image." 

(fc) The Haqiqatu'l'Muhammadiyya 
Reference has already been made to the Haqiqatul- 
Muhammadiyya, but as it occupies an important place 
in the doctrine of the ufls, we proceed to give an 

(1) Jami: Lawa'ik (Newal Kishorc Press) p. 19 

(2) Mishkatu'l-Masabih (Majidi Press, Cawnpur) p. 72, cf also 
Ritter in Der Islam 1928 p. 257. 


outline of their teaching concerning it. Another name 
for it is J^urul-Muhammadiyya, the Light of Muham- 
mad. The growth of the doctrine has a long history. 
Ibn Slna (b. 980 A. D.) in Kitabu'l-Isharat identifies 
the Aristotelian 'Aql, Primal Reason, with the Light 
of Allah referred to in mysterious terms in the Quran 
(Sura, 24:35). It is not exclusively a ufi conception.* 
The saying, quite evidently borrowed from St. John 
14: 19. is ascribed to Muhammad, "He that hath seen 
me hath seen Allah. 11 Thus Muhammad is regarded 
by the ufis as the final and complete revelation of 
God but not only so, he is believed to have existed 
before the creation of the world. From this it will 
be apparent that the place of the Haqiqatu'l-Muham- 
madiyya in the ufi cosmogony is the same as that 
of the Logos in Christianity. The pre-existence of 
Muhammad is described in words which strongly 
remind us of the statements in the Gospel concerning 
the Logos, viz. "All things were made by Him; and 
without Him was not anything made that has been 
made". (St. John 1 :3). Tradition puts in the mouth 
of Muhammad saying such as the following: "The 
first thing which God created was the Light of the 
Prophet/ 1 "I was a prophet while Adam was bet- 
ween water and clay." "I am the Light of God and 
all things are from my Light. 11 Further, the verse of 
the Quran which says, "Muhammad is not the father 
of any of you, but he is a messenger of God and 

*For Shi'a conception see Hayatu'l-Qulub (Newal Kishore 
Press) Vol. 2 p. 3 etc. 


Seal of the Prophets", is interpreted by Najmu'd-Din 
Kubra to mean that he was not of our world. < 

Jill (b. 1365 A. D.),the author of the famous treatise 
on ufism, Insdnul-Kamil, describes the Haqiqat-u'l 
Muhammadiyya in the following words: "One of his 
names is Word of God (Amru'llah) and he is the 
most sublime and exalted of all existences. In regard 
to dignity and rank he is supreme. There is no 
angel greater than he. He is the chief of all the 
archangels and is superior to angels in all devices. God 
made the millstone of all existences to turn on him 
and made him the axis of the revolving sphere of all 
creation. He has a special form with every creature 
which is attached to it and which preserves it in the 
degree in which God created it. He has eight forms 
which support the Most High Throne. He formed 
the angels, all of them, the lofty and the elemental. 
The relation of angels to him is as the relation of 
drops of water to the sea."* 

Jill also describes how this Light of Muhammad 
has appeared in various forms in different ages. He 
says: "He has different garbs and is manifested in 
various habitations. A name is given to him in respect 

to each His original name is Muhammad, his 

patronymic is Abu'l-Qasim, his description is * Abdu'Uah 
and his title Shamsu'd-Dln. Then in respect to later 
forms he is given names and in every age has a name 
which is appropriate to the guise in which he appears 

Insanu'l-Kamil, (ed. cited) Vol. II. et infra. P. 9. Cap. 51. 
Trans, by Rev. J. W. Sweetman 


in that age. I was associated with him (Muhammad) 
in the form of my Shaykfa, Shaykh Sharfu'd-Din 
Isma'll Jabarti, and I did not know that the Shaykh 
was the Prophet but I knew that he was the Shaykh 
(guide in the ufl path) and this is one of the visions 
I had of him in Zabld in the year 796 A. H. (1394 A. 
D.) and the secret of this matter is that it is possible 
for him to assume every form. When the one experi- 
enced in spiritual knowledge has seen him in the form 
of Muhammad, the form which was upon the Haqiqat- 
u'1-M.uhamrnadiyya in his (Muhammad's) life-time, 
then he is called by his name Muhammad and when 
he has seen him in some other form and has known 
that he was Muhammad, he does not call him by any 
name except the name of that form. Then this name 
(Muhammad) will not be applied except to the Ha- 
<fiqatul-Muhammadiyya. Sawest thou not that when 
the prophet was manifest in the form of Shibll, Shibll 
said to his disciple "Testify that I am the Apostle of 
God" and the disciple had insight and recognised him 
and said, "I testify that thou art the Apostle of 

The story of how the world was created by the 
Light of Muhammad is still widely used for the pur- 
pose of devotional reading. It may be described in the 
words of Jill. God, created the forms of Muhammad 
from the light of His name al-Bach *u 'l-Qfldir (i. e, 
the Almighty Maker) and contemplated them with 
His name al-Manndnul-Qahir, (the Overwhelming 
Vnjanw'J- Kami/ (ed. cited) Vol. II. p. 46 Cap. 60. 


Giver). Then He shone upon them with His name 
al-Ldftfu'l-Ghflfir (the Forgiving Indulgent One). On 
this, because of this irradiation it broke into two parts, 
so that it was divided into two halves. From that half 
on His right God made paradise and established it as 
an abode of bliss and from that half on His left He 
made the Fire, setting it up as a place of misery for the 


According to ufi teaching the entire creation 
belongs either to the 'A/am-i-Amr, the World of 
Command, or to the *Alam-i-k]ialq, the World of 
Creation. By the former is meant that world of exis- 
tence which has been brought into existence by God 
directly by His word of command "Be!", while the 
latter is for that which is fashioned from something 
already existing. The former is immaterial and cor- 
responds in some sort to the pleroma, but the latter is 
material. Taken together these two worlds form the 
'Alam-i-Kdlnr, the Macrocosm. Man in contrast is 
called 'Alam-i-$aghir the Microcosm and he possesses 
within himself five elements of 'A/am-i-Amr and five 
elements of 'Alam-i-Khalq. Those belonging to the 
former are: Qalb, heart, Ruh, spirit, Sirr, the secret, 
Kbafi, the hidden or mysterious, Afe/a, the deeply 
hidden. Nicholson sometimes translates Sirr by tfye 
word consciousness. One wonders whether the last 
three might not be represented by intuition, deep 
op. cit. Vol. H. p, 29. 


intuition and deepest intuition. However, they are not 
simple psychological terms but partly names in a 
gnostic mythology. The elements belonging to the 
*Alam-i-fhalq are: Nafs, ego or soul, and the four ele- 
ments earth, water, fire and air. In the language of 
the ufls each of these elements is called a Latlfa 
(pi. LatcCif} which is a word difficult to translate. It 
might mean subtle substance. It is not exactly faculty, 
for the same reason offered above with regard to Sirr. 
The latdiif connected with ' Alam-i-khalq constitutes 
the physical side of human life, and the other five 
which are connected with the 1 'Alam-i-Amr are the 
organs of spiritual communication with God. These 
belong in their true nature to the spiritual world, 
in which their relative position is described in the 
following way: The place of the Qalb is said to be on 
the Throne of God and above it in ascending order 
are Ruli, Sirr, Khafl and Afehfa. But somehow, they 
are also connected with the inner life of man and as 
such, are located in his body. Their exact location, 
including Nafs, which of course belongs to the physi- 
cal side of man, is: the Nafs under the navel, Qalb 
on the left side, Ruh on the right side of the chest, 
Sirr exactly between Qalb and Ru%. Khafl is said by 
some to be in the forehead and Afakfa in the brain, 
while others locate A&hfd in the middle of the chest, 
Sirr between Qalb and A&fi/a, and Kbafi between 
Ruh and 

Shah Muhammad Ghawth, AsranCt-Tariqat, Urdu Tt. (Pubd. 
Manzil-i-Naqshbandiyya, Lahore) P. 16. 


It is further said that each lafifa in a mysterious way, 
is related to a certain prophet. This relation, in the 
language of the ufis, is expressed in the following 
words: the degree of saintship attained through each 
latlfa is "under the foot of a prophet. 1 ' Qalb is under 
the foot of Adam; Rub Sirr Khafl are under the feet 
of Abraham, Moses Jesus and Muhammad respectively. 

The aim of every ufl is to awaken these five 
Lajaif into active remembrance of God, and through 
them to receive Tajalll, the Divine Illumination. 
These objects he seeks to accomplish by the constant 
practice of dhikr or remembrance. Normally the goal 
is attained gradually and, whichever of these latffif 
becomes active and divinely illuminated, the uft 
concerned is said to have attained to the degree of the 
saintship of that particular latlfa and of the Prophet 
associated with it. 


Jill says that the heart is the eternal light and sublime 
mystery sent down into the essence of created beings 
so that God may look on man by it.* Muhammad is 
said to have received the revelation "My earth and 
My heaven contain Me not, but the heart of My 
faithful servant containeth me/' Rum! in the Mathr 
naun says, u The Prophet said that God said: I am not 
contained in High or Low, nor in Earth nor in Heaven, 
nor even in the Heaven of the Throne; know this for 
certain, I am treasured in the believer's heart. How 
*Insanu'l-Kamil Vol. ii. p. 14. 


wonderful! If thou seekest for me, search in such 
hearts," (1) and again he says, "That heart which is the 
rising place of moonbeams (i. e. pale reflections of the 
great Sun of Truth) is for the mystic the opening of 
the gates (or chapters) of revelation." (2) Take also 
these words of Hafig "Long years the heart was 
searching for Jam's cup. What it had itself it desired 
of the stranger. The pearl which is not in the shell of 
the phenomenal world, it sought from benighted people 
on the sea-shore." Here is a picture of mankind lost 
on the shore of the boundless sea of divine knowledge. 
Unaware as he is of his own identity, how can he pos- 
sibly apprehend transcendent reality? Even though he 
should spend long years, making diligent enquiry of the 
sages (here symbolised by the Jdm-i-Jam, a fabulous 
goblet or mirror supposed to have the property of 
mirroring the whole world) he cannot achieve the 
knowledge of God/ 3) Adam, says the ufl, left 
Paradise to live in the world and it was as though he 
had left that boundless ocean to dwell on the barren 
shore. There he lost the knowledge of his real self 
which was bound up with his mystic apprehension of 
God. Nevertheless, in the heart of man, which is 
vehicle of the Supreme Glory and the place of the 
manifestation of Divine Light, there lingers still some 
traces of the effulgence of divine knowledge and 
therefrom some faint moon-beam gleams of mystic 

(1) Jalalu'd-Din, Mathnawi. Bk. I. lines 26355. 

(2) Ibid Bk. II, lines 163. 

(3) Diwan-i-Hafiz* Radif-dal Ode 85. 


apprehension of the Lord Most High. Hafig says the 
heart longs to be comforted and blessed with the love 
of the Beloved but as it turns hither and thither with 
its questioning in the urgency of its longing, it vainly 
disquiets itself and us, for it has itself all the secret 
which is left to us. The treasury of Reality and Mystic 
Apprehension is in the heart; we seek in vain from 
others. We may turn to them very wistfully but "not 
by these, by these was healed my aching smart/' Why 
seek the precious pearl from those who are themselves 
lost? The rays of the eternal beauty are not without 
but within. Thus is the ufi's thought about the 
heart expressed. He sees in it the Throne of God and 
the centre of intuition of the Divine. 

By the position of the Qalb between the * Alam-i-Amr 
and the " Alam-i-'ghalq, it is an "intermedium" (barzafeh) 
between them, and a meeting place of physical 
and spiritual forces. In the words of a ufi writer, 
"It is compounded of the subtle rulfi and the coarse 
body; and has thus established connection between 
the two. It receives impressions from the external 
world through the five External senses (viz. Thought, 
Instinct, Memory, Reasoning and Fancy).* "Thus it 
comes about that the heart is the centre of a warfare. 
Al-Ghazall says, "There are two servants of the heart 
which, when they serve it perfectly, are helpful. These 
are wrath and appetite (or desire). Indeed the heart 
considers these two excellent companions for its 
journey to God. But sometimes these are disobedient 

*Khwaja Khan, Studies in Tasawwuf. p. 195. 


to the heart and rebel against it so that it comes to this, 
that they enslave the heart and are the workers of its 
destruction and thus it is kept back from that journey 
by which eternal bliss is obtained/** 

So through a mist of scholastic subtleties, the ufi 
gropes his way to find that which will assuage the deep 
hunger of his heart and so joins hands with his Chris- 
tian brother who says, "I was seeking Thee without and 
lo, Thou wast within/' "Our whole work in this life 
is to heal the eye of the heart by which we see 

God."< 2 > . 


(1) Ihya-ul-'Ulum. Vol. III. p. 5. 

(2) St. Augustine. 


The Path. 

In the preceding chapter we have described the 
general principles which underlie ufism, and now turn 
to a consideration of the characteristic teachings at 
the back of ufi practices, and of those experiences 
through which ufis pass in their attempts to attain the 
goal of Union with God. "ufism speaks of advance- 
ment in the spiritual life as a "journey," and the 
seeker after God as a sdlik, or "traveller 11 . Its teaching 
is intended to guide the traveller to the attainment 
of the perfect "knowledge 11 (marifai) of God, the 
only Reality diffused through all things. Subsequently, 
the wandering soul is led onwards by slow 'stages* 
(maqdmdt), and through the experience of certain 
* states' (akwdl), along a Path (at-Tariqat) t to the 
desired goal of union with God, called fand fi'l-hacfiqat, 
absorption (lit. 'extinction') in Reality".* 

The very great gulf that separates man from God is 
commonly described by ufi writers in symbolical 
language. Such is the style of the following tradition 
quoted by al-Qbazll: "Allah hath seventy thousand 
Veils of Light and Darkness: were He to withdraw 
their curtain, then would the splendours of His Aspect 
(countenance) surely consume everyone who ap- 

* Be van Jones, The People of the Mosque, p. 157. 


prehended Him with his sight."* These veils are 
thus explained: The inner half of these are said to be 
of light, and the other half of darkness. The soul in 
its journey to union with Deity, passes through seven 
stages and at every stage is stripped of ten thousand of 
these veils, the dark ones first and then the bright. At 
the final stage the soul stripped of all sensual and 
material qualities stands face to face with the Absolute 


The "stages" of the journey or Path, have been 
variously described by the ufls. Such variation is 
perhaps to be explained by the fact that ufis claim 
that there are a myriad ways leading to God. Indeed 
one of them is said to have declared, "The ways to 
God are as many as the believes." 

According to some authorities the Path consists of 
the following seven 'stages': 

(1) 'Ubicdiyyat, the stage of 'service' in which 

the aspirant endeavours to purify his soul, and prepares 
himself for the higher stages of the journey. At this 
stage the first thing required of him is repentance, 
which is described as "the awakening of the soul from 
the slumber of indifference to awareness of his evil 
ways, and a sense of contrition for past sins." The 
aspirant is also exhorted to serve God and follow the 
ordinances of the Law faithfully. 

*C. W. H. T. Gairdener, Mishkatu'l- Anwar, pp. 88f. 


(2) 'Ishq, that of love in which the Divine 

influence inclines the soul towards the love of God. 
'Allu'l-Hujwirl says: "Man's love towards God is a 
quality which manifests itself in the heart of the pious 
believer, in the form of veneration and magnification, 
so that he seeks to satisfy his Beloved and becomes 
impatient and restless in his desire for vision of Him, 
and canno: rest with anyone except Him, and grows 
familiar with the remembrance (dhikr) of Him, and 
abjures the remembrance of everything besides. Re- 
pose becomes unlawful to him and rest flees from him. 
He is cut off from all habits and associations, and re- 
nounces sensual passion and turns towards the court 
of love an! submits to the law of love and knows God 
by His attributes of perfection." (1) 

At thL< stage the aspirant, urged by his intense 
longing for God, is le|J to observe poverty. In his 
heart there is no room for any earthly desire but that 
of God. Thus, his poverty is not merely the lack of 
wealth, kit also the absence of any desire for it. A 
ufi writes: "the poor are the richest of God's crea- 
tion tiey dispense with the gift for the sake of the 

Giver." ^ 

(3) Zuhd, " renunciation " under the influ- 
ence of tie Divine Love all worldly desires are expelled 
from thd heart. " The first stage of zuhd, to the 

(1) tashf al~Mahjub, (Professor Nicholson's translation; 
pp. 307,8. 

(2) Al-Sarraj. Kitab-al-Luma\ p. 48, quoted, in Margaret 
Smith, Kate, p. 74. 


ufi, is initiatory and represents the Purgative Life, 
through which the novice must pass before setting 
foot on the mystic Way. But when the soul has been 
purified from all sensual desires, and the mystic 4 pure 
from self as flame from smoke ' sets forth upon his 
journey towards God, then he passes beyond this early 
degree of zuhd and aims at the last stage, renunciation 
of all but God, attained only by the adept ," (1) A 

(4) Marifat, "knowledge" or "gnosis' 1 in 

which the aspirant contemplates the nature, attributes 
and work of God 4 Aliu'l-Hujwiri says: "Gnosis of God 
is of two kinds : cognitional ('i/wO and emotional (feafi). 
Cognitional gnosis is the foundation of all blessings 
in this world and in the next, for the most important 
thing for a man at all times and in all circumitances is 
knowledge of God, as God hath said: 'I onlt created 

the genii and mankind that they might serve Me 1 
(Swra, 51:56), i.e. that they might know Me. But the 
greater part of men neglect this duty, except those whom 
God hath chosen and whose hearts He hath vivified with 
Himself. Gnosis is the life of the heart throufh God, 
and the turning away of one's inmost thoughts jrom all 
that is not God."' 2) ! 

(5) Wajd, " ecstasy " in which mental 

excitement is produced through contemplation of the 
only existing Reality, God. At this stage the ftspirant 
spends his time in contemplation, and practices much 

as a means of inducing in him the ttate of 

(1) Margaret Smith, Rabi'a, p. 76. 

(2) Kaskf-al-Mahjub, p. 267. 


ecstasy. Professor Nicholson says: "The whole of 
ufism rests on the belief that when the individual self 
is lost, the Universal Self is found, or, in religious 
language, that ecstasy affords the only means by which 
the soul can directly communicate and become united 
with God.' 1(1) 

(6) Haqlqat, " reality " the heart is now 

illumined with the true nature of God. The aspirant, 
as he learns the true nature of God, learns to exercise 
tawakkul, dependence upon God. According to Al- 
Ghazall tawhld and tawakkul are inseparably related. 
To put one's trust in secondary causes is to associate 
these with God as the object 01 devotion and this is 
shirk. He uses the Quran to establish this view and 
quotes Sura 29: 65 to show that men call on God to 
give them a safe passage when they take ship, but 
when they arrive they attribute their safe arrival to a 
fair wind. True trust is rather in Him who rules the 
winds. "When He saves them to the shore, behold, 
they associate others with Him/' This is contrary to 
tawhld and therefore not true tawakkul. Al-Gliazali 
says: "Know that tawakkul is a sort of faith (iman) and 
faith is made up of knowledge Oi7m), state (hdl) and 
practice (?amal)\ so too is tawakkul." Thus to 
Al-Qbazall tawakkul is practically identical with the 
ufi conception of tawhld. 

(7) Wasl, "union" in which the mystic, as 

it were, sees God face to face. This "stage" precedes 

(1) Nicholson, The Mystics of Islam, p. 59. 

(2) Ihya 'u 'I 'Vlum, Vol. IV., pp. 211-15, (Cairo, ed. 1346 A.H.) 


the final experience of fand wa baqd. 'annihilation and 
subsistence 1 , the ufl's ultima Thule. Waslis also the 
stage of satisfaction, which is defined as "the acquies- 
cence of the heart in God's decision and the agree- 
ment of the heart with what He wills and chooses 1 *, 
and again " satisfaction is the acceptance of God's 
4ecisions^with joy. 11(l) Satisfaction has two sides, viz., 
human satisfaction with God and Divine satisfaction 
with man. Abu Sa'id, a famous uf! writer, is reported 
to have said: "That man is a ufl who is satisfied with 
whatsoever God does or God will be satisfied with 
whatsoever he does, 11 (a> 


The 'stages 1 just described must be distinguished 
from those experiences of the traveller which the 
ufts call 'states 1 . They define a 'state 1 as a condition 
of feeling or disposition, which comes upon the mystic 
without^ his intention or desire; such as sorrow, fear or 
joy; 'Aliu'l-Hujwiri makes clear the distinction 
between these as follows: " 'Station 1 (maqdm) (3) de- 
notes anyone's 'standing 1 in the Way of God, and his 
fulfilment of the obligations appertaining to that 
'station' and his keeping it until he comprehends its 
perfection so far as lies in a man's power. It is not 

(1) Al-Qushayri, Risala, p. 117, quoted in, Margaret Smith, 
Rabi'a, p. 89. 

(2) Asrar al-Tawhid, p. 381, quoted, in Margaret Smith, op. cit. 
p. 88, note. 

(3) The word 'station' is used by Professor Nicholson or rtuxqam 
while we have translated it throughout by the word 'stagre'. 


permissible that he should quit his 'station' without 
fulfilling the obligations thereof. Thus, the first 
'station 1 is repentance (tawbat), then comes conversion 
(inabai), then renunciation (zuhd), then trust in God 
(tawakkuV), and so on: it is not permissible that any- 
one should pretend to conversion without repentance, 
or to renunciation without conversion, or to trust in 
God without renunciation. 

" 'State' (hdl), on the other hand, is something that 
descends from God into a man's heart, without his 
being able to repel it when it comes or to attract it 
when it goes, by his own effort. Accordingly, while 
the term 'station' denotes the way of the seeker, and 
his progress in the field of exertion, and his rank be- 
fore God in proportion to his merit, the term 'state' 
denotes the favour and grace which God bestows upon 
the heart of His servant, and which are not connected 
with any mortification on the latter's part. 'Station^ 
belongs to the category of acts, 'state 1 to the category 
of gift&L Hence the man that haiTa 'station' stands by 
Els own self-mortification, whereas the man that has a 
'state' is dead to 'self and stands by a 'state 1 which God 
creates in him."* 


In the previous chapter we have described how the 
Absolute, in manifesting Itself, has passed through 
several stages of 'devolution'. The progress of a ufi 
from, the lowest to the highest stage of the Path, 

*Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 181. 


consists in traversing the stages of this Divine 'devolu- 
tion* in obverse order. Professor Nicholson while ex- 
pounding Jill's idea of the Perfect Man, speaks of 
this ascent of the ufl as follows: "Man is the 
microcosm in which all attributes are united, and in 
him alone does the Absolute become conscious of 
itself in all its diverse aspects. To put it in another 
way, the Absolute, having completely realised itself 
in human nature, returns into Itself through the 
medium of human nature; or, more intimately, God 
and man become one in theJPerfect Man the enraptur- 
ed prophet or saint whose religious function as a 
mediator between man and God corresponds with his 
metaphysical function as the unifying principle by 
means of which the opposed terms of reality and 
appearance are harmonised. Hence the upward move- 
ment of the Absolute from the sphere of manifestation 
back to the unmanifest^d Essence takes place in and 
through the unitive ex2cricncej>f the soul. 11 * 

Thus the soul's progress in the journey along the 
Path is really the upward movement of the Absolute 
from the sphere of manifestation back to the unmani- 
festated state. 

The downward path, consisting of the 'stages' of 
'devolution 1 traversed by 'the Absolute, is designated 
by the ufis as safaru'l-Haqq 'the journey of Reality* 
and the corresponding upward path followed by the 
mystics is designated as safaru'l-abd, 'the journey of 
the creature*. 

* Studies in Islamic Mysticism pp. 84, 85 


The gradual ascent of the soul is further described 
by ufis to be related to 'four main states', through 
which the traveller must pass. 

1. Ndsut, humanity, the natural state of every 
human being, in which the disciple must observe 

2. Malakut, nature of angels, in which he takes 
the Path of spiritual journey, at-'tariqat. (l) 

3. Jabarut, possession of power, for which there is 

4. Ldhut, Divinity, the state of absorption into the 
Deity, in which he attains Reality, Haqlqat 


There are certain ufis who speak of the Path as 
consisting of three journeys: 

(1) Sayr ilalldh, Journey to God 1 , the aspirant 
travels from the World of Creation' to the 'World 
of Command'. In this he traverses the 'stages' of 
Wdhidiyyat and Wahdat, i. e. the last two stages of the 
Divine 'devolution'. r2 ' This journey ends at Haqlqat- 

(2) Sayr fi'lldh. Journey in God', in this the 
aspirant is absorbed into the Essence of God. It is 
the 'stage 1 of Ahdiyyat. It was at this 'stage 1 that 
Hallaj cried out, Ana'l-Haqq 'I am the Reality', and 

(1) Shah Muhammad Ghawth. Asraru't-Tariqat, Urdu Tr. 
(Naqshbandiyya Manzil, Lahore), pp. 27-28. 
-(2) Cp. pp. 55. 56. 


I am He whom I love, and He whom I love is I: 

We are two spirits in one body. 

If thou seest me, thou seest Him. 

And if thou seest Him, thou seest us both. 

(3) Sayr "ani "llah, 'Journey from God'. This 
is the journey back to the world of manifestation 
invested with the attributes of God. It is the 'stage 1 
of baqd "subsistence after fand 'annihilation 1 . The 
author of Gulshan-i-Rdz , thus discribes it: 

"He obtains baqd, subsistence, after fand, annihilat- 
ion. He returns to the Source from the end of his 
journey by another way. He puts on the Law as a 
garment and then wraps about it the robe of the Mystic 
Path. But know that Truth itself is the Station of 
his nature, the connecting link between unbelief (kufr) 
and Belief (/man).''* 


The ufis distinguish between Ruh, the spirit, and 
Nafs, the self or the appetitive soul. Nafs is consi- 
dered to be the element of evil in man, the seat of 
passion and lust, and mortification of this nafs is the 
chief work of the aspirant. There are among ufis 
many outward methods of mortification, such as fast- 
ing, silence and solitude. The aim in all such practices 
may be said to be "dying to self 11 . By this the ufis 
do not mean to assert that the lower self can be 
essentially destroyed, but that it is to be purged of all 
its evil qualities. The word death is, in fact, employed 

Guhhan-i-Raz, lines 249-251. 


in a figurative sense to indicate the various methods 
of self -mortification. The methods so described are 
three in number: 

1. Al-Mawtu'l-Abyad, 'the white death'; this is 
held to mean abstinence from food, or such control 
of the feeling of hunger as gradually purifies the Nafs 
from appetitive cravings. A person who frequently 
abstains from food is said to have entered the state 
of the 'white death 1 . 

2. Al-Mawtu'l-Akhdar, 'the green death'; this is 
the wearing of old clothes in a state of voluntary 
poverty. When a person gives up wearing purple and 
fine linen, and has chosen the garment of poverty, 
he is said to have entered this state of death. 

3. Al-Maivtul-Aswad, 'the black death'; this is 
applied to the voluntary taking of troubles, and submit- 
ting to be evil spoken of for the truth's sake. When 
an aspirant has learnt to submit to such troubles and 
persecutions, he is said to have entered into this state 
of death. 

The Nafs, in such a process of mortification and 
purgation of all its evil qualities, is variously described 
according to the degree of purity it has attained: 

1. Nafs-i-Ammard, 'the soul depraved'. 

2. Nafs-i-Lawwdma, 4 the soul accusatory'. 

3. Nafs-i-Mulhama, 'the soul inspired'. 

4. Nafs-i-Mutma'inna, 4 the soul tranquil'. 

5. Nafs-i-Rddiyya, 'the soul satisfied'. 

6. Nafs-i-Mardiyya, 'the soul satisfying'. 


7. Nafs-i-$dfiyya iva Kdmila, 'the soul clarified and 
perfect*. x 


Muslim theologians are wont to speak of Tawhidu 
'dh-dhat, Unity of the Essence, Tawhidu'$-sfifdt, Unity 
of the Attributes, and Tawhidul-Afal, Unity of Acts, 
when speaking of the Deity in monistic terms. There 
is only one Essence and all manifestations of that 
One Essence, whether in attributes or acts, though 
apparently diverse and manifold, are in reality one. 
All existence is the sphere of this manifestation. 
When men act it is really God acting; when they 
display certain attributes these are really attributes 
of the Divine. This manifestation is effected through 
the Divine Effulgence. But while all men display the 
effects of this Effulgence, only the mystic is able to 
apprehend it. The ordinary man will attribute his 
actions to himself but the mystic seeks to become 
aware that his actions are acts of the Divine. Thus 
in the mystic experience there is illumination which 
corresponds to the Divine Effulgence. Tajalli then 
on the Divine side represents the outgoing Effulgence 
of the Divine towards the creature, and on the creat- 
urely side the illumination which draws the creature 
back to the Divine. Corresponding to the Divine 
"descent" is the mystic "ascent". 

The traveller on the mystic path journeying on the 
ascent to God, receives illumination in varying degrees 
through the self-manifestation of the Deity, in the 


following ascending order: , Tajalli-i-afal, the mystic 
illumination of the Divine_acts, Tajalli-i-shukudi, the 
mystic illumination of the Divine names, JTajalll-i- 
$ifdti, the mystic illumination of the Divine attributes, 
and Tajalll-i-$hatii the mystic illumination of the 
Divine Essence^" 'We now proceed to a brief descrip- 
tion of these. 


In the Effulgence of Creative Truth in His acts, 
in so far as this relates to the locus in which it is made 
manifest, the creature sees the flow of power in all 
things. Thus God, the Mover of these and the One who 
brings them to rest, makes Himself evident by negating 
the act of the creature and establishing His own. The 
creature in this sphere in which the divine manifes- 
tation is witnessed is deprived of strength, power and 
will. Men in this stage may be of different sorts. To 
one God shews His will first and then His act. Such 
a creature is then deprived of strength, act and will 
and this is the highest of the stages of the illumination 
of the divine acts. To another God shews His will 
but shews it being put into operation by creaturely 
agents and its flow under the dominance of His power. 
Some see the command at the time an act proceeds 
from the created and trace it back to God. To another 
God makes that evident after the procession of the act 
from the created. There is another who does not 
shew forth any act of his own but only the act of God. 
Such an one does not attribute any act to himself. 


He docs not say in obedience that he is obedient 
nor in sinfulness that he is a sinner. Such a person 
may eat with you and then swear he has never eaten 
and then swear again that he has never sworn and in 
spite of this be honest in the sight of God.* 

Jill, speaking of those to whom the will is made 
known before the act, says: 'Though we expect such 
a person to follow the outward Law, yet he may dis- 
obey it in obedience to the Divine will. In this case 
we do not condemn him, but leave the matter between 
him and God." 


When God manifests Himself to a servant in one 
of His names, then that one is so completely drowned 
in the radiance of that name, that if you should invoke 
God by that name, his servant will answer you because 
the name is applicable to him. It is thus that Jill opens 
his discussion of this stage of illumination. He then 
proceeds to describe the gradual revelation of different 
names to the Mystic. The name first manifested to 
him is Existence. This is followed by the name One. 
The more the name particularises the higher in the 
scale it is. Under the effulgence of the name Allah, 
the intensity of the illumination is such as to overbear 
the mystic and overwhelm him as though he were 
crushed under a mountain. Here the name of the 
mystic is obliterated and there is established in its place 
the name of Allah. Thus the mystic receives the 

'See Jili, Insanu 'l-kbmil Vol. 1. p. 34. 


illumination of the names one by one, through the 
effulgence of the names, till finally the name Qayyum 
is manifested to him and in him and he reaches the 
highest stage of the Illumination of the Divine Names. 
Thence he proceeds to the apprehension of the efful- 
gence of the Divine attributes. > 


By the effulgence of the Divine attributes, the 
essence of the Mystic is invested one by one with the 
attributes of God, really, actually and absolutely, just 
as any object receiving an attribute becomes qualified 
by it. When a man is the object of illumination of 
any attribute, he may be likened to one embarking on 
a boat and launching out on a sea which he is to explore 
to its uttermost reaches. Thus he is to explore the 
whole range of the attribute till he attains perfection 
in it and becomes completely invested with it. Then 
he receives the illumination of further attributes until 
he has exhausted the whole range of them. 

When a man is the recipient of the effulgence of the 
attributes his own existence is obliterated and when the 
light of servile existence is extinguished and the spirit 
of his creatureliness annihilated, then God sets up in the 
temple of the human body but this without interpenet- 
ration or permeation (hulul) from His essence, a subtle 
substance not detached from Himself nor joined to 
the creature as a substitute for that of which he was 
deprived or that which was lost in annihilation (/ana). 



When "Essence" is used of the Absolute it implies 
the dropping of all modes, adjuncts, relations and as- 
pects. Thus the Effulgence of the Divine Essence is 
without any reference at all to any name or attribute. 
It is the Effulgence of the Absolute Being on the 
highest plane when He is conceived as pure essence. 

When the mystic receives illumination on this plane, 
he becomes the Perfect Unit (al-fardul-kdmil), or the 
Universal Succour (al-ghau>thu V-jamO, to whom all 
resort for aid and to whom obeisance is made in 
prayer. Through him God succours the whole uni- 
verse. As al-Mahdi he is the rightly guided. He is 
the Seal of Sainthood and the Vicar of God as narrated 
in the story of Adam. The ultimate constituents of 
all existences are drawn towards him to obey his 
command as iron is drawn to a magnet. The world of 
sense is subdued by his might and he does what he wills 
by his power. Nothing is veiled from him for when 
the subtle substance of the Divine is in this saint as 
pure essence unconditioned by any degree of what is 
appropriate to divinity or creatureliness, then he gives 
to every degree of existence, whether Divine or crea- 
turely, its due, and nothing can hinder him from doing 
so; for what hinders the Essence is its conditioning 
by name, quality or degree, but here all hindrance 

*Microcosmic Pole, seej Nicholson; Studies in Islamic Mys- 
ticism, p. 130. 


disappears because there is nothing but pure essence. 
Therefore with it all things are actual for there is 
nothing to hinder whereas in other essences things arc 
sometimes actual and sometimes potential. (* ) 


Fana or 'annihilation', is the state which precedes 
that of 'subsistence' (or baqa). There has been much 
speculation as to the true significance of the term. Said 
Kharraz, who according to 'Allu'l-Hujwiri was the 
author of this doctrine, says, "Annihilation is annihila- 
tion of consciousness of manhood Cubudiyyai), and 
subsistence is subsistence in the contemplation of 
Godhead (ildhiyyat)." This is explained by the author 
of the Kashfu 'l-Mahjub to mean, that "It is an 
imperfection to be conscious in one's actions that 
one is a man, and one attains to real manhood 
(bandagf) when one is not conscious of them, but is 
annihilated so as not to see them, and becomes sub- 
sistent through beholding the actions of God. Hence 
all one's actions are referred to God, not to one's self, 
and whereas a man's actions that are connected with 
himself are imperfect, those which are attached to 
him by God are perfect. Therefore, when anyone 
becomes annihilated from things that depend on himself, 
he becomes subsistent through the beauty of God- 
head."( 2 ) 

Some have gone further than this and have explained 
fana to mean, "the non-cognizance of the traveller's 

(1) Insdnu 'l-kdmil vol. 1. cap. 15. 

(2) Kashf ul-Mahj&b. p. 245. 


attributes as his own. 11 Others say that "fana is the 
disappearance of the Anlyyat, the I-ness of the traveller 
in the I-ness of God. 11 Again there are those who 
assert that "in fand, the essence, the attributes and 
actions of the traveller become the essence, attributes, 
and actions of God." (1) It is this last opinion which is 
commonly accepted by the majority of the ufls in 

According to some exponents of the doctrine, there 
are three degrees in fand, viz., Qurb-i-FarcCid, proxi- 
mity of obligations, Qurb-i-Nawdfil, proximity of 
supererogations, and Jama' baynu'l-Qurbayn, the union 
of two proximities. (2) In the first the ufi has no 
'actions 1 of his own, he becomes an instrument in the 
hand of God, who acts through him. In the second, 
the order is reversed and the ufl becomes an agent 
and God his instrument. In the third degree the 
mystic finds himself neither as an agent nor as an ins- 
trument; but he is one with the Essence of God. 

"In that glory is no T or 'We 1 or 'Thou 1 
T, 'We 1 , Thou 1 , and 'He 1 are all one thing. 11 

Professor Nicholson says, "The enraptured ufl who 
has passed beyond the illusion of subject and object 
and broken through to the Oneness can either deny 
that he is anything or affirm that he is all things. 11 
The former is the 'negative 1 and the latter the 'positive 1 

(1) Khaja Khan, Studies in Tasawwuf, p, 73. 

(2) Najmu'l-Ghani. Tadhkiratus Suluk, (Pub. Muradabad), 
p. 365. 


aspects of cosmic consciousness. Both these aspects 
of fana may be illustrated by the two following poems 
of Jalalu'd Din Ruml. 

The following illustrates the 'negative' way. 

"O Muslim what can I do? For I do not know myself, 

I am not a Christian nor a Jew, a fireworshipper nor a Muslim. 

I am not oi the East or the West, nor of Land nor of Sea. 

I am not o: the Elemental nor of the Circling Spheres. 

I am not of earth nor of air, of water nor of fire. 

I am not of the Empyrean nor of the outspread carpet of the 

world, indeed I am not in the category of creation at all. 
I am not of Hindustan nor of China nor from near-by Bulgaria. 
I am not of the land of Iraq nor of the dust of Khurasan. 
I am not of the Faith (or the present obligations of religion) nor 

of the hereafter, nor of Heaven nor of Hell. 
I am not from Adam nor from the garden of Paradise. 
My dwelling is without location, my trail without trace. 
There is neither body nor soul for I am the Soul of Souls. 
I have expelled duality from myself. I have seen the two worlds 

as one. 

Let me seek One, say One, know One and desire One. 
He the First, He the Last, He the Manifest, He the Hidden. 
Without Him and other than Him nothing else I know. 
I am drunk with the Soul of Love and the two worlds have 

passed from my hand. 

Except drinking and revelry I have no other aim. 
If in my life some day I should draw but one breath without Him, 
From that time, yes! from that very hour, I would repent me of 

my life. 
If in private some day just for a moment my hand might be given 

to the Friend, 
I would tread underfoot the two worlds and wave the other hand 

(dancing in exultation). 


How wounderful, my friends! what bird am I that I strike wing in 

the egg? 
Within this body of water and clay, all is Love and all is Soul. 

The 'positive aspect 1 may be illustrated in the fol- 
lowing poem: 

O Mussulmans! 

Is there lover in the world? Then I am he! 

Muslim, Pagan, Christian monk? Lo, I am he! 

Shibli, Karkhi, Bayazid and Junayd, 

Bu-Hanila, Shaf i, Malik, I am he! 

Throne and Carpet, Tablet, Footstool, Height and Depth, 

Whether one with God or sundered all you see! 

I, "Two bowshots off," "above", and "nigher still", 

Yea, I am Injil, Psalter, Koran, utterly! 

Cup-boy and lees, minstrel and cup, lute-string and song. 

Sweetheart and lamp, wine and carouse, all these I be! 

Sects and creeds seventy-and-two in the world? 

Not one that remain; but all of them see thcu in me! 

Four elements in the World, Soul and Bod> too, 

Earth, Air, Water, and Fire, what are they all but me? 

Truth, falsehood, evil and good, easy and hard, I am; 

Knowledge, virtue, temperance, faith and piety! 

Blazing fire of Hell, fierce-flaming am I; 

Yea! Garden of Paradise and Houri heavenly! 

Wearer of coat of skin, with quiver and lariat I; 

Yet crown and diadem of both worlds' majesty! 

Celestials and fairies. Jinn and Man I am; 

This Earth and Heaven, and in them what'er there be! 

"O Shams-i-Tabriz, what is the end of your claim?" 

Hear then the gist: The Soul of the Soul, I am He.* 

'Translated by the Rev. J, W. Sweetman, Diwan-i-S hams-Tabriz, 
(Newal Kishore Press, p. 532). 


The Path (continued.) 


The ufi, in order to attain to his goal and reach 
the end of his journey, is obliged to follow the direc- 
tions of a leader who lays down for him certain rules 
of practice, and otherwise guides him in every detail of 
his life. A person who attempts to traverse the 'Path' 
without the aid of such a counsellor is said to have 
Satan for his guide and is compared to a tree that for 
want of a gardener's care brings forth "none or bitter 
fruit.' 1 * 

Thus the first requirement for one desiring to fol- 
low the life of a ufi is to place himself under a guide 
who is called a shayhh or pir, both words mean an 
'elder', or a murshid, i.e., 'leader'. Next he has to take 
the vow of obedience (bay at) to his pir. Thus, he 
becomes a murid, *aspirant' or disciple. A pir is to be 
followed blindly, and, in actual practice, is obeyed as 
much the prophet Muhammad. The least word of a 
pir is absolute law to his disciple. "All the pir's wishes, 
even though they contravene the letter of the shanat, 
must be fulfilled. The saying of a famous mystic poet 
illustrates this: "If the tavern-keeper (i. e. ptr) orders 
thee to colour thy prayer-mat with wine, do it: for 

*Cp. Nicholson, The Mystics of Islam, P. 32. 


the traveller is not unaware of the customs and manners 
of the stages of love's path." 

The pir is believed to be able to 'transmit' spiritual 
power to his murid. This he does by the exercise 
tawajjuh 'concentration.' When a pir desires to exer- 
cise tawajjuh, on one of his disciples, he seats himself 
near him and proceeds, in imagination, to picture his 
own heart as in close proximity to that of his murid, at 
the same time concentrating his mind upon the idea 
that his power is now being transmitted from his own 
heart to that of the other. At the same time the murid 
is required to concentrate his mind on the idea that he 
is receiving the power from his pir. This rite is generally 
performed at the time when the pir, after the perform- 
ance of dhikr, is in an abnormal state of mind. 

Tawajjuh is regarded as the one great means of 
producing a spiritual change in the life of another. A 
powerful saint is often believed to be able to work a 
very great transformation in the life of his disciple by 
this process." At times he is thought to be able to 
exercise such tawajjuh by a mere look so that any one 
on whom his glance may fall is believed to attain the 
degree of saintship. 

Further, it is the pir alone who can lead his disciple 
from the beginning of his journey to its end, guiding 
him at every 'stage' and helping him in every 'state 1 . 
The hypnotic process (implied in the practice of tawaj- 
juk) by which a pir helps his murid to reach the stage 

*It must not be supposed that such transformation is neces- 
sarily moral transformation. 


of 'annihilation' is described by J. P. Brown in the 
following words: "The murid must, mystically, always 
bear his murshid in mind, and become mentally absorb- 
ed in him, through a constant meditation and contemp- 
lation of him. The teacher must be his shield against 
all evil thoughts. The spirit of the teacher follows him 
in all his efforts, and accompanies him wherever he 
may be, quite as a guardian spirit. To such a degree 
is this carried that he sees the master in all men and in 
all things, just as a willing subject is under the influence 
of the magnetiser. This condition is called 'self-annihila- 
tion' into the murshid or shaykh. The latter finds, in 
his own visionary dreams, the degree at which the 
murld has reached, and whether or not his soul or spirit 
has become bound to his own. 

"At this state of the disciple, the shaykh passes him 
over to the spiritual influence of the pzr, or original 
founder of the particular tariqa or 'path' to which they 
belong, long since deceased, and he sees the latter 
only by the spiritual aid of the former. This is called 
'self-annihilation' into the plr. He now becomes so 
much a part of the pir as to possess all his spiritual 
powers, and may perform even all of his supernatural 

"The third grade also leads him, through the 
spiritual aid of the shaykh, up to the Prophet him- 
self, whom he now sees in all things. This state 
is called, like the preceding, 'self-annihilation 1 into the 

"The fourth degree leads him even to God. He 


becomes a part of the Divinity, and sees Him in all 

This exposition shows that the final stage of the 
journey, 'absorption in the Deity, 1 is not attained un- 
til the aspirant has annihilated himself in his plr. 


The ufi, in the course of his journey, performs 
certain acts of devotion, which are either of a general 
or special nature. The former class consists of the 

(a) T^amaz, the ritual prayer, or worship. 

(fc) Tildwat, the recitation of the Quran. 

(c) Awrdd, set forms of prayer. 

The 'special' acts are as follow: 

(a) Mujdhada, acts of self-mortification. 

(fr) Qbikr, remembering God, through particular 
exercises of the breath. 

(c) Murdqaba, contemplation. 


(<z) Namdz ( soldi) is one of the prescribed rites of 
Islam. The ufis notwithstanding the fact that they 
lay the chief emphasis on the regulation of the in- 
ward life of the soul, attach importance also to the ri- 
tual practices of Islam, such as, tahdrat, ceremoial puri- 
fication, namdz ceremonial worship, haj pilgrimage to 
Mecca, etc. 'Aliu'l-Hujwirl says, "The most impor- 
tant act of mortification is to observe the external 

Rose, The Danishes, p. 330, 


rules of discipline (addb-i-zdhir) assiduously in all cir- 
cumstances." (1) Certain of his anecdotes illustrate the 
stress laid upon external practices by the teachers of 
ufism "It is related that Ibrahim Khawwas said: 1 
desire God to give me an everlasting life in this world, 
in order that, while mankind are engrossed in the 
pleasures of the world and forget God, I may 
observe the rules of religion amidst the affliction of 
the world and remember God/ And it is related that 
Abu Tahir Harami lived forty years at Mecca, and 
went outside of the sacred territory whenever he 
purified himself, because he would not pour the water 
which he had used for that purpose on the ground 
that God had called His. When Ibrahim Khawwas 
was ill of dysentery in the congregational mosque at 
Rayy, he performed sixty complete ablutions in the 
course of a day and night, and he died in the water. 1 ' (2) 
In ufism, however, a spiritual significance is at- 
tached to every external duty; for instance, 'Allu'l- 
Hujwiri writing about the ceremonial purification 
which precedes prayer, says, "Outward and inward 
purification must go together; e. g., when a man 
washes his hands he must wash his heart clean of 
worldliness, and when he puts water in his mouth he 
must purify his mouth from the mention of other than 
God, and when he washes his face he must turn away 
from all familiar objects and turn towards God, and 
when he wipes his head he must resign his affairs to 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 292. 

(2) Kashf al-Mahjub, pp. 292-293. 


God, and when he washes his feet he must not form 
the intention of taking his stand on anything except 
according to the command of God." (1) 

Similarly a spiritual significance has been attached 
to every movement in the performance of namdz. 
"One of the Shaykhs says: 'Four things are necessary to 
him who prays: annihilation of the lower soul (nafs\ 
loss of the natural powers, purity of the inmost heart, 
and perfect contemplation.' 'Allu'l-Hujwiri explain- 
ing this saying writes: "Annihilation of the lower 
soul is to be attained only by the concentration of 
thought; loss of natural powers only by affirmation of 
the Divine Majesty, which involves the destruction of 
all that is other than God; purity of the inmost heart 
only by love; and perfect contemplation only by purity 
of the inmost heart." (2) Imam Q}azli has devoted an 
entire section of his famous work on ufism, called 
Ihya*ul-Ulum to tahdrat and namdz, in which he seeks 
to give a spiritual interpretation to these acts and to 
attach an inward significance to every movement 
made in connection with their performance. For 
instance, speaking of the worshipper's turning his face 
towards Mecca, he says: "It is a turning of the out- 
ward face from other directions to the direction of 
the House of God. Do you suppose that turning the 
heart from other things to the matter of Allah is not 
desired of you? Away with you! For there is nothing 
else desired but this. These external activities are 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 292. 

(2) Kashf al-Majub, p. 302. 


only the setting in motion of the inward activities." 1 > 
Sometimes the ufis, following this spirit of namdz and 
not the rigid rules which regulate every movement of 
the worshipper, modify the outward modes of its 
observance so as to make it more expressive of their 
inward feeling. For instance, sometimes in the midst 
of his worship a uft will take off his cap and cast it 
on the ground as an expression of his humility before 
God. Now, to take off one's cap and place it at the 
feet of another is an extreme form of humility. 
A further modification may be observed in a special 
form of namdz called alatu'l-ma'kus (obverse prayer) 
which has been offered by certain saints as an act of 
austerity. This kind of prayer is performed by hanging 
oneself upside down in a solitary place, preferably in 
a well, and there repeating the prescribed prayers, 
accompanied by signs in the place of bodily move- 

(b) Tildwat* i. e. the practice of reciting the Quran. 
In tildwat the ufi, as an orthodox Muslim, believes that 
he is pronouncing the very words of Allah and so it 
seems to him that he is hearing the sound of the Be- 
loved of his soul. In consequence of such an impres- 
sion he is often thrown into a state of ecstasy in 
course of his devotional reading. Thus for ufis of 
certain Religious Orders, who are forbidden the use 
of music as a means of inducing the state of ecstasy, 
the reading or chanting of the Quran supplies its place. 

(1) Al-Ghazaii. Ihya ul- Ulum, Book of Worship. English Trans- 
lation by Rev. E.L. Calvcrly. Pubd. C. L.S. Madras. P. 107. 


But even in the case of those ufis who, like the 
Chishtis, freely indulge in music, there is something in 
the mere reading of the Quran which makes them go 
into rapture. It is related that Khwaja Qufbu'd-Din 
Bakhtiyar Kaki, a famous saint of the Chishtl Order, 
on coming across a verse in the Quran containing some 
Divine threat of punishment used to strike his chest 
and become unconscious; but whenever he read a verse 
containing God's promise of His grace and reward, he 
would pass into a state of 'bewilderment' (hayrat) (l \ 
or ecstasy, and would remain in that state for a quite 
a long time. 

Baba Farid, another Chishti saint, is reported to 
have said "Tildivat is the best of all forms of devotion; 

to read the Quran is to converse with God." 

"Every day God speaks seventy times to the heart of 
His seeker; saying, 'If thou art my seeker, then leave 
all the acts of thy austerity and occupy thyself solely 
with the reading of the Quran.' (2) " And Nizmu'd-Din 
of Delhi said, "Reading of the Quran bestows two 
benefits upon its readers, first it guards the eyes from 
all ailments, and second for every reading the merit of 
a thousand years is recorded for its reciters." (3) 

(c) Awrad (Sing, ivird, lit, exercise, practice or 
task) set forms of prayers for daily recitation. There 
are many awrad, which are believed to be of great 

(1) Badru'd-Din Ishaq Israrul-Awliya Urdu Tr. (Manzil-i- 
Naqshbandiyya, Lahore) P. 35. 

(2) Ibid. 35. 

(3) Khwaja Muhibbu ' Ullak. Miftahul-' Ashiqin (Manzil-i- 
Naqshbandiyya, Lahore) P. 13. 


efficacy in helping a 'traveller 1 to attain nearness to 
God. The most popular of all is durud, prayer for 
Muhammad. There are several forms of it, the shor- 
test one which the Muslims repeat whenever they utter 
the name of their Prophet or hear it being pronunced, 
is as follows: "Mercy and peace be upon him/ An 
extended form of it, always used in namdz, runs as 
follows: "O God, have mercy upon Muhammad, and on 
his descendants, as thou didst have mercy on Abraham 
and on his descendants. Thou art to be praised and 
thou art great. O God, bless Muhammad and his descen- 
dants as thou didst bless Abraham and his desendants. 
Thou art to be praised and thou art great." 

Other forms of prayer used for the purpose of 
daily repetition are called Dud-i-Mdthura, 'recorded 
prayers'. These are said to have been used by Muhammad 
and are handed down in the Traditions. Sometimes, 
in addition to these, the Ninety-nine names of Allah, 
and the Ninety-nine names of Muhammad, together 
with the titles of some saint or other are repeated every 
day. Besides these prayers every ufl repeats the 
shajara (lit. a tree, a table tracing the line of succes- 
sion in a particular Religious Order to Muhammad) 
of his Order as a pious practice. Further, every Order 
has its special set of prayers, called feiatm (lit. seal- 
ing) which briefly consists of repeating certain chapters 
of the Quran, the Ninety-nine names of Allah, the 
Ninety-nine names of Muhammad and the names of 
the saints of the order. 

The following forms of ejaculatory prayers are also 


used for daily recitation chiefly with the help of a 
rosary (tastih): 

(1) Tasbih viz., Subhdn Allah, "Holiness to God". 

(2) Tahmld viz., Al-hamdu li'llah, "Praise be to 

(3) Takfar viz., Alldhu Akbar. "God is great.' 


(a) Mujahada, self-mortification. The term is derived 
from the root ]ahad< 'striving' from which comes also 
the word jihad, "waging war against the unbelievers.' 
Sometimes the Sufis treat this word jihad as inter- 
changeable with mujdhada* and then they translate it 
as 'striving against one's own self. Thus, for instance, 
the verse of the Quran, "Those who fight strenuously 
(jdhadu) for Us We will surely guide them into Our 
ways/ 1 is translated by the ufls to mean: "Those, 
who strive to the utmost (jdhadu) for Our sake, We 
will guide them in Our way." (Sura. 29: 69). Further, 
Sufis quote a tradition which makes Muhammad to 
say: "The Mujdind (literally, one who fights in jihad, 
holy war) is he who struggles with all his might 
against himself (jdhadu nafsahu) for God's sake*'. Ac- 
cording to another tradition Muhammad after the 
battle of Badr is reported to have said, "We have 
returned from the lesser war (al-jihddul-a$ghar) to the 
greater war (al-jihddul-akbar)" On being asked, "What 
is the greater war?' 1 he replied, "It is the struggle 
against one's self (mujdhadatu'n-nafs). The 0fts infer 
from this tradition that Muhammad 'adjudged the 


mortification of the lower soul to be superior to the 
Holy War against unbelievers, because the former is 
more painful/ The term mujdhada is in fact, however, 
applied to acts of penance and austerity. The traveller 
observes prolonged fasts, repeats some names of God 
night and day, and denies to himself the ordinary 
comforts of life. 

(b) Qhikr, 'remembering', is a term applied to 
special acts of devotion by means of certain breathing 
exercises and also by controlling respiration. There 
are many ways of performing dhikr\ some of the more 
important ones may be noted here. 

(1) Qhikr-i-jall. 

i. The worshipper sits in the usual posture and 
shouts the word Allah, drawing his voice as from his 
left side and then from his throat. 

ii. Sitting as at prayers he repeats the word Allah 
still louder than before, first from his right knee, 
and then from his left side. 

ni. Folding his legs under him he repeats the word 
Allah first from his right knee, and then from his left 
side, still louder. 

iv. Still remaining in the same position he shouts 
the word Allah first from the left knee, then from 
the right knee, then from the left side, and lastly, in 
front, still louder. 

v. Sitting as at prayer, with face towards Mecca, 
he closes his eyes, says La, drawing the sound as from 
his navel up to his left shoulder; then he says ildha, 
drawing out the sound as from his brain; and lastly, 


illa'llah, repeated from his left side with great 
energy. (1) 

Every act of drawing the sound of Allah or the 
syllables of the creed (viz., La, ildha, and ilia V/a/i), 
from sides, front, navel, and brain, as described above, 
is called a darfe,, lit, 'striking'. It will be noticed that 
the practice (i) contains only one such act, and is 
called dhikr-i-yak darfa., the dhikr of one darb: and 
similarly the dhikr (ii) contains two such acts, and is 
therefore called dhikr-i-do darbl. the dhikr of two 
darbs. The rest of the dhikrs for the same reasons 
are named, sih darlri, of three darbs\ chahdr darbi, of four 
darbs\ panch darbi, of five darbs and shash darbi, of six 

(2) Uhikr-i-khafi. 

i. Closing his eyes and his lips, the worshipper 
says, "with the tongue of his heart, Alldhu sami'un, 
i. e. "God hears*'; Alldhu baslrun, i, e,, "God sees 1 '; 
Alldhu 'allmun, i, e. "God the knower." The first being 
drawn, as it were, from the navel to the breast; the 
second, from the breast to the brain; the third, from 
the brain up to the heavens; and then again repeated 
stage by stage backwards and forwards. 

ii. He then says in a low voice, Allah, from the 
right knee, and then from the left side. 

iii. With each exhalation of the breath he says 
Id ildha, with each inhalation, ilia 7/d/t. (2) 

(1) Bevan Jones, The People of the Mosque, p. 161. 

(2) Bevan Jones, op, tit. pp. 161-62. 


(3) Sultdnul-Adhkdr, the dhikr of all dhikrs. 
Occasionally, of set purpose the worshipper centres 

his mind on the exact position in the body of the various 
latcCif, as described in a previous chapter; and, by 
concentrated thinking he endeavours to make them 
'active with remembrance 1 of God. In this effort he 
is greatly helped by the tawajjuh of his plr (see pp. 87,88). 
When at length he realises that all his lataif are active 
with the remembrance of God he is said to have 
accomplished the Sultdnul-Adhkdr. 

(4) Habs-i-dam, restraining breathing. 

In this case the devotee holds his breath and con- 
ceives of his qalb repeating the first part of the creed 
Ld ildha ilia 'lldh as many times as possible in one breath. 
Gradually his powers of control are so increased that 
he is able to repeat the creed, in one breath, several 
thousand times. 

(5) Pds-i-anfds, guarding the respirations. 

In this particular exercise the worshipper summons 
before his mind a picture of his heart situated within 
his left breast, and imagines that he sees the word 
Allah engraved on it in luminous Arabic characters. 
At the same time he brings himself to believe that 
while inhaling his breath he is producing the sound 
Allah, and that while exhaling he makes the sound ku.* 

* Hu, the last syllable of the word Allahu is another form 
of Auuw, the pronoun of the third person singular. In Sufi lang- 
uage it indicates, Sirr Allah, the inmost consciousness of God. 
Prof. Nicholson says, "Jili demonstrates this by analysing die 
name Allah, which in Arabic is written ALLH: take away tic A, 
and there remains LLH-/t/faA-"to God": then take away the first 
L, and you are left with LH-lahu-"to Him": remove the second L, 
and you have Huwa-"He". Studies in Islamic mysticism, p. 96 note. 


This practice may be developed to such an extent 
that the ufi imagines that the syllables Allah and 
hu accompany every act of inhalation and exhalation, 

(6) Mahmuda and nasira. 

In the former of these two the eyes are made to 
converge on the tip of the nose, and in the latter 
towards the middle of the forehead. While doing so 
the worshipper meditates on the thought that God is 
present and sees him. 

(7) Nafi-athbdt, negation and affirmation. 

The worshipper sits in the posture of namaz and 
faces Mecca. He so breathes as to imagine that he is 
bringing up the phrase La ildha from his navel, and 
then expels it by a jerk in the direction of his right 
shoulder. He then utters ilia V/a/i and jerks his head 
towards his heart as though to imprint these words on 

(c) Murdqaba, watching, is a term used for medi- 
tation and contemplation. 

It is thus practised: 

"At the outset the worshipper performs dhihr by 
repeating the phrases: Alldhu hddirl, i. e. "God who is 
present" (with me); Alldhu ndziri, "God who sees 
me 1 '; Alldhu shdhidl, "God who witnesses me"; Alldhu 
mal "God who is with me." 

"Having recited this dhlkr, either aloud or mentally, 
the worshipper proceeds to meditate upon some verse 
or verses of the Quran. 


The following give some idea of the line of thought 
considered by Muslim mystics to be the most devo- 
tional and spiritual. 

"He < v God) is first, He is last. The manifest, the 
hidden, and who knoweth all things" (57:3) 

4< He is with you wheresoever ye be" (57:4). 

"We (God) are closer to him (man) than his neck- 
vein" (50: 15). 

"Whichever way ye turn there is the face of God" 
(2: 109). 

"God compasseth all things" (4: 125). 

"All on earth shall pass away, but the face of the 
Lord shall abide resplendent with majesty and glory" 
(55:26,27). f 

* Be van Jones, The People of the Mosque. P. 162 

Notable Features of Sufi Practice. 


The belief in Awliya (sing, wall, lit, a friend), 
saints, is common among Muslims, and is a direct out- 
come of ufl teaching. While the ufls, in virtue of 
being God's chosen people, are looked upon as elect 
of the Muslims, the saints, in virtue of being God's 
'friends 1 , are regarded as the elect of the uf!s. The 
biographies of these saints, their miracles, their teach- 
ing, and legends concerning them are not merely 
sought out and eagerly studied but their names and 
more popular sayings are on the lips of about seventy 
per cent of the followers of Islam. People of every 
class among the Muslims invoke their names in hours 
of distress, and pilgrimages are constantly made to 
their tombs and shrines. In fact, there are many 
Muslims who pay more attention to the saints than to 
the obligatory duties of their religion. 

God is believed to have exalted some of the saints 
so highly as to bestow upon them the title of Beloved; 
to others He has granted such mysterious power as 
makes them the very cause of the world's subsistence. 
According to the prevailing view it is of these that, God 
has established in the Quran, "Verily on the friends 
(Awliya) of God no fear shall come, and they shall not 


grieve 11 (10: 63); and again "God is the friend (wall) 
of those who believe 11 (2: 258). Yet another saying, 
ascribed to Muhammad, reveals their dignity: viz: "He 
who hurts a saint (wall) has allowed himself to make 
war on me. 11 

'Aliu'l-Hujwiri, expressing the common view of the 
ufls about the saints, declares that God has marked 
out the saints to manifest His actions and has purged 
them of their natural corruptions, and that it is among 
them that visible proof of the religion of Islam is to be 
found. Thus he writes, "God, then, has caused the 
prophetic evidence (burhdn-i-nabaun) to remain down 
to the present day; and has made the Saints the means 
whereby it is manifested, in order that the signs of the 
Truth and the proof of Muhammad's veracity may 
continue to be clearly seen. He has made the Saints 
the governors of the universe; they have become 
entirely devoted to His business, and have ceased to 
follow their sensual affections. Through the blessing 
of their advent the rain falls from heaven, and through 
the purity of their lives the plants spring up from the 
earth, and through their spiritual influence the Mus- 
lims gain victories over the unbelievers' 1 .* 

There is a class of saints known as pir-i-ghd'ibt in- 
visible saints, who are worshipped in some parts of 
India. Rose speaks of them as follows: "The pir-i- 
ghaib or ghaib plr appears to be a name given to a 
class of saints whose names are not known or whose 

*Kashf al-Mahjub< p. 213. 


miracle it was to hide themselves from the people at 
some particular period of their life, or it might be that 
the body of the saint disappeared after his death". (1) 
This popular belief, however, is allied to the ufl view 
of the 'concealed' saints, about whom 'Aliu'l-Hujwiri 
says: "There are four thousand who are concealed and 
do not know one another and are not aware of the 
excellence of their state, but in all circumstances are 
hidden from themselves and from mankind". (2) 


The saints, as a class, form an invisible hierarchy at 
the head of which is a Qutb, Axis or Pole. He is the 
most eminent of them all, and on him the government 
of the world is believed to depend. He is also called 
Ghawth. 'Succourer' of the world. When a saint at- 
tains to the dignity of Qutb, he is given the name of 
'Abdullah and is granted two attendants, called 
Imdmayn, leaders. The one on his right hand is named 
'Abdu'r-Rabb, and he watches the 'Alam-i-Malakut. 
the angelic world; the one on his left is called 'Abdul- 
Malik, and he keeps watch on the ' Alam-i-Wdsut, the 
physical world. Some ufls claim that besides having 
an invisible dominion over the universe, the Qutb is 
also endowed, at times, with temporal powers. Each 
of the following is said to have been the Qutb of his, 
time, viz. the first four successors of Muhammad, called 
Rightly-guided $ialifas, Hasan and Husayn (the 

(1) Rose, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab. 

Vol. I, p. 525. 

(2) Kashf al-Mahjub> p. 213. 


grandsons of Muhammad), and the khalifas Mu'awlya, 
'Umar b. * Abdul- 4 Aziz, and Mutawakkil (1) 

It is further believed that the Qutb sometimes con- 
venes a council meeting of all the saints, over which 
he himself presides. The members, though scattered 
all over the world, on being supernaturally informed 
of the meeting are in no way impeded by barriers of 
time and space, but crossing seas; mountains and de- 
serts, arrive at their destination in the twinkling of an 
eye. (2) 

Next in dignity to the Qutb are four Aivtad, (sing. 
witd, a pillar) supports, who are appointed to the four 
corners of the world. The one in the east is called 
4 Abdu'l-Haqq, the one in the west, 'Abdul- 4 Allm; the 
others in the north and south are called 'Abdu'l-Murid 
and 'Abdu'l-Qadir respectively. (2) They receive these 
names on their appointment to the office. According 
to 'Allul-Hujwirl, "the Aivtdd must go round the 
whole universe, and if there should be any place on 
which their eyes have not fallen, next day some im- 
perfection will appear in that place: and they must in- 
form the Qutb, in order that he may fix his attention 
on the weak spot, that by his blessing the imperfec- 
tion may be removed." (3) 

Next come Abdal (pi. of badl, "substitute") so 
called, because, according to some, their natures un- 

(1) Najmul-Ghani, Tadhkiratus-Suluk^Nayyar-i-A^z^m Press, 

Muradabad.) pp. 188-9. 

(2) .. 

(3) Koshf-al-Mahjub, p. 


dergo a complete change spiritually. Others, however, 
explain that they are named "changing ones/' because 
their cadre is always fixed; as soon as one dies 
another takes his place. The Abddl are commonly 
said to be forty in number, but some say they are only 
seven and that to each of these is entrusted the care 
of a continent. After these are five 'Amd, or "pillars", 
the support of the universe. Some authorities 
represent the Abddl, to be of lower grade than the 
*Amd. Next come seventy Nujubd (pi. of najib, a 
"noble 11 ), and three hundred Nuqubd (pi. of naqlb, a 
"chief 11 ). Then, besides these special ranks, there 
are a vast number of aivliya, or the more ordinary 
'saints 1 . 


The visitation of shrines is a very common practice 
in Islam, and has its origin in the ufl belief that "the 
saints of God die not, they merely depart from one 
habitation to another. 11 In consequence the excessive 
honour paid to saints and plrs in their life-time is 
continued to them after their death. As a rule shrines 
are erected over their graves, and, usually on Thursday 
evenings, small earthenware lamps are lit and placed 
on the tombs. Flowers are also offered. 

Pilgrimage to a shrine is called ziydrat, a visitation, 
vhile the shrine itself is called a mazdr, a place of 
visitation; it is sometimes called dargdh, a royal court. 
Such a shrine may, at times, not contain the remains of 
a saint at all, but is merely a place dedicated to some 


saint. An example of such a shrine is that of Shaykh 
'Abdu'l-Qadir Gllanl in Srinagar, Kashmir. Another 
may be seen in Chittagong, which is dedicated to Baba 
Farld, and in popular language is called, Chashm-i-Nahar 
(Nahr-i-chashm) " the fountain of the eye". The story 
goes that Baba Farid at this spot suspended himself, 
upside down, from a tree for thirty years ! He took no 
food, but shed copious tears, and for this reason the 
place came to be called by the name of Chashm-i- 
Nahar. But as a matter of fact, as we shall see, 
the saint died and was buried at Pakpatan in the 

A shrine is generally visited on the occasion of the 
'urs of the saint, and at such time special ceremonies are 
performed. Devotees of the saints attending the 
celebrations are believed to acquire merit. It would 
be an endless task to attempt to describe the particular 
rites attached to the 'urs of individual saints, but "the 
form the worship generally takes on the occasion of 
such visits combine such features as these: Suras 
1; 112; 113; and 114 are recited; these are followed by 
the repetition of certain prayers for the soul of the 
departed; finally, the worshipper makes some personal 
requests. As a rule, a vow is made at the time, which 
must be paid at the tomb when the favour is granted. 
It is a common practice to tie bits of thread or pieces 
of cloth, etc. on gratings near the tomb, by way of 
reminding the saint of the favour asked." (1) 

(1) Sevan Jones, The people of the Mosque, pp. 169-170. 


A miraculous event is said, by the 'ulamd, to belong 
to one of the following four classes, which are called 
Khiraul-dddt, Violation of customs 1 ! 

"(1) mujiza, lit. "miracle," which is the sign of 
prophethood, and is a gift bestowed by God on prophets 

(2) kardmat, lit. "favour" (from God) to work 

(3) maunat, lit. "help", a term used for describ- 
ing wonderful works performed by an ordinary person 
by mere accident; 

(4) istidrdj, lit. "stealth" or "deception", by which 
is meant the amazing deeds of the magician. " (1) 

The term kardmat is only used for a work of wonder 
performed by a saint. Mujiza differs from kardmat 
in this respect only, that the former is exhibited by a 
prophet as a sign of his prophethood, while the latter 
manifests the divine power which a saint has acquired 
through his union with God. 

A saint, however, is expected to hide his kardmat, 
while a prophet must exhibit his power of performing 
miracles in demonstration of his prophetic office. Abu 
Yazld BistamI is quoted to have said: "The saints do not 
rejoice at the answers to prayers which are the essence 
of miracles, such as walking on water, and moving in the 
air and traversing the earth and riding on the heavens, 
since the prayers of unbelievers receive an answer and 

(1) Ibid p. 168. ~~ 


the earth contains both Satans and men, and the air is 
the abode of the birds and the water of the fish. Let 
not anyone who is perplexed by such things, put any 
faith in this trickery." (1) 

As an illustration of the ufl teaching concerning 
the attitude that a saint should have towards his 
kardmat the following will suffice: Zulfa, a companion 
of Rabi'a, is reported to have said: "I said toRabi'a, "O 
my aunt, why do you not allow people to visit you?" 
Rabi'a replied, "I fear lest when I am dead people will 
relate of me what I did not say or do, what if I had 
seen, I should have feared or mistrusted. I am told 
that they say that I find money under my place of 
prayer, and that I cook (food) in the pot without fire". 
I said to her, "They relate of you that you find food 
and drink in your house", and she said, "O daughter of 
my brother, if I had found such things in my house I 
would not have touched them, or laid hands upon 
them, but I tell you that I buy my things and am 
blessed". ( ' J) 

A close examination of ufism shows that the 
thaumaturgic element in it belongs to the period of its 
later development, and that it has been introduced by 
the followers of different religious orders in their 
attempts to vie with one another in proving the 
superiority of the saints of their respective orders. 

(1) Munawi, Al-Kawakibu-d-Durnya, p. 123, quoted by 
Margaret Smith, in Rabija the Mystic, p. 31. 

(2) Sibt b. al-Jawzi, Miratit'z-Zaman, p. 257, quoted by Mar- 
garet Smith, in op. at. p. 37. 


Kardmdt (plural) are of endless variety: a few of 
the more interesting may be noted here. 

(1) Traversing long distances in a moment of time. 
For instance, it is related that Shaykh 'Abdu'l-Qadir 
Gllani once went from Iraq to Rum in the course of 
half an hour to say the funeral prayer over the body of 
a saint who had died. Dara Shikoh records in his 
work, Satenatul-Awliya, that Miyao Mir used occa- 
sionally to go to the Hijaz from Lahore to spend a 
night in the cave of Hira, returning before dawn. 

(2) Walking on water. An instance of such a 
kardmat is found in a story told by Khwaja Husayn of 
Nagore (in Rajputana). It is said that once, while 
attending a musical festival at the shrine of Khwaia 
Mulnu'd-Dln Chishtl, he passed into a state of ecstasy. 
Still in this state he left the shrine followed by a bhangl 
(sweeper), who had previously accepted Islam at his 
hands, and by one of the musicians. Proceeding 
towards the jungle he came at length to a large pond, 
and walked over the water followed by the bhangl. 
though the musician remained standing on the bank. a) 

(3) Flying in the air. There is a story to the effect 
that once Shaykh 'Abdu'l-Qadir Gllanl was preaching 
to an audience when he suddenly rose up in the air, 
shouting "O Israelite, stop and listen to the teaching 
of Islam! 1 ' After flying to some distance he then 
returned to his place and resumed his sermon. At 
the conclusion when questioned about his strange 

(1) Najmu'l-Ghani, Tadhkiratu's-Suluk p. 53. 


benaviour, he merely said, "I saw Khidr passing the 
mosque, and so I flew up to him and invited him to 
listen to my sermon.'' (p 

(4) Conversing with inanimate objects. (2) An 
instance of such a miracle will be found in connection 
with the story of Natthe Miyan, a disciple of Miyao 

(5) To be provided supernaturally with food, clothing 
and the other necessities of life. Several instances of 
such are to be found in the lives of most of the saints 
of Islam. < 3> 

(6) Prediction of future events. Every saint is 
believed to have knowledge not only of things now 
happening at a distance from him but of coming events. 
Yet according to ufl teaching there are five things 
which no one can predict, and even the Prophet 
Muhammad is said to have declared that he had no 
knowledge of them. These are: 

(i) The hour of the day of judgment. 
v ii) The time when it will rain, 
(iii) One's own actions in advance, 
(iv) The place where one will die. 
(v) Whether a woman with child will have a boy 
or girl, and whether that child will be fair or dark, of 
good or bad character. (4) 

(1) Najmu'l-Ghani, op. cit. p, 53, 4. 

(2) Najmu'l-Ghani, op. cit. p. 54. 

(3) See Attar, Tadhkiratul-Awliya, and Ghulam Sarwar, 
Khazinatu ' l-Asfiya. 

(4) Najmu'l-Ghani, op. cit. p. 70. 



Sama (lit. 'hearing'), or music, is the term especially 
applied to a form of musical festival which is organised 
with a view to induce a state of ecstasy in ufls. In 
India it is popularly called qawwall, and the singers, 

According to the 'ulama, music is forbidden to 
Muslims, though in some of the religious orders it is 
not merely permitted but actually encouraged. To 
the early mystics of Islam the formal recitation of the 
Quran took the place of music, and that was enough 
to move their hearts and arouse their emotions. At a 
later stage, recitations of poetry and a rendering of 
musical composititions were also permitted on the basis 
of some tradition attributed to Muhammed and his com- 
panions. At some yet later date in the development 
of ufism certain mystics adopted music as a means of 
inducing ecstasy, thereby giving rise to sharp differences 
of opinion. 'Allu'l-Hujwirl says: 'Those who prohibit 
music do so in order that they may keep the divine 
commandment, but theologians are agreed that it is 
permissible to hear musical instruments if they are used 
for diversion, and if the mind is not led to wickedness 
through them. 11 The principle to be followed by the 
ufis in the use of music is thus enunciated by 'Allu'l- 
Hujwiri, "In practising audition, however, the ufl 
Shaykhs desire, nor permissibility as the vulgar do, but 
spiritual advantages. Licence is proper for beasts, but 
men who are subject to the obligations of religion 
ought to seek spiritual benefit from their actions. 


Once, when I was at Merv, one of the leaders of the 
Ahl-i-hadlth and the most celebrated of them all said 
to me: 'I have composed a work on the permissibility 
of audition/ I replied. It is a great calamity to 
religion that the Imam should have made lawful an 
amusement which is the root of all immorality. 1 'If 
you do not hold it to be lawful/ said he, 'why do you 
practise it? 1 I answered: 'Its lawfulness depends on 
circumstances and cannot be asserted absolutely: if 
audition produces a lawful effect on the mind, then it 
is lawful; it is unlawful if the effect is unlawful, and 
permissible if the effect is permissible. 1 " (1) 

Musical festivals are chiefly celebrated by the ufis 
of the Chishtl Order. We shall see how the saints of 
this order came into conflict with the 'ulamd on the 
subject of music. At the present time, however, it 
forms a popular feature of this Order; almost all 
over India where the Chishtis are found, such 
musical festivals are held, lasting till the hour of 
the early morning prayer. According to Brown it was 
introduced in the Qadiri Order in 1170 A.D. by Sa'd 
Shamsu'd-Din, the immediate successor of 'Abdu'l- 
Qadir Gilani.' 3) 

The object of such music is to induce a state of 
ecstasy. Arrived at such a stage, the ufis (or dar- 
wishes), either individually or collectively, begin to 
perform raq$, or dancing. Concerning such performance, 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub< pp, 401, 2. 

(2) Rose, The Darvishcs, p. 286. 


Nizamu'd-Din Awliya, of Delhi, once said: "When a 
darwish claps his hands in a state of ecstasy, all the 
sins of his hands are removed, and when he shouts all 
his evil desires are destroyed. There are cases on 
record where ufis, listening to such music, have 
actually died in a state of excessive ecstasy:" (1) 

Sama is chiefly practised on the occasion of 'urs, 
i.e. the anniversary of the death of a saint. The word 
'wrs, however, literally means ''wedding-festivity", so 
that, as applied to the anniversary of a saint's death, it 
probably has a subtle reference to the umtive stage 
attained by him in his life time and consummated at 
the time of his death. This idea is expressed by the 
famous poet, Ibnu'l-Farid: 

"My spirit passed the gate which barred my going 
beyond union (with the Beloved) and soared to where 
no barrier of union remained." (2) 

Thus Sama, music, is thought to be a fitting means 
whereby to celebrate the death of a saint, who is looked 
upon as having gone to his Beloved, the one whom his 
soul desired. 

The practice of Sama at many of the shrines in 
India has, in these days, degenerated into a musical 
festival ot a merely secular type. Indeed, these festi- 
vals are often attended by common dancing-girls, 
who perform their ndch (nautch) in honour of the 
saint, so that no vestige of the uft ideal of music 

(1) Muhammad Mubarak, Siru I- Awliya, p. 463. 

(2) Sec Nicholson, Studies in Islamic Mysticism, p. 237. 


remains. Such degenerate performances are of course 
deplored by the better type of ufis and non-ufis 

There are certain shrines where, at the time of 'urs, 
instead of music, the Quran and some devotional 
prayers are recited throughout the night. Occa- 
sionally, sermons are also delivered for the benefit of 
the crowds. When 'urs is celebrated in this way it is 
called sharl "urs, for the reason that music is disallowed. 
At the shrine of 4 Aliu'l-Hujwiri otherwise known as 
Data Ganj Bakhsh in Lahore, strictly speaking music 
is not allowed; nevertheless, while the more orthodox 
devotees assemble within the shrine (not only at the 
4 wr5, but every Friday) to spend the night in prayer 
and in reciting the Quran, there are always to be found 
outside the shrine, others who celebrate the saint's 
honour with musical festival. w 


Belief in the famous saint, Khidr, is one of the 
outstanding characteristics of ufism, and his cult forms 
a popular feature of saint-worship among Muslims. 
The name Khidr literally means 'sea-green\ and is 
given to this saint because of the common notion that 
wherever he sits the place turns green. His real name 
is said to be Abu'l-' Abbas Malkan. There is a legend 
which makes him to be great-great-grandson of Shem, 
the son of Noah, and from the same source we learn 
that by virtue of the water of immortality which he 
succeeded in drinking, he will live till the end of the 


world. It is believed that his physical body used to be 
renewed supernaturally after every five hundred years, 
but from the time of Muhammad it has been renewed 
after every one hundred and twenty years. The story 
goes that in 1322 A.D. during a fight between camel 
drivers, he was struck by a stone, and he received an 
injury in his head which caused a swelling for three 
months. (1) 

According to the popular story, Khidr and his 
brother Ilyas were the attendants of Alexander the 
Great, and when the latter set forth to discover 'the 
water of life', they accompanied him. At a certain 
place Khidr and Ilyas were separated from the king 
and succeeded in reaching the fountain of life. After 
themselves drinking of it they returned to tell the king 
of their discovery. When Alexander reached the 
fountain he noticed that the birds on its banks were 
featherless and without any physical strength. He 
asked Khidr the cause. The latter replied that, in 
consequence of the fact that they had drunk of 'the 
living water', they would not die till the Judgment 
Day, but having partaken of all they were destined to 
consume both of food and water, they were now 
doomed to live on in this condition. Whereupon the 
king refrained from drinking of the fountain lest the 
same fate should befall him! On the other hand, Khidr 
and Ilyas, who had already drunk of the water, prayed 
to God for a special concession to enable them to live 
on in comfort till the last day. 

(1) cp. Najmu 1-Ghani, op. cit. 194, 5. 


In the biographies of the saints Khidr is depicted as 
the patron of learning. Again and again we read of 
how, Khidr changed an ignorant person in one moment 
into a great scholar. The following story of Khidr's 
patronage of learning is given by Rose, It is said "that 
Hadrat Imam Ghazall was devoted to learning but 
being very poor could not devote his whole time to it. 
Once Khidr appeard to him in a dream and bade him 
open his mouth so that ihidr might put his saliva in it 
and so enable him to imbibe all the sciences at once. 
But Imam Ghazall said that knowledge so won would 
be useless because it would have cost him nothing and 
so he would not appreciate it. Khidr gave him some 
casks of oil to enable him prosecute his studies. " (1) 

Khidr is also believed to know the secret name of 
God, called by Muslims Ismul-A^zam. 'the Great Name', 
knowledge of which bestows upon the knower the gift 
of miracle. It is one of the Khidr 's tasks to teach this 
name to the saints of God. 

(1) Rose, Glossary of Punjab Tribes and Castes. Vol I. p, 563 

The Introduction of Sufism into India. 

The early history of the ufls in India is most obscure 
but we may safely assume that Muslims with strong 
leanings towards mysticism were at work in this country 
from the time of Islam's earliest contact with it. His- 
torians tell us that it was by way of three open doors 
the sea, the land route leading through Persia into Sind, 
and the Khyber Pass that Islam entered India. (1) 
Through these same doors there also must have come 
Sufis and wandering Darwishes, following in the steps 
of peaceful Arab traders and military commanders. 

The writings of Muslim historians and Arab 
travellers show that Islam first appeared early in South 
India, on the Malabar coast, chiefly through the influence 
of Arab traders, who in most cases were also preachers 
of their new faith. Other channels of influence in 
those early days were saints, who, as ever, were noted 
for their wandering life. Tradition points out the 
tomb of Wahab, a companion of the Prophet, at Canton 
in China; and that of 'Akasha, another companion, at 
port Mahmuda; and yet another tomb, again of a 
companion, named Tamlm Ansari, at Mylapur, twelve 
miles south of Madras. (2) 

(1) C. P. Titus, Indian Islam, pp. 3-5. 

(2) Akbar Shah Khan, A'ina-i-Ha^qiqatNuma (Ibrat Press, 
Naiifcabad) pp. 46, 47. 


During the period in which it reached the coast of 
Malabar, the faith was being preached also in Ceylon, 
whence it found its way to the Laccadive and Maldive 
islands. Ibn Batuta reports that during his visit to 
Ceylon he found the tombs of several preachers and 
saints, including those of Shaykh 'Abdullah Hanlf, 
Shaykh 'Uthman, and Baba Tahir. 

Through India's second gateway which leads from 
Mesopotamia and south Persia through Baluchistan, 
south of the mountains of Makran into Sind Islam made 
very early contact with India. But no Muslim colony 
resulted through the entrances made by this gateway- 
until 712 A. D. in which year Sind was invaded by 
Muhammad b. Qasim. As early as thirty years after 
Muhammad's death Mu'awiya stationed a large" army 
at the frontier town of Kankan, and thus brought 
Islam to the very gate of India. 

The third the Khyber Passthrough which Turk, 
Mongol and Afghan forces were led into India, proved 
to be the main entrance for Muslim ascetics and 
wandering Darwishes. 

Thus, long before the Muslim occupation of any 
part of this country, Islam came into contact with 
Indian thought, and was, to some extent, definitely 
influenced by it, especially in its ufi doctrines and 
practices. On the other hand, at a later date, wl 
India was being subjugated by Muslim conquel 
Islam itself exerted a powerful influence on HinSu 
thought and life. Of the extent of the influence on 
Indian thought on Islam we shall have occasion to 


speak later. Regarding the subject of Islam's reaction 
to Hinduism, however, though this is strictly beyond 
the scope of the present treatise, yet it can be said in 
passing, that this was so great that it resulted in the 
rise of several Hindu sects in which the influence of 
the new faith is very conspicuous. Dr. Titus mentions 
no less than eleven of these by name, and gives in 
addition a brief description of several others, such as, 
the Plrzadas, the Chhajju panthls, the Husaynl 
Brahmins and the Shamsis, in which a "definite mixture 
of Hindu and Muslim notions and practices prevail." (T) 
In spite of the fact that little is known of the early 
ufis there are not wanting extraordinary legends which 
purport to give detailed accounts of some of them. One 
such saint was Baba Ratan, a Hindu, who is said to 
nave visited Mecca twice, and on both occasions to 
have met Muhammad himself, first in his early life 
and then again after he had set himself up as a Prophet. 
Baba Ratan on the latter occasion, accepted Islam and 
then returned to India, where he lived on to the 
incredulously great age of seven hundred years! His 
name is mentioned by Ibn Hajar 4 Asqalanl in his Asaba 
fl marifati s-Sahdba and also by a'dh-Qhahabi in his 
Tajrid. The former ranks him as one of the companions 
of Muhammad. He is said to have died in 1234-5 A. D. 
and to have been buried in a place called Tabar Hind, of 
which nothing is now known. (2) Equally fabulous legends 

(1) See Titus, Indian Islam, pp. 172-177. 

(2) Asraru-t-Tasawwuf, Manzil-i-Naqshbandiyya, Lahore* 
April, 1925, pp. 10-11. 


concerning other early saints attach to a shrine which 
still exists, called Bibi Pakdamanao (the chaste ladies), 
in a famous and very ancient graveyard in Lahore. 
In it are seven graves said to be those of seven women 
saints belonging to the first century after Hijra. Six of 
these, tradition tells us, were of the household of 
'All. Their names were: 

1. Ruqiya, known as Bibi Haj, a daughter of 'All. 
2. Blbl Hur. 3. Blbl Nur. 4. Blbl Gawhar, 5. 
Bibi Taj. 6. Bibi Shahbaz. The last five are believed 
to have been the daughters of 'Aqil, 'All's brother. 
These names are Persian, a fact which need not surprise 
us, because after the Muslim conquest of Persia most 
of the ladies belonging to the Persian royal family were 
given in marriage to 'All's sons and relatives. 

The seventh tomb in the group in Bibi Pakdamanao 
is that of Bibi Tannur (iandur), the lady of the furnace, 
who was kitchen maid to the above mentioned six 
ladies. The story runs that when Husayn was besieged 
on the plain of Karbala by Yazid's army in the month 
of Muharram, 680-1 A.D., he asked these women, on 
the day before the final tragedy, to leave the camp and 
proceed to India. After much wandering they are 
said to have reached Lahore. Here the Hindu Raja, 
on being informed of their presence, sent his son to 
conduct them into his palace. The women refused to 
go, but when the Prince insisted that they should 
accompany him, Taj Bibi gave him such a look of 
indignation that he fell unconscious to the ground. On 
recovering his senses he apologised for his rudeness 


and accepted Islam. For some time they were allowed 
to live in peace under the protection of the prince, but 
afterwards Hindus began to annoy them. At last, 
vexed beyond endurance, the ladies prayed that the 
earth might shield them from the sight of these 
unbelievers, and in answer to their prayer, the earth 
opened her mouth and mercifully swallowed them! 
The prince on witnessing this miraculous deliverance, 
turned hermit and built seven tombs over the spot, 
himself becoming the Mujdwir (guardian). - ' 

At the time of accepting Islam the prince had taken 
the name of 'Abdullah, and later on came to be known 
as Baba Khaki. He is said to have died in 719-20 A. D. 
and his tomb also is in Pakdamanan cemetery. The 
present guardian of the shrine claims to be one of his 
descendants. Blbi Tannur is now regarded as the 
patron saint of Indian bakers (NanbcCf). When Sultan 
Mahmud Ghaznawl invaded Lahore and heard of Blbl 
Pakdamanan he built an enclosure round the shrine and 
added a porch to it. Later on Akbar also added some 
more structures to it. 

The saint next of whom we shall give a brief account 
belonged to the early part of the eleventh century A. D. 
This is Sayyid Salar Mas'ud Ghazi Miyan or Bale 
Miyan, who is still revered all over India as a saint 
and martyr. We have no really trustworthy account 
of his life, but are dependent for our knowledge 
concerning him on certain legends current among his 

(1) Nur Ahmad Chishti, Tahqiqat-i-Chishti, (Pubd. Watan, 
Lahore) pp. 312 ff. 


devotees, and on a book, Mira't-i-Mas'udl, an English 
translation of which in an abridged form is to be 
found in Elliot's History of India (Vol. ii, pp. 513-49). 
This work in the words of Elliot is an "historical 
romance. In it fact and fiction are freely mingled." 
From such sources we learn a story that runs somewhat 
as follows. Ghazi Miyan's father was named Salar 
Sahu, and his mother Sitr-i-Mu'alla (the dignified 
veiled one), she being a sister of Mahmud Ghaznawi. 

Ghazi Miyao is said to have fought from a very 
early age under his uncle, the Sultan, in his many 
invasions of India. He is also said to have led several 
independent expeditions against the Hindus, and finally 
to have met a martyr's death at Bahraich on 14th, June 
in 1033 A. D., while still only nineteen years of age! 

His reputed tomb in Bahraich, in the United 
Provinces, is the scene of a great annual fair held on 
the occasion of his 'urs in which, strange to say, 
large numbers of Hindus join with great enthuiasm. 
The main feature of his 'urs is the celebration of his 
marriage with Zuhra Bib!. The popular explanation of 
this custom is given as follows. It is said that once a 
blind girl, Zuhra Bibl, of Radauli in the district 
Barabanki, had her eye-sight restored on making a 
pilgrimage to the tomb of Ghazi Miyan. Out of 
gratitude she erected a shrine over the saint's tomb 
and had a grave dug for herself near his. At the age 
of 18, while yet unmarried she died and was buried 
in the grave she had prepared. Subsequently her 
parents and relatives used to go to her tomb every 


year to celebrate her 'marriage' with the saint. It was 
not long before the custom became a popular annual 
event and people began to come from different parts 
of India to celebrate this mythical 'marriage'. During 
its celebration decorated poles, mounted with tufts of 
hair, are carried in procession, with music and dancing, 
to the shrine. Such a pole is said to represent the head 
of the martyred saint. Another feature in the celebra- 
tion of his 'urs that calls for notice is the varied forms 
in which the devotees make their nadjiar (offering). 
One is called 'Zuhra Bibi's dowry\ and is presented to 
the shrine in the form of certain articles such as are 
generally given in dowry, e. g., pieces of furniture and 
utensils. Another gift is called thai, which is presented 
in the form of certain articles and coins, chiefly by 
merchants and traders. Yet another form of offering is 
called qalandan, made by throwing coins over the dome 
of the tomb. If any votary's coin strikes the spire on the 
summit of the dome it is thought to be a good omen 
for him. 

Qhazl Miyan's 'urs is also celebrated in other parts 
of India, where similar poles mounted with tufts of hair 
are taken out in processions. Further, there is a class 
of wandering faqlrs, devotees of GbazI Miyan, who go 
by the name of dafdll faqlr. They derive their name 
from daf, a tambourine, which they play when begging. 
Occasionally the saint's tomb is washed, and at such times 
the dirty water runs off into a tank attached to the 
shrine. This is, for the most part, crowded with lepers 
who believe that by bathing in it they can be cured. 


In Eastern Bengal, where the fair itself is not held, it 
is common to find a mud platform dedicated to his 
name (Ghdzi Miydn hd than), which is an object of 
veneration for Muslims and Hindus alike. 

In the same century in which Qhazl Miyan was 
carrying on his 'holy war' against the Hindus there 
arose another saint of far greater historical value for 
India than any of his predecessors. This was 'Aliu'l- 
Hujwiri, still venerated in India by the name of Data 
Ganj Bakhsh. He was a native of Ghazna in Afghanis- 
tan, and was born some time during the last decade of 
the tenth or the first decade of the eleventh century, 
A. D. As a scholar and a writer of several books on 
ufism, but more especially as the author of Kashf 
al-Mahjub, (the first book ever written on this subject 
of mysticism in the Persian language) he has justly 
earned a place of prime importance among the earliest 
ufls who came to this country. 

'Aliu 1-Hujwiri was a disciple of Muhammad 
b. al-Hasan al-Khuttall, a pupil of al-Husrl who, through 
Shibli, was spiritually connected with Junayd of 
Baghdad. He himself speaks of al-IQjuttall in the 
following terms: 'He is the teacher whom I follow in 
fjufism. He was versed in the science of Quranic 
exegesis and in traditions (riwdydt). In ufism he held 
the doctrine of Junayd. He was a pupil of Htasri and a 
companion of Sirawani, and was contemporary with 
Abu Amr Qazwim and Abu'l-Hasan b. Saliba. He 
was sixty years in sincere retirement from the world, 
for the most part on Mount Lukam. He displayed 


many signs and proofs (of saintship), but he did not 
wear the garb or adopt the external fashions of the 
ufls and he treated the formalists with severity. I 
never saw any man who inspired me with greater awe 
than he did. 11(1) 

'Allu'l-Hujwiri also studied under Abu'l-Qasim 
Gurgam and Khwaja Muzaffar. The former was a 
forerunner of the Naqshbandi order. The latter at one 
time held some civil office, but then, "God opened to 
him the door of this mystery (ufism) and bestowed 
on him the crown of miracles. He spoke eloquently 
and discoursed with sublimity on annihilation and 
subsistence (fana-u-baqa) ." (2) 

'Aliu'l-Hujwirl was a great advocate of celibacy 
for ufis, and himself never married. From a passage 
in Kashf al-Majhub it has sometimes been inferred that 
he had a short and unpleasant experience of married 
life, but the words in question may be taken to 
refer to his experience of "falling in love 11 without 
going to the length of entering the matrimonial state. 
The passage runs as follows: "After God had preserved 
me for eleven years from the dangers of matrimony, it 
was my destiny to fall in love with the description of a 
woman whom I had never seen, and during a whole 
year my passion so absorbed me that my religion was 
near being ruined, until at last God in His bounty gave 
protection to my wretched heart and mercifully deli- 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 166. 

(2) Ibid, p. 170. 


vered me." (1) It is in this connection that he speaks of 
women disparagingly. Thus, "A woman was the cause 
of the first calamity that overtook Adam in Paradise, 
and also of the first quarrel that happened in this world, 
i. e., the quarrel of Abel and Cain. A woman was the 
cause of the punishment inflicted on two angels 
(Harut and MSrut): and down to the present day all 
mischiefs, wordly and religious have been caused by 
women. " U) 

Like most of the Qfls be was a great wanderer. 
He travelled through the greater part of the Muslim 
empire of his time; from Syria to Turkistan and from 
the Indus to the Caspian sea. In all the places he 
visited he sought out the ufis and saints and conversed 
with them. Speaking of his experience in *Irq, where 
he seems to have settled for a time and contracted 
debts, he says: "Once, in the territories of 'Ir&q, I was 
restlessly occupied in seeking wealth and squandering 
it, and I had run largely into debt. Everyone who 
wanted anything, turned to me, and I was troubled 
and at a loss to know how I could accomplish their 
desires. An eminent person wrote to me as follows: 
"Beware lest you distract your mind from God by 
satisfying the wishes of those whose minds are en- 
grossed in vanity. If you find anyone whose mind 
is nobler than your own, you may justly distract 
your mind in order to give peace to his. Otherwise, 
do not distract yourself, since God is sufficient for 

(1) Ibid, p. 364. 

(2) Ibid, p. 364. 

His servants. These words brought me instant 

Finally 'tyiu '1-Hujwirl came to Lahore, where he 
lived till he died in 1063 or 1071 A. D. In Fuwffidul- 
Fuwad, which is a compilation of the sayings of 
Nizamu d-Din Awliya of Delhi (tf. 1325 A. D.), an 
account of 'Aliu '1-Hujwirf s coming to Lahore is given. 
According to the statement of this book, 4 Allu '1- 
Hujwirl was asked by his pir to go to Lahore and settle 
there. At first he was unwilling and tried to excuse 
himself on the ground that Shaykh Hasan Zanjani, a 
fellow disciple of his was already there. But when his 
plr insisted on his going to Lahore he obeyed the order. 
When at length he reached the city, he discovered to 
his surprise that Hasan Zanjani had just died and the 
people, at the moment, were conveying his body away 
for burial. (2) It is said that the saint chose for his 
place of residence in the city the spot on which his 
shrine now stands. 

Certain ufls believe that, though dead, 'Aliul- 
Hujwiri continued to hold supreme authority over the 
saints of India, and that no new saint entered the 
country without first obtaining permission from his 
spirit. Thus it was that saints who subsequently came 
to India from outside first paid a visit to his shrine. 

It was not until five hundred years after his death 
the saint came to be known by the title of Data Ganj 
Bakhsh. This is said to have been bestowed upon him 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 345. 

(2) Fuwtfidu 'l-Fuwad, p. 


by Khwaja Mu'inu'd-Dm of Ajmer. The story runs 
that Khwaja Mu'lnu'd-Dln on his arrival in India 
spent some time in meditation at the tomb of 'Aliu'l- 
Hujwirl. At the conclusion of his vigil and before 
proceeding to Ajmer, he stood facing the tomb and 
gave expression to the gratitude he felt for benefits he 
received from the spirit of the saint. It was then that 
he repeated the following lines, in which the title was 
used for the first time: 

Thou art the Ganj Bakhsh (the munificent one) of 
both worlds, 

Thou art the perfect plr for perfect saints 

And the guide for those yet imperfect. 
The word data a common title for mendicants in 
India is a Hindi equivalent of Ganj Bakhsh, and was 
later added to his name by Indian Muslims. 

The chief characteristics of 'Allu l-Hujwirl's teach- 
ing on ufism have been set out in the following 
manner by Professor Nicholson: 

"Although he was a Sunn! and a Hanafite, al- 
Hujwiri, like many ufis before and after him, managed 
to reconcile his theology with an advanced type of 
mysticism in which the theory of 'annihilation' (fana) 
holds a dominant place, but he scarcely goes to such 
extreme lengths as would justify us in calling him a 
pantheist. He strenuously resists and pronounces 
heretical the doctrine that human personality can be 
merged and extinguished in the being of God. He 
compares annihilation to burning by fire, which 
transmutes the quality of all things to its own quality, 


but leaves their essence unchanged. He agrees 
with his spiritual director, al~|huttall, in adopting 
the theory of Junayd that Sobriety' in the mystical 
acceptance of the term is preferable to 'intoxication.' 
He warns his readers often and emphatically that no 
ufis, not even those who attained the highest degree 
of holiness, are exempt from the obligation of obeying 
the religious law. In other points^, such as the excita- 
tion of ecstasy by music and singing, and the use of 
erotic symbolism in poetry, his judgment is more or less 
cautious. He defends al-Hallaj from the charge of 
being a magician, and asserts that his sayings are 
pantheistic only in appearance but condemns his 
docrtines as unsound. It is clear that he is anxious to 
represent ufism as the true interpretation of Islam, 
and it is equally certain that the interpretation is 
incompatible with the text." (1) 

'Allu 1-Hujwiri's tomb may still be seen in Lahore 
near the Bhati gate. It has been an object of veneration 
and a place of pilgrimage for the best part of 900 years. 
All sorts and conditions of men, kings and beggars, 
have resorted to it through the centuries seeking 
spiritual and tempdral blessings. Most of the Muslim 
invaders and wandering Darwishes on entering the 
land made a point of paying their homage at his shrine. 

At one end of the shrine is a large corridor, where 

pious men, sometimes women also; recite the Quran 

daily. Copies of the sacred volume are always at hand 

for those who care to use them. Every Thursday 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub, Introduction, pp. xz, xxi. 


Dargah Hadrat 'Aliu'l-Hujwirl (d. 1063 

A.D.) Known as Data Ganj Bakhsh, 



night a vigil is kept by his devotees, who gather round 
the tomb, many of them spending the night in reading 
the Quran and offering ptajters. Attached to the 
shrine is a small library containing various editions of 
the Quran. Some of these were evidently written by 
expert Indian caligraphers. The volumes vary greatly 
in size, the largest being three feet in length. 

The Relation of Sufism to Indian Thought. 

The ufis claim that their doctrines are derived 
solely from the Quran and the Traditions, but a closer 
examination of uflsm reveals the fact that several 
extraneous influences have been at work in its 
development. For instance, in its earlier forms of 
asceticism it undoubtedly followed the mode of life of 
Christian ascetics; and again in its speculative reasoning 
it bears traces of the influence of the teaching of 
Plotinus, whom the Arabs called a'sh-Shaykhu '1- 
Yunanl, 'the Greek Master'. Further, it will be noticed 
that in some of its doctrinal features and more practical 
teaching it bears a close resemblance to Indian thought. 
It is with the last named element that we are more 
particularly concerned at present. 

Probably no one will deny that Indian thought has 
influenced uflsm to some extent, but when we seek to 
determine what those elements are which have entered 
into it from this source we find considerable diversity 
of opinion. For ourselves, we will endeavour, first, to 
demonstrate that it was reasonable for Hinduism to 
exert such influence and then content ourselves by 
giving certain parallel doctrines in uflsm and Hindu- 

In speaking of the early contact of Islam with India, 
reference has been made to the occupation of the terri- 


tory between Makran and Kankan by the Arab army in 
672 A.D. This brought Islam to the very gate of India. 
Much closer contact, however, was made in the eighth 
century when Sind was conquered by the Abbasid 
Khalifas and formed an outlying province of the Muslim 
empire. During the Caliphate of Mansur, Harun and 
M'amun, definite steps were taken to understand 
Indian thought. In the reign of Mansur embassies of 
the pandits came from Sind and presented to him 
Brahmasiddhanta and Khandakhadyaka, the famous 
treatises on astronomy by Brahma Gupta which were 
promptly translated into Arabic and widely used by the 
Arabs. Later, during the reign of Khalifa Harunu'r- 
Rashld, elements of Indian thought found their way 
more definitely and on a wider scale into Arabic 
literature. At this period the great patron of Hindu 
learning at the court of the Khalifa was the ministerial 
family, Barmak. This name is believed to be but the 
Arabic form of the Indian title Paramak. which itself 
means the 'superior* of Vihara (i.e. Buddhist monastery) 
The family had come from Balkh, where an ancestor 
of theirs was an official in a Buddhist temple, Nava 
Vihara. (1) The influence of the Barmak family in the 
court of Harun is well-known. Under its patronage 
Arab scholars were sent to India to study Indian 
thought; and Indian pandits were invited to the court 
at Baghdad to expound Hindu learning. Sanskrit 
books on a variety of subjects, such as medicine, 
astrology, philosophy, etc. were translated into Arabic. 

(1) cp. Alberuni's India, edited by E. Sachan, p. xxxi. 


The contact thus established with India continued for 
centuries till at last the Muslims succeeded in founding 

an empire "not only of kings and rulers but an 

empire of the heart reared upon the foundations of a 
new religious faith". (1) 

In the eleventh century, before the founding of the 
Muslim empire in India, we find Al-Muwaffiq and 
Al-Beruni coming to India for the purposes of studying 
Indian thought. (2) The latter's work on India, gives 
an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, 
geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and 
astrology of the country in about 1030 A. D. It was 
Al-Berunl who made the first reliable translation from 
Sanskrit into Arabic of the Sdnkhya by Kapila and the 
Yoga Sutra by Patanjali, and who introduced his fellow 
Muslims to the Bhagvadgita. 

Later still, when Muslims had at length established 
their power in the country, we find clear instances of 
attempts on the part of ufls to study Hindu idolatry 
and polytheism with calm minds, free from racial 
prejudice. In view of the fact that the political rela- 
tions between polytheist Hindus and monotheist 
Muslims have not always been happy it is amazing to 
come across such instances. Akbar's conciliatory 
policy towards Hindus and his attempts to persuade his 
Muslim subjects to act towards them in like manner, 
are well-known. His great grandson Dara Shikoh, 
about whom more will be said later, made earnest 

(1) Titus, Indian Islam, p. 3. 

(2) Alberum's India, Introduction, p. xxxii. 


attempts to reconcile Islam and Hinduism. He gave 
himself up, to the task of acquiring knowledge about 
the religion and philosophy of the Hindus, and for this 
purpose, he not only read and translated Sanskrit books 
into Persian but also sought the company of Hindu 
ascetics. The books which he translated include the 
Rdmayana, the Gita, the Upanishads and Yogavashista. 
The Upanishads were translated under the title of 5zrr- 
i-Akbar, or the Great Mystery, and for this he wrote a 
preface, which commences with the conventional 
Hindu formula, 4 Om Shri Ganesha Namoh.' He calls 
the opening chapter of the Quran 4 Omu'l-Quran', (1) to 
make it correspond with the Hindu formula 4 Om'. 
Dara Shikoh in the preface to his translation of the 
Upanishads confesses that he has an intense thirst for 
knowledge, and that as he studied the Quran and the 
other books on uflsm there arose doubts in his mind 
which he failed to satisfy even by having recourse to 
gnostics and pious men. He studied the Torah, Zabur, 
Injil and other sacred books, but their meaning was 
unintelligible to him. At last he discovered that the 
subject of monotheism was very plainly explained in the 
Vedas and the Upanishads. The latter he found to be 
a "mine of monotheism. n(2) He collected all the 
Upanishads which he could find and "Translated them 

(1) The title of the Chapter of the Quran is Sura Fatiha, but it 
is also called Ummu' l-Quran, the mother of the Quran. 

(2) Maulvi Abdu 1-Wali, Khan Sahib; Hinduism according to 
Muslim Sufis, in Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal Vol xix, 1923, No. 7. p. 243. 


without subtraction or addition, or selfish motive, faith- 
fully and word for word. " (1) In them he found fully 
explained all the secrets for which he had searched so 
long. He calls the collection of the Upanishads the 
''earliest of the heavenly books" and "the spring of 
monotheistic streams 11 . He found that it has been 
mentioned in the Quran in the following verse. "This 
is the honourable Quran, in the preserved book, let 
none touch it but the purified. It is a revelation from 
the Lord of the worlds. 1 ' According to Dara Shikoh 
'the honourable Quran 1 which was hidden and which 
none but the clean could comprehend was no other 
than Upanishadsl He said that as the Upanishads 
meant 4 the secret to be concealed 1 it was certain that 
by the secret book, this ancient book was meant. "He 
knew from it what he had not known, and understood 
from it what he had not understood. 11 v/2) 

Dara Shikoh also wrote Majmaul-Bahrayn, the 
'meeting of the two seas, 1 to show that between Hindu 
and Muslim mysticism there exist only verbal differ- 
ences. This treatise has recently been published by 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal The translator in his 
preface says, "It is the last original work of Dara 
Shikoh and according to one authority it was this very 
work which brought about his death. It is said that 
this tract was laid before the ecclesiasts who declared 
its author a heretic and sentenced him to death, which 

(1) Ibid, p. 243. 

(2) Ibid, p. 244. 


was faithfully carried out by his over-zealous brother, 

Such a liberal attitude towards Hinduism was not 
confined to Akbar and Prince Dara Shikoh, nor was it 
limited to their age. Among the ufis of India generally 
it has been common to find such an extreme liberality 
of attitude towards Hinduism as would shock orthodox 
Muslims. For example, we come across a further 
instance of such liberal attitude in the teaching of Mirza 
Jan-i-Janao Mazhar, a saint of great reputation. This 
man was born in 1701 A. D, of a family that had had 
intimate connection with the Moghal emperor. His 
father, Mirza Jan passed his -days in the service ot 
Aurangzeb, and at length forsook the world and joined 
the Qadiri order. His son, Mirza Jan-i-Janao, is said 
to have been a great scholar in his day, and had 
received the 'robe of permission 1 (to make disciples) in 
three of the religious orders, viz., Qadiriyya, Chishtiyya, 
and Naqshbandiyya. 

Mirza Jan-i-Janao's opinion concerning Hinduism, 
which is found in some of his letters, is given by Maulvi 
4 Abdu 1 l-Wall Khan Sahib, in his article, Hinduism 
according to Muslim Sufis, from which we have already 
quoted in reference to Dara Shikoh's attitude towards 
Hinduism. Mirza Jan-i-Janao in one of his letters 
addressed to a certain disciple, writes about Hinduism 
as follows: "You should know that it appears from the 
ancient book of the Indians that the divine Mercy, in 
the beginning of the creation of human species, sent a 
Book, named the Bed (Veda) which is in four parts, in 


order to reguktf^be duties of this as well as the next 
world, contaminate- news of the past and future, 
through an angel or divine spirit by the name of Bramha 
(Brahman), who is omnipotent and outside the creation 
of the universe." Continuing his letter he writes 
further, "It ought to be noted that according to the 
holy verse (of the Quran): 'And there is not a people 
but a warner has gone among them/ and also: 'And 
every nation had an apostle/ and other verses, there 
were prophets also in the countries of Hindustan, on 
whom be peace, and their account is contained in the 
books of the Hindus. From their signs, it is apparent 
that they had attained high and perfect position. The 
Universal Divine Mercy did not leave out, for the good 
of His creatures, even this extensive country." 

The following anecdote, which occurs in the 
biography of Mirza Jan-i-Janao, is yet another remark- 
able illustration of the attitude of some 3ufis towards 
Hinduism. "A man mentioned a dream which he had 
dreamed of to Haji Muhammad Afdal, a teacher of the 
Mirza Sahib. He said: 1 dreamed a field full of fire. 
Kishan (Krishna) was in the fire, and Ram Chandar 
(Rama Chandra), on the border of the fire. 1 A man 
who was present gave his opinion that as Krishna and 
Rama Chandra were the leaders of the infidels, they 
were being punished in Hell-fire. Mirza Jan-i-Janaa 
Maghar, who was present, said: 'This dream has another 
interpretation. 1 He said: 'It is improper to charge 
particular persons with being infidel, unless their 
kufr or infidelity were proved by the canon of Islamic 

Law. The Book and Sunnat (the Qu*|kii and Islamic 


Law) are silent about these two periitis. It is evident 
from the Quranic verse: There is no village where 
there was no warner, that there were bashir and na$kir 
( warner and giver of good news) among those people. 
Under the circumstance it is probable that they 
(Krishna and Rma) were saints or prophets. Ram 
Chandar having been m the beginning of the creation 
of the genii when people lived long and were powerful 
used to train the men of his time to the doctrine of 
the right path (msbat*i~suluk); while Kishan, who was 
the last of their eminent men when compared with 
the past, men's ages were shorter, and strength less 
used to preach to his people the (advanced) doctrine 
of passion nisbat-i-jadhabi. The mention of song and 
music, in which he indulged greatly, is a proof of his 
excessive (Divine) love, and ecstasy for passion. The 
fire of his excessive love and ecstasy appeared as a 
field of fire. Kishan who was immersed in the state of 
love appeared in the centre of that fire, and Ram 
Chandar, who was in the path of suluk (as a beginner) 
was seen at the end of it. And God knows best.* 
Hadrat Hsjl Afdal liked the interpretation very much 
and was greatly impressed by it.' 1(1) 

We now proceed to give a few illustrations of such 
features in 0fism as bear a close resemblance to the 
teaching of Hinduism. It must be understood that the 
following comparison of the Hindu philosophy and the 
0fi teaching is offered just to suggest parallels between 

(1) Ibid, p. 241. 


their doctrines. The problem of sources is a very 
intricate one and it cannot be even stated within the 
compass of a short chapter, nor it is the purpose of 
this book. 


Starting with the practical life of a ufl, at the very 
outset the devotion of murld (disciple) to his pir 
(spiritual preceptor) presents a striking similarity to 
the devotions of a chela to his guru. As no one can 
become a ufl without the help of a pir so it has been 
the custom among the Hindus from time immemorial 
that a person desirous of leading a religious life must 
seek a guru for himself. For instance, the Hindu 
Scriptures say "The supreme mystery in the Vedanta 

should be given to one who has the highest 

devotion (bhaktf) for God, and for his spiritual teacher 
(guru) even as for God" (1) "For the sake of this 
knowledge (of Brahman) let him go, fuel in hand to a 
spiritual teacher (guru) who is learned in the scriptures 
and established on Brahman. " (2) 

The similar devotion to a guru is advocated in the 
latter development of Hinduism, for instance in Tulsi 
Das's Ramdyana (written about 1574 A. D.) we read 
4 The guru can save from the Brahmana's anger, but if 
the guru himself be wroth, there is no one in the world 
that can save.' 1(3) 

(1) Svetasvatara UpanishacK 6; 23. 

(2) Mundaka Upanishad, 1, 2, 12. 

(3) I. Doha, 169. 


Dr. Urquhart makes the following observation on 
the place of a guru in Hinduism: u The dramatic setting 
of the Upanishads is largely constituted by the search 
for a teacher who will reveal the deepest mysteries; 
and, when he has been found, unbounded devotion and 
the most minute practical service is demanded of the 
pupil.' f(1) 

Further, the following statement of Venkataramana, 
a recent Hindu writer, in reference to the highest 
knowledge corresponds to what is held concerning the 
authority of a Shaykh as a spiritual authority in ufism; 
"The sole source of this knowledge is a clear and 
accurate understanding of the Vedic text, That thou 
art'; but, however much one may analyse its meaning 
by means of his own reason or with the aid of 
commentaries, the realization of the self cannot take 
place unless the Vedic text in question reaches the 
student through the mouth of a spiritual teacher. 1t(2) 
Dr. Urquhart expounding this authority of a guru 
writes: "And in course of the development and as 
a result of it, devotion to truth and devotion to the 
guru become almost synonymous. (3) The latter comes 
to be regarded as well advanced on the way to deifica- 
tion; his personal authority is thus enhanced, and the 
principle of authority becomes more and more deeply 
engrained in the mental attitude of the Indian seeker 
after truth/' 

(1) Urquhart, The Vedanta and Modern Thought, p. 80. 

(2) Urquhart, op. cit. pp. 80, 81. 

(3) cp. fana fi'sh-Shaykh. 


It will be noticed that these statements are in close 
agreement with what we have already said about the 
relation of the murid to his 


Similarity between the Sufi conception of God and 
Hindu teaching about Brahman is very striking. It not 
only exists in the general trend of the pantheistic 
thought in both but also, as we shall see, in some of 
the details of the exposition of their respective 
doctrines. We have seen that the ufis in their con- 
ception of God are divided into Wujudl (monistic) and 
Shuhudl (moderate type of pantheistic) schools of 

These correspond to the doctrine of Hindu teachers 
in their speculation concerning Brahman, who, likewise, 
are either upholders of Advaita (non-dualism) or 
Visishadvaita (modified non-dualism). 




Several passages may be cited from ufi authorities 
and the Hindu Scriptures to demonstrate the similarity 
in their doctrines. For instance some passages of 
Jill's Insdnu'l-Kdmil will be found in close agreement 
with the teaching of Hindu sacred writings. Thus, 
"His manifestation interpenetrates all existences and 


he manifests his perfection in each atom and particle 
of the Universe. He is not multiple by the multiplicity 
of the manifestations but he is one in the totality of 
manifestations, solely by what his noble Essence 
necessitates in its very nature, and so on, from the 
attributes of perfection to his manifestation in every 
atom of existence; (he is one in them all). The whole 
group is distinguished by the permeating (one) Exist- 
ence in the aggregate of all existences. And the 
mystery of this permeation is that he created the 
Universe out of himself. And he is not divided into 
parts but everything in the Universe is by reason of 
his perfection and has the name of creatureliness as a 
loan. Not, as some suppose, that it is the divine 

attributes which are lent to the creature for 

that which is lent is nothing but the relation of 
creaturely existence to the attributes and verily Creative 
Existence is the source of this relation. Creative Truth 
lent his Ideal Prototypes Oiaqtiiq) the name of 
creatureliness in order that the mysteries of Divinity 
and their necessary counterparts might be made 
manifest. And Creative Truth is the substance (liayula) 
of the Universe. And God said 4 We have not created 

the Heaven and the Earth except by Creative 

Truth (Haqq .' The Universe is like ice, and God, the 
Magnified and Exalted, is the water which is the origin 
of this ice. The name 'ice 1 is lent to that frozen thing 
and the name 'water' is the right name for it." (1) In 
one of the Upanishads similar ideas may be noted 

(1) Insanul-Kamil Vol., I. p. 28. 


"Just as by one piece of clay everything made of clay 
may be known the modification is merely a verbal 
distinction, a name; the reality is just clay. Just as by 
one copper ornament everything made of copper may 
be known the modification is merely a verbal distinc- 
tion, a name; the reality is just copper. Just as by one 
pair of nail scissors everything made of iron may be 
known the modification is merely a verbal distinction, 
a name; the reality is just iron so is this teaching. 11(1) 

The whole of this section of the Upamshad is in 
form of a dialogue between father and son. The father, 
Uddalaka, explains to his son, Svetaketu, how every- 
thing that exists has sprung from the primary unitary 





Like the Shuhudi doctrine of the ufis, the Vishistad- 
vaita of Ramanuja is a modified non-dualism. Ramunuja 
in contradistinction to the favourite assertion of the 
monists that "there is no diversity" cognises Brahman 
as carrying "multiplicity within himself", and also 
admits His attributes to be real. Further he acknow- 
ledges the reality of creation as well as that of the 
pluralistic universe. To him God is not a mere totality 
of the universe or of persons, but a person who must 
not be confused with individual souls and non-intelligent 
(1) Chhandogya Upamshad, VI. 1. 4-6. 


matter. God, on the one hand, is the transcendental 
Absolute existing before and beyond the universe, and 
on the other, He is the immanent ground of the world. 
Ramanuja's view of the relation of the soul to God 
will also be found to bear an interesting resemblance 
to the teaching of ufism on the subject. The following 
passage has often been quoted as summing up the 
former: 'The soul is created by Brahman, is controlled 
by it, is its body, is subservient to it, is supposed by it, 
is reduced to the subtle condition by it (i. e. in the 
world's state of dissolution) is a worshipper of it, and 
depends on its grace for its welfare. " (l) 

The goal of the individual soul, according to the 
teaching of Ramanuja is to release itself from the 
bondage karma and then to reach the "abode of 
Brahman" and to exist eternally having permanent 
consciousness of the highest Brahman, This is not 
much different from the ufi goal of fund fil-ldh wa baqd 
bi'l-ldh, 4 the annihilation and the subsistence in God'. 
The means to attain this end according to Hindu 
teaching are Bhakti and Vidya, the former is sometimes 
translated technically as "remembrance" and the latter 
as "meditation". Both of these may be compared with 
the ufl dhikr and murdqaba. 

Striking similarity may also be noticed when the 
Shuhudl doctrine is compared with the Upanishadic 
conception of God called ^iishprapanca Ideal, which is 

(1) Sukhtankar's Teaching of Vedanta according to Ramanuja; 
quoted in Macnicol: Indian Theism p. 104. 


the source of the Vishistadvaita doctrine. The Nish- 
prapanca doctrine is described by Professor Hiryana in 
the following words: "It aims at unity and yet clings to 
the double notion of God and nature. To arrive at 
true unity, one only of these two should be retained. 
If it is the notion of nature that is retained, there will 
be no God apart from the world. This outcome of the 
pantheistic tendency, viz., viewing the unity of the 
world as itself the Absolute, does not figure very much 
in the Upanishads, probably because it tends towards 
naturalism, which, though not wholly unfamiliar to 
them, is widely removed from their prevailing spirit. 
If, on the other hand, it is the notion of God that is 
selected for retention in preference to that of nature, 
the world of common experience with all its variety 
will cease to exist apart from God. That is precisely 
the acosmic conception; only the theistic term is here 
replaced by the philosophic one of Brahman." (1) 




The ufl statement about God's existence in the 
state of al-'Ama, as a mere Essence devoid of all 
qualities and relations corresponds to the Hindu 
conception of Brahman in the state of nirguna, devoid 
of all gunas, attributes. The Hindu theologians have 
described this nirguna Brahman as void without 
consciousness, without activity, a characterless noth- 

(1) Hiryana. Outlines of Indian Philosophy, P. 61, 


ing." This word, nirguna, is used as an attribute of 
God in Svetasvatra Upanishad: 

The one God, hidden in all things, 
All-prevailing, the Inner Soul of all things, 

The overseer of deeds (barman) in all things 

The witness, the sole thinker, devoid of qualities 
(nirguna). (l> Svetakata admits the existence of a Supreme 
Brahman, who is undefinable, above the changing world 
and free from change, becoming and causality, but who 
is the ground of the existence of the whole universe. 
He is described as "without part, without activity, 
tranquil, irreproachable, spotless, the highest bridge of 
immortality, like a fire with fuel burned. " (2) 

The Hindu teaching concerning Brahman in relation 
to the creation of the universe, as interpreted by 
certain schools, is in close correspondence to the ufi 
teaching on the subject and bears a close resemblance 
to the doctrine of tanazzuldt. According to the Hindu 
doctrine, "individualisation" is the principle of creation. 
It is this cosmic principle which gives rise to namarupa, 
"name-and-form," In the Upanishads the term namarupa 
is used to indicate individuality. For instance we read 
in the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishda: "In the beginning 
of this world was Soul alone in the form of a Person. 
Looking around he saw nothing else than himself 

(1) 6:12. 

(2) 6: 19. 


At that time the world was undifferentiated. It 
became differentiated just by name and form." (1) 

According to the teaching pf Shankara "The crea- 
tion is the gradual manifestations of -diverse samanyas 
with the visheshas produced from them." The term 
vsamanyas stands for the causal reality; and the term 
visheshas stands for its effects or qualities. Further 
Shankara says : " There are in the world diverse 
samanyas with their visheshas, both sentient and 
insentient. All these samanyas. in their graduated 
series, are included and comprehended in one great 
samanyas. i.e., in Brahma's nature or swarupa" (2} 

Professor Kokileswar Sastri explaining Shankara's 
teaching on creation says: "The created elements have 
been evolved from the 'nature' of Brahma for its own 
realisation. Brahma has not sundered itself into these 
elements; it has not actually passed into or been 
converted into, these elements and thereby has 
become something other than its own nature. It 
expresses itself through these. We have therefore no 
right to separate these from it and take them as 'some- 
thing' distinct and complete in themselves The 

evolving changes the diversities of emerging ndmarupa 
are not something other than Brahma's nature, but 
they are really the further and further revelations of 
this nature. " (3) / 

(1) I. 4: l, 7. 

(2) Vedanta Bhasya, quoted in, Kokileswar Sastri, Advaita 
Philosophy, p. 35. 

(3) Kokileswar Sastri, op cit. p. 23, 




The theory of latcCif and their position as described 
in the human body resemble, to some extent, the 
Chakras as detailed in the Yoga system of physiology. 
The latter system speaks of the human organism 
consisting of the physical body, the vital dynamism, 
the psychic principles and the purusa. The purusa is 
said to be hidden behind the veils of corruptible flesh 
and restless mind. 

The system of physiology as developed by the Yoga 
philosophy relates to nadls, infinitely small nerves, 
which traverse the body. "The spinal column contains 
three yognddis of special significance, namely, ida, 
pinguid, and susumna. The last is the chief of them. 
To the right of it is pingald and to its left idd. This 
nddl (i. e. susumna} has six subtle centres called padmas 
or chakras, invisible to our senses, that could be 
experienced through the eyes of Yoga." (1) 

The chakras are as follows. 

1. Sahasrara, lies within the cerebral region, 

2. Ajna, situated in pineal gland, 

3. Visuddhi, is situated in larynx, 

4. Anahata, is located in the heart, 

5. Manipura, is situated in the stomach 

6. Muladhdra, is said to be located in the navel. 

(1) Sir Radha Krishnan, The History of Indian Philosophy, Vol 
II, p. 352 (note.) 


Besides these is also a Kundalmi, 4 a curled-up one' 
lying dormant at the base of the spine. The Kundallnl 
symbolises mystic illumination. When she is asleep 
the devotee's mind is in an unawakened condition. 
When she has darted upwards and reached the Sahasra 
chakra, the mystic has reached full consciousness and 
has merged it in the Divine. 




The doctrine of nirvana has been variously inter 
preted, but as at the present moment we are concerned 
not as much with the doctrine itself as with a compara- 
tive study of some of its feaures with those of fana, we 
proceed to give a brief account of its leading charac- 

The word nirvana, or its Pali form nibbana, literally 
means 'blowing out' or 'cooling' and is commonly 
translated as 'annihilation'. According to Professor 
Das Gupta it is the final extinction of sorrow which 
takes place as the natural result of the destruction of 
desires. The following passages are often quoted from 
the Buddhist Scriptures to describe nirvana: 

"He whose senses have become tranquil, like a 
horse well broken-in by the driver; who is free from 
pride and the lust of the flesh, and the lust of existence, 
and the defilement of ignorance him even the gods 
envy. Such a one whose conduct is right, remains like 
the broad earth, unvexed; like the pillar of the city 


gate; like a pellucid lake, unruffled. For such there are 
no more births. Tranquil is the mind, tranquil the 
words and deeds of him who is thus tranquilized and 
made free by wisdom. " (1) 'They who by steadfast mind 
have become except from evil desire, and well-trained 
in the teachings of Gautama; they having obtained 
the fruit of the fourth Path, and immersed themselves 
in that ambrosia, have received without price, and are 
in the enjoyment of nirvana. Their old karma is 
exhausted, no new karma is being produced; their 
hearts are free from the longing after future life; the 
ckuse of their existence being destroyed, and no new 
yearnings springing up within them, they the wise, are 
extinguished like this lamp." (2) "That mendicant 
conducts himself well, who has conquered error by 
means of insight, from whose eyes the veil of error 
has been removed, who is well-trained in religion; and, 
who free from yearning, and skilled in the knowledge 
of, has attained unto, nirvana. " (3) 

From such passages Professor Rhys Davids infers 
that the nirvana, which means simply going out, extinc- 
tion, cannot be the extinction of a soul. He says: 
*7t is the extinction of that sinful grasping condition of 
mind and heart, which would otherwise, according to the 
great mystery of karma, be the cause of renewed individual 
existence. That extinction is to be brought about by, 
and runs parallel with, the growth of the opposite 

(1) Dhammapada, 90, 94-96. 

(2) Ratana Sutta, 7, 14. 

(3) Sammaparibbajaniya Sutta, 14. 


condition of mind and heart; and it is complete when 
that opposite condition is reached. Nirvana is there- 
fore the same thing as a sinless, calm state of mind\ and 
if translated at all, may best, perhaps, be rendered 
'holiness' holiness, that is, in the Buddhist sense, 
perfect peace, goodness, and wisdom. <M(1) 

Professor De la Vallee Poussin and Mr. Schrader, 
as pointed by Professor Das Gupta, hold nirvana to be 
positive. In the opinion of the former it has been 
represented sometime in the Pali text as a happy state, 
as pure annihilaiton, as an inconceivable existence or 
as a changeless state. " (2) Mr. Schrader says that: "The 
Buddha held that those who sought to become 
identified after death with the soul of the world as 
infinite space (akasa) or consciousness (vinnana) 
attained to a state in which they had a corresponding 
feeling of infiniteness without having really lost their 
individuality. " (3) 

This interpretation, as Professor Das Gupta observes, 
is 'Very new and quite against the spirit of the 
Buddhistic text." He writes, "Whether we exist in 
some form eternally or do not exist is not a proper 
Buddhistic question, for it is a heresy to think of a 
Tathagata as existing eternally (sasvatd) or not-existing 

(1) Buddhism, pp. Ill, 112. 

(2) Professor De la Vallee Poussm's article in the E. R. E. on 

(3) Mr. Schrader's article in Pali Text Society Journal, 1905 on 
Nibbana, quoted in Professor Das Gupta, A History of Indian 
Philosophy Vol. I, p. 109. 


(asasvata) or whether he is existing as well as not 
existing or whether he is neither existing nor non- 
existing. Any one who seeks to discuss whether 
Nibbana is either positive and eternal state or mere 
state of non-existence or annihilation, takes a view 
which has been discarded in Buddhism as heretical. " (1) 
Thus described, nirvana with negative implications 
only, can hardly be akin to the ufi doctrine of fana wa 
baqd. "annihilation and subsistence 11 ./ 


Moksa literally means release, and is used in the 
Upanishads to denote the release of the individual soul 
from bondage to the sensuous, selfish and finite 
existence. It runs almost parallel to the ufl doctrine 
of fana wa baqd, 'annihilation and subsistence*. Many 
passages can be quoted to demonstrate the truth of 
this statement. For instance Mundaka Upanishad 

"As the flowing rivers in the ocean 

Disappear, quitting name and form, 

So the knower, being liberated from name and form, 

Goes unto the Heavenly Person, higher than the 

The same Upanishad contains the following passage: 
"The mystic syllable Om (pravana) is the bow. The 
arrow is the soul (atman). 

(1) Professor Das Gupta, A History of Indian Philosophy* 
Vol. I, p. 109. 

(2) iii, 2:8. 


By the undistracted man It is to be penetrated. 

One should come to be in It, as the arrow in the 
mark (i. e. Brahma). " (1) In the same Upanishad we 
read: "All these become one in the highest imperishable 
Brahma." (2) In the Brihadarnyaka Upanishad we come 
across the following simile of the union with the 
Divine. Yajanavalkya, the greatest thinker of the 
age of the Upanishads, expounding the state of Moksa, 
says; "As a man, when in the embrace of the beloved 
wife, knows nothing within or without, so this person, 
when in the embrace of the intelligent Soul, knows 
nothing within or without. (3) Verily, that is his (true) 
form in which his desire is satisfied, in which the Soul 
is his desire, in which he is without desire and without 
sorrow." (4) 

This state is described in Mundaka to be companion- 
ship with God. 

They who have ascertained the meaning of the 
Vedanta knowledge, 

Ascetics, with natures purified through the applica- 
tion of renunciation. 

They in the Brahma-worlds at the end of time 

Are all liberated beyond death. " (5) 

(1) ri, 2:3. 

(2) iii, 2, 7. 

(3) Professor Macnicol says: "This symbol of union is the hall- 
mark of mysticism in every country and every age." Indian Theism, 
p. 58. 

(4) iv, 3, 21. 

(5) iii, 2:6. 


The same Upanishad teaches that liberated soul 
attains to absolute likeness with God; 
When a seer sees the brilliant 
Maker, Lord, Person, the Brahma-source 
Then, being a knower shaking off good and evil 
Stainless, he attains supreme identity with him." (1) 
From these passages it appears that absorption in 
Brahma is not complete annihilation, but that it indicates 
"the preservation at the same time in a subtle sense of 
conscious personality."' 2 ' On the other hand it cannot 
be denied that there are many passages in the 
Upanishads which teach the complete absorption in 
Brahma with such absoluteness that self is "completely 
merged and indistinguishably lost." (3) 

These two phases of the doctrine of liberation as 
taught in the Upanishads may be compared with the 
negative and positive aspects of fana. For instance, 
the following sayings express the 'negative 1 aspect of 
the absorption in Brahman: 

"He becomes merged in the supreme imperishable 

"As a lump of salt which is thrown into the water 
dissolves and cannot be gathered up again, but wher- 
ever water is drawn, it is salty, so truly is it with this 
great being, the endless, the unlimited, the fulness of 

(1) ii, 1:3. 

(2) Macnicol, Indian Theism, p. 58. 

(3) Thibaut, in Sacred Book of the East, XXXIV. p. cxxi, 
quoted in Macnicol. op. at. p. 57. 

(4) Mundaka, iii 2: 7. 


knowledge. Arising out of these elements, into them 
also one vanishes away. There is no consciousness 
after death." (1) 

"Brahma-knowers become merged in Brahman. " (2) 

Other passages illustrating the Positive aspect -of 
liberation have already been quoted. The following 
shows that the liberated soul in union with the 
Universal Soul attains unhampered desire. 

"He who knows this, on departing from this world, 
proceeding on to that self which consists of food, 
proceeding on to that self which consists of breath, 
proceeding on to that self which consists of mind, 
proceeding on to that self which consists of under- 
standing, proceeding on to that self which consists of 
bliss, goes up and down these worlds, eating what he 
desires, assuming what form he desires. He sits singing 
this chant: 

*Oh, wonderful! Oh, wonderful! Oh, wonderful! 

I am food! I am food! I am food! 

I am food-eater! I am food-eater! I am food-eater! 

I am fame-maker! I am fame-maker! I am fame- 

I am the first-born of the world-order (nta) 

Earlier than the gods, in the navel of immortality! 

Who gives me away, he indeed has aided me! 

I, who am food, eat the eater of food! 

I have overcome the whole world!" (3) 

(1) Bnhadaranyaka, iv, 5: 13. cp. n, 4- 13. 

(2) Svetastra, 1: 7. 

(3) Taittmya,iii, 10: 5,6. 


This song of the liberated soul is remarkable as it 
indicates that it has an active existence. It should be 
compared with Jalalu 'd-Din's poem quoted on p. 86^ 

Before we conclude this chapter the opinions of two 
famous exponents of Indian Philosophy, Sir Radha 
Krishnan and Professor Das Gupta, may profitably be 
quoted on the nature of Moksa. This will bring out 
more clearly the points of difference and resemblance 
between it and the ufl doctrine of fana. 

Sir Radha Krishnan summarising the doctrine of 
Moksa says: "Whatever differences there might be 
about the exact nature of the highest condition, one 
thing is clear, that it is a state of activity, full of 
freedom and perfection. Strictly speaking, we cannot 
describe that state, but if a description is wanted, it is 
best to consider it to be a state of divine life. The 
self is not annihilated any more than the ray of the sun 
is lost in the sun, the wave of the sea in the ocean, the 
notes of music in one harmony. The song of the 
individual is not lost in the music of the world march. 
It is the same for ever and yet not the same. It is said 
that the liberated soul becomes one with all and lives a 
life in unity with God. The positive description seems 
to suggest a sense of individuality which helps him to 
act in this world, though this individuality is not based 
on any self-feeling. This individualisation of life seems 
to be necessary for the fulfilment of the joy of the one 
supreme. Even though for a purpose of self-expression 
there is this possession of a centre of individuality, we 
are told that the soul is conscious of its glory and the 


greatness of immortality. It feels that God is at work 
in the cosmic drama, where the divine consciousness 
plays and acts. The liberated individual also plays in 
the same drama with full possession of the truth. There 
is nothing which does not bend to his purpose. " (1) 

Professor Das Gupta who calls it Aiuktl, emancipa- 
tion, describing it says "Emancipation or Muktl means 
in the Upanishads the state of infinitencss that a man 
attains when he knows his own self and thus becomes 
Brahman. The ceaseless course of transmigration is 
only for those who are ignorant. The wise man 
however who has divested himself of all passions and 
knows himself to be Brahman and no bondage of any 

kind can ever affect him The knowledge of the self 

reveals the fact that all our passions and antipathies, all 
our limitations of experience, all that is ignoble and small 
in us, all that is transient and finite m us is false. We 
do not know but are "pure knowledge" ourselves. 
We are not limited by anything, for we are infinite; 
we do not suffer death, for we are immortal. Emancip- 
ation thus is not a new acquisition, product, an effect, 
or result of any action, but it always exists as the Truth 
of our nature." Then concluding his illuminating 
summary he says: ** The true self manifests itself in 
all the processes of our phenomenal existences, but ulti- 
mately when it retires back to itself, it can no longer 
be found in them. It is a state of absolute infinitude 
of pure intelligence, pure being, and pure blessing. V (2) 

(1) Indian Philosophy. Vol I, P. 241. 

(2) A History of Indian Philosophy, Voi I. p. 58. 


The Origin of Religious Orders. 

In the preceding chapters we have traced the origin 
and development of ufism, and have noticed how from 
time to time certain new elements and modifications 
were introduced into its teaching. But such doctrinal 
development forms only one aspect of the study of 
ufism. Another, and no less interesting one, is that 
which concerns the origin and growth of its fraternities 
or Religious Orders, through which the various forms 
of its teaching were disseminated to the different parts 
of the Muslim world. 

The origin of these Religious Orders is said, by 
certain western scholars, to date from the 12th century 
A. D. Such a statement may be accepted as correct in 
the sense that at that period these Orders were fully 
organized, and that each was marked by distinguishing 
features in its teaching and practice. Otherwise the 
ufi-fraternities ought to be traced back to a much 
earlier date. As Professor D. B. Macdonald himself 
says. "The earliest Muslims were burdened, as we 
have seen, (cp. pp. 11, 12) with fear of the terrors of 
an avenging God. The world was evil and fleeting; the 
only abiding good was in the other world; so their 
religion became an ascetic other-worldliness. They 
fled into the wilderness from the wrath to come. 
Wandering, either solitary or in companies, was the 


special sign of the true uft. The young men gave 
themselves over to the guidance of the older men; 
little circles of disciples gathered round a venerated 
Shaykh; fraternities began to form. So we find it in the 
case of al-Junayd, so in that of Sari as-Saqafl. Next 
would come a monastery, rather a rest-house; for only 
in the winter and for rest did they remain fixed in a 
place for any time. Of such a monastery there is a 
trace at Damascus in 150 (767 A. D.) and in Khurasan 
about 200 (815-16 A. D.),"* 

These wandering companies in course of time came 
to be called at-Tarlqa, the path, (pi. al-furq) or 
fihdnivada, a family, but through the influence of 
western writers they are commonly spoken of as 
'Religious Orders. 1 The teachings imparted in these 
Orders are supposed to have been handed down 
through more or less continous chains of succession 
originating with the founders. Such a chain is called 
silsila, (pi. saldsil)*/ 

The centre of every order at any given time is a 
murshid (a guide) or plr (an elder), who is considered 
to be a spiritual heir of the original founder, and as 
such received his authority through his immediate 

We have already seen that to a Muslim, ufism is not 
a late development of Islam, but is as old as Islam 
itself. As a matter of fact all the orders trace their 
chains of succession back to Muhammad, and thus it is 

*Macdonald, Theology, p. 177. 


that the founder of Islam is regarded by the ufls as 
also the fountain head of ufism. Next to Muhammad 
in the chains of succession comes, in most cases, the 
name of 4 All, but in a few there stands second the 
name of Abu Bakr. The importance of 'All in $ufism 
is thus very great. Further, inasmuch as Muhammad 
is reported to have said. "I am the house of knowledge 
and 4 All is its gate, 1 ' most ufls regard 'All as the one 
medium of divine knowledge between Muhammad and 
his followers. He is revered by them as the heir to all 
Muhammad's esoteric and exoteric knowledge. All 
this is emphasized by the fact that while hundreds of 
religious orders are traced to 'All, only three, viz. the 
Bistamiyya, Bakhtashiyya, and Naqshbandiyya regard 
Abu Bakr as their head, and of these, only the last 
named is current in India. But so important is the 
place of 'Ali in ufism, that the Naqshbandi order also 
is traced by a different line of succession to him. This 
has been done to invest it with the peculiar dignity 
which attaches to the other religious Orders already 
privileged to be associated with his name. It is true 
that according to the decision of Sunnl cannon lawyers 
'All ranks as fourth in dignity when compared with the 
other three khalifas, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, 
but in ufism the first and highest place after 
Muhammad is accorded to him. 

Shaykh 'Aliu'l-Hujwiri writes concerning 'All. 
"His renown and rank in this Path (of ufism) were 
very high. He explained the principles (u^ul) of 
Divine truth with exceeding subtlety, so that Junayd 


said 'All is our Shaykh as regards the endurance of 
affliction, i.e. in the theory and practice of ufism; for 
ufis call the theory of this Path 4 'principles" (usul), 
and its practice consists entirely in the endurance of 
affliction." * 


Hasan of Basra holds, next to 'All, the most pro- 
minent place in the 'chains' of the Religious Orders. It 
is said that 4 Ali had seventy disciples and that, after 
his death, these appointed four persons from themselves 
to be plrs or elders. The ufls differ as to the persons 
who were chosen to be these four plrs. Some mention 
Hasan and Husayn, the grandsons of Muhammad, 
together with Khwaja Kumayl, and Hasan of Basra; 
others, retaining the last two names, either substitute 
Uwaysu '1-Qaram and Sarlu 's-Saqati, or 'Abdullah 

It will be seen, however, that this difference of 
opinion does not affect the position of Hasan of Basra. 
His name follows 'All's at the head of most of the 
Religious Orders, and, as we shall see, he is recognised 
as the spiritual head of those lines of succession which 
gave rise to three famous orders, viz. the Qadiriyya, 
the Chishtiyya, and the Suhrawardiyya, His mother 
was a maid servant of Umm Salma, one ot Muhammad's 
wives, and he himself was a contemporary of the 
renowned woman saint of Islam, Rbi*a of Basra. At 
the death of Muhammad, Hasan was very young, and 

*Kashf al-Mahjub. p. 74. 


though not honoured as one of the leading Tdbiun, the 
followers of the companions of the Prophet. He is 
said to have visited one hundred and thirty companions 
of Muhammad. 4 Ali appointed him as one of his chief 
successors to carry on the esoteric^ teaching of Islam. 

The names of two of Hasan's disciples, viz. Khwaja 
Abdu'l- Wahid b. Zayd and Habibu'l-'Ajami, stand at 
the head of two main lines of the Religious Orders. 
From the first of these sprang four further sub-divisions, 
from the second, eight. These are called chawda 
Qhhanwade or fourteen families. Most of the remaining 
orders are subsequent divisions and sub-divisions of 
these fourteen. We shall proceed to give a brief 
account of the two main lines with their sub-divisions. 


This was the order founded by Khwaja 'Abdu '1- 
Wahid b. Zayd, though the records tell us next to 
nothing about it. The four Orders which sprang from 
it are the following: 

1. 'lyddiyya. This Order was founded by Khwaja 
Fudayl b. 'lyad. An account of his life has already 
been given in a previous chapter, (see pp. 13-14.) 

His outstanding virtue is said to have been the love 
of God in perfect conformity with His holy will. It 
is related that on one occasion the famous Khalifa 
Harunu 'r-Rashid asked him: "Have you ever met 
with any one of greater detachment than yourself?" 
He made answer, "Yes, O Khalifa! your detachment 
exceeds mine, for I have detached myself from this 


world doomed to perdition, while you seem to have 
detached yourself from the world which is infinite and 
shall endure for ever.'/ 

2. Adhamiyya. This Order was founded by Abu 
Ishaq Ibrahim b. Adham, a successor of Khwaia 
Fudayl b. 4 Iyad. Reference has already been made to 
this Ibrahim as one of the earliest ascetics of Islam. 
The author of Kashfu 'l-Mahjub writes about him: "In 
the earlier part of his life he was prince of Balkh. 
One day he went to the chase, and having become 
separated from his suite was pursuing an antelope. 
God caused the antelope to address him in elegant 
language and say : "Wast thou created for this; or 
wast thou commanded to do this ?" He repented, aban- 
doned everything, and entered on the path of ascetic- 
ism and abstinence. He made the acquaintance of 
Fudayl b. lyad and Sufyan Thawri, and consorted 
with them. After his conversion he never ate any 
food except what he had earned by his own labour. 
His sayings on the verities of ufism are original and 
and exquisite. Junayd said: Ibrahim is the key of the 
(Mystical) sciences/" 

The following are the comments made by Rose upon 
the ufi account of Ibrahim: "The ufi legend con- 
cerning him is evidently modelled upon the story of 
Buddha, for in it he appears as a prince who while 
hunting, was warned by an unseen voice that he was 
not created for such pursuits. Thereupon he aban- 
doned the path of worldly pomp for the path of 

Kashf al-awib. pl03 


asceticism and piety. He became a quietist of a 
practical type, and did not carry the doctrine of 
tawahkul to the point of refusing to earn his livelihood; 
on the contrary, he supported himself by gardening 
and so on. He approved of begging in so far as it 
incites men to give alms and thereby increase their 
chance of salvation, but he condemned it as a means of 
livelihood. So he distinguished two kinds of begging. 
C. van Arendonk says that a trait far more characteristic 
of Indian and Syrian than of Muslim ascetism appears 
in the story that one of the three occasions on which 
Ibrahim felt joy was when he looked at the fur garment 
he was wearing, and could not distinguish the fur from 
the lice (E. I. ii. p. 432). 'But this story is poor 
evidence of Buddhist or Indian influence on Ibrahim, 
because a very similar episode is told of the Breton 
saint, Le Petit St. Jean. A notable legend says that 
angels ministered to Ibrahim on the banks of the 
Tigris after he had resigned his kingdom, bringing him 
ten dishes of food. This roused the envy of a darwish 
who had been a poor man before he assumed the habit 
of a beggar, and to whom only one plate was vouch- 
safed. The incident is a common place topic of Indo- 
Persian or Mughal painting (J. R. A. S., 1909, p. 751 
and 1910, p. 167) There can, however, be no doubt 
that Ibrfihim was a great figure in his day, and his 
memory still survives in Islam as far as India. The 
tale that he married a princess is even more persistent 
than the tradition that he was of royal birth." * 
*Rose, The Danishes, p. 83. 


3. Hubayriyya. This Order is ascribed to Khwaia 
Hubayra of Basra, a successor of KhwSja Mar'ashi, 
a vice-gerent of Ibrahim b. Adham. Hubayra is 
known to have lived in company with Junayd of 
Baghdad, but otherwise we are told little concerning 

4. Chishtiyya. This was founded by Khwaja Abu 
Ishaq Sham! Chishtl, a disciple of Mimshad Dinwari, a 
vice-gerent of Hubayra of Basra. Mimshad was also a 
disciple of Junayd of Baghdad. 

A more detailed account of the Chishti Order will 
be given in the next chapter. 


Habib ' Ajaml, the founder of this Order, was at first 
a usurer but, being touched with the suffering of his 
debtors, he renounced his profession and granted 
remission to all who owed him money. Finally he 
became a disciple of Hasan of Basra. 

The story is told that one day Hasan came to Habib 
who offered him some loaves. In the meantime a 
beggar came and Habib quickly picked up the loaves 
and gave them away. Hasan, annoyed at his behaviour, 
reprovingly said to him, "Had you known the law you 
would not have acted in this way. Do you not know 
that it is forbidden to take away a meal when once 
offered to a guest? 1 ' While he spoke a stranger 
brought some food which Habib placed before Hasan 
and said to him: "Master, you know the law, but 
how good it is to have faith also/ 1 


We find the following narrative concerning him in 
Kashfu'l-Mahjub: "His native tongue was Persian 
Cajaml), and he could not speak Arabic correctly. 
One evening Hasan of Basra passed by the door of his 
cell. Hablb had uttered the call to prayer and was 
standing, engaged in devotion. Hasan came in, but 
would not pray under his leadership, because Hablb 
was unable to speak Arabic fluently or recite the 
Quran correctly. The same night, Hasan dreamed that 
he saw God and said to Him; "O Lord, wherein does 
Thy good pleasure consist? ' and that God answered; 
"O Hasan, you found My good pleasure but did not 
know its value: if yesternight you had said your prayer 
after Hablb, and if the Tightness of his intention had 
restrained you from taking offence at his pronouncia- 
tion, I should have been well pleased with you.' H1) 
He died in 772-3 A.D. 

The eight Orders which have originated from him 
are as follows: 

1. Karkhiyya. This was founded by Ma'rufu 1- 
Karkjn (Karkh is a district of Baghdad), to whose 
teaching brief reference has already been made 
(sec pp. 18-19). Through his plr Da'ud T**X he is con- 
nected with Hablb 'Ajaml. He died in 815-16 A. D., 
and his tomb, "saved by popular reverence, is one of 
the few ancient sites in modern Baghdad. "^ 

2. Saqatiyya. This Order owes its origin to 
Kbwja Hasan Sariu 4 s-Saqatl, a vice-gerent of Ma'rufu 

(2) Macdonald, Muslim Theology, p. 175. 


*l-Karkhl. He was called saqatl because he used to 
carry on the business of a huckster (saqat farosh) in the 
bazar at Baghdad. He was the first to give systematic 
teaching about "'stations 1 * (maqdmdt) in the Path, as 
well as concerning spiritual "states" (ahwdl). To him is 
ascribed, "but dubiously, the first use of the word 
tawhld to signify the union of the soul with God." (1> 
One of his sayings runs as follows: "If God were 
revealed in hell to the people of hell, sinful believers 
would never think of Paradise, since the sight of God 
would so fill them with joy that they would not feel 
bodily pain/' He died in 870-71 A. D. 

3. Tayfuriyya. This Order was founded by Abu 
Yazld Tayfuru'l-Bistami, also known as Byazldu'l- 
Bistami. Reference has already been made to him as 
the one chiefly responsible for the introduction into 
ufism of pantheism and the conception of self-annihila- 
tion. He is said to have received his spiritual authority 
from Imam Ja'far adiq and also from Habib 'Ajaml, 
but he could not have had any contact with them in 
their life-time, since both had died before he was born. 
The author of the Shaqaiqun-Numdniyya {2} endeav- 
ours to minimise the break in the continuity between 
him and his predecessor by saying that Bayazldu'l- 
Bistami, though born after the decease of the Imam 

(1) Macdonald, op. cit. p. 175. 

(2) Sec Rose. The Danishes, p. 140. The full title of the book 
is the Shaqaiqu n-nu'maniyya ffulamau'd-dawlatu'l-Uthmamyya, 
*Blood-red wild anemones touching the learned of the Ottoman 
Empire' by the Mulla Tashkopruzada, who died in 1560 A.D. 


Ja'far adiq, yet received spiritual instruction from him 
by the force of the will of the latter. A somewhat 
similar explanation is given to connect him in the 
spiritual succession with Hablb * Ajami. ufis in general 
accept these explanations. 

The distinctive feature of the Tayfur! Order is its 
teaching about sukr, 'intoxication' of the love of God 
and wajd, 'rapture'. The following is the explanation 
of this as given by 'Allu'l-Hujwirl; "You must know 
that 'intoxication' and 'rapture 1 are terms used by 
spiritualists to denote the rapture of love for God, 
while the term 'sobriety' expresses the attainment of 
that which is desired. Some place the former above 
the latter, and some hold the latter to be superior. 
Abu Yazld and his followers prefer intoxication to 
sobriety. They say that sobriety involves the fixity 
and equilibrium of human attributes, which are the 
greatest veil between God and Man, whereas intoxica- 
tion involves the destruction of human attributes, 
like foresight and choice, and the annihilation of a 
man's self control in God, so that only those faculties 
survive in him that do not belong to the human genus; 
and they are the most complete and perfect. Thus 
David was in the state of sobriety; an act proceeded 
from him which God attributed to him and said, 
"David killed Goliath" (Quran 2:252): but our Apostle 
was in the state of intoxication; an act proceeded from 
him which God attributed to Himself and said, "Thou 
didst not throw when thou threwest but God threw" (Quran 
8:17). How great is the difference between these two 


men! The attribution of a man's act to God is better 
than the attribution of God's to a man, for in the latter 
case the man stands by himself, while in the former 
case he stands through God." (1) 

In further explanation of Bayazld's doctrine of 
'sobriety' and "intoxication 1 'Aliu'l-Hujwirl writes: 
"There are two kinds of intoxication: (1) with the 
wine of affection (mawaddat) and (2) with the cup of 
love (mahabbat). The former is 'caused' (m<2 '//), 
since it arises from regarding the benefit (niamat)\ but 
the latter has no cause, since it arises from regarding 
the benefactor (munim). He who regards the benefit 
sees through himself and therefore sees himself, but he 
who regards the benefactor sees through Him and 
therefore does not see himself, so that, although he 
is intoxicated, his intoxication is sobriety. 

"Sobriety also is of two kinds; sobriety in heed- 
lessnesss (ghaflat) and sobriety in love (mahabbat). 
The former is the greatest of veils, but the latter is the 
clearest of revelations. The sobriety that is connected 
with heedlessness is really intoxication, while that 
which is linked with love, although it be intoxication, 
is really sobriety. " (2) 

It is on the basis of this theory of 'sobriety' and 
'intoxication', that the pantheistic utterances of the 
ufis are justified by the orthodox, they being uttered 
not while in the state of the sobriety but in that of 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub. pp. 184-5. 

(2) Ibid. pp. 187-8. 


4. The Junaydiyya. This had its origin in Abul- 
Qasimu'l Junayd who is Sayyidut-TcCifa, 'Lord of the 
sect', and Ta'usul-Ulama, 'peacock of the learned'. 
He was a successor of his maternal uncle, Sarius-Saqatl. 
Professor Macdonald says about him: "Perhaps the 
greatest name in early ufism is that of al-Junayd 
(d. 909-10 A. D.); on it no shadow of heresy has ever 
fallen. He was a master in theology and law, reveren- 
ced as one of the greatest of the early doctors. 
Questions of tawhid he is said to have discussed before 
his pupils with shut doors. But this was probably 
tawhid in the theological and not in the mystical sense 
against the mu'tazilites and not on the union of the 
soul with God. Yet he, too, knew the ecstatic life and 
fell fainting at verses which struck into his soul." (1) 

'Allu'l-Hujwiri writes thus about his doctrine: "His 
doctrine is based on sobriety and is opposed to that of 

the Tayfurls, It is the best known and most 

celebrated of all doctrines, and all the Shaykhs have 
adopted it, notwithstanding that there is much differ- 
ence in their sayings on the ethics of ufism." (2) The 
following conversation between Husayn b. Mansuru'l- 
Hallaj and al-Junayd illustrates differences between 
'sobriety' and 'intoxication' as viewed by the latter. 
Husayn b. Mansur, after he had broken his relation 
with his teacher, Amr b. 'Uthmanu'l-Makki, came to 
al-Junayd. "Junayd asked him for what purpose he 
had come to him. Husayn said : 'For the purpose of 

(1) Macdonald Muslim Theology, p. 176. 

(2) Kashf al-M ahjub. p. 189. 


associating with the Shaykh., Junayd replied: 1 do 
not associate with madmen. Association demands 
sanity; if that is wanting, the result is such behaviour 
as yours in regard to Sahl b. 'Abdallah Tustari and 
*Amr.' Husayn said 4 O Shaykh, sobriety and intoxica- 
tion are two attributes of Man, and Man is veiled from 
his Lord until his attributes are annihilated. 1 4 O son 
of Mansur,' said Junayd, 'you are in error concerning 
sobriety and intoxication. The former denotes sound- 
ness of one's spiritual state in relation to God, while 
the latter denotes excess of longing and extremity of 
love, and neither of them can be acquired by human 
effort. O son of Mansur, in your words I see much 
foolishness and nonsense. " (1) 

The remaining four Orders of the fourteen Khan- 
wadas have descended from the Junaydiyya Order. 

5. GcLzruniyya Order. This was founded by Khwaja 
Abu Ishaq Gazrum. He is the fourth in the line of 
succession from al-Junayd. Abu Ishaq died in 1037-38 
A. D. 

6. Tartawsiyya. This Order is ascribed to Abu'l- 
Farah T ar tawsi, who is the fourth in the line of 
succession from al-Junayd. The famous Shaykh 
'Abdu'l-Qadir Gllanl, who founded the Qadiri Order, 
was fourth in spiritual succession from this Abu'l- 
Farah. Abu'l-Farah died in 1055 A. D. 

7. Suhrawardiyya. This Order had its rise with 
Abu'n-Najib, who died in 1234-35 A. D. A full 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjub. p. 189. 


account of this Order will be given in the following 

8. Firdawsiyya, or Kubramyya. This was founded 
by Abu'l-Jannab Ahmad b. 'Umaru'l-Khlwaqi (of 
(Khiwa), commonly known as Najmu'd-dm Kubra. He 
was a disciple of Abu'n-Najib, just mentioned. His 
plr called him 4 the Shaykh of Paradise', hence he came 
to be known as Firdawsl (of Paradise). Najmu'd-Dm 
was seventh in the line of succession from al-Junayd. 
He died in 1221 A. D. 

The Four Main Orders 

Of all Orders which are directly or indirectly related 
to the fourteen Khdnwddas mentioned in the preceding 
chapter only four, viz. the Chishtiyya, the Qadiriyya, 
the Suhrawardiyya and the Naqshbandiyya, exist in 
India as Orders of sufficient importance to merit 
detailed treatment here. Of these, as we have seen, 
the Chishtiyya and the Suhrawardiyya belong to the 
Hablbiyya, while the Qadiriyya is an offshoot of the 
Tartawsiyya. In the case of the Naqshbandiyya, 
though it sprang from the line of Junaydiyya, yet it is 
traced back, from Junayd, through a different line of 
succession to Abu Bakr. We now proceed to give a 
brief description of these four. 


Khwaja Abu Ishaq Sham! Chishtl, ninth in spiritual 
succession from 'All, is regarded as the founder of this 
Order. He migrated from Asia Minor and settled at 
Chisht in Khurasan, and in consequence was called 
Chishtl. He was a disciple and a vice-gerent of 
Mimshad 'All Dinwari. 

Mimshad 4 All Dinwari appears to have been 
connected with two main lines of succession, already 
mentioned, the one traceable to 'Abdul- Wahab b. 
Zayd, and the other to Hablb 4 Ajaml. . In the former he 
was a disciple of Hubayratu'l-BasrI and in the latter of 


Junayd. As a vice-gerent of Hubayra he belonged to 
the line which gave rise to the Chishti Order, but as 
a disciple of Junayd he stood at the head of the line 
which subdivided itself into the Qadiri and Suhrawardi 
Orders. Prince Dara Shikoh, however, in his book, 
Saflnatul-Awliya, holds to the opinion that Ihwaja 'All 
Dinwarl and Mimshad Dinwarl were different persons. 
The one, he says, was a disciple of Hubayra and the 
other of Junayd. But the majority of the hagiogra- 
phers consider that these were the names of one and 
the same person, explaining that he had received his 
spiritual authority from both the saints. 

The following four, who were spiritually descended 
from Abu Ishaq Chishti, are regarded by ufis to have 
been the great pillars of the religion of Islam: 

1. Khwaja Abu Ahmad, (d. 966 A. D.). He was 
a vice-gerent of Abu Ishaq, and became an Abdal. 

2. Khwaja Abu Muhammad, (d. 1020 A. D.). He 
was the son and successor of Abu Ahmad. 

3. Khwaja Abu Yusuf. (d. 1067 A. D.). He was 
a vice-gerent of Abu Muhammad. 

4. ghwaja Mawdud. (d. 1133 A. D ). He was 
the son and successor of Abu Yusuf. 

Fourth in the line of succession from Khwaja 
Mawdud Chishti appeared Khwaja Mu*inu'd-Din of 
Ajmer, the sponsor of the Order in India. He has 
been the most renowned saint in the history of the 
Order, in fact, by several writers, he, and not Khwaja 
Abu Ishaq, has been regarded as the founder of the 
Chishti Order. 


The devotees of this Order practise chilla, i. e. they 
shut themselves up for forty days in some room or 
pass the time in a mosque. During this period they 
eat little food and spend the greater part of the night 
and day in prayer and meditation, nor do they talk 
with others more than is absolutely necessary. Another 
characteristic of the followers of this Order is their 
fondness for music. They hold musical festivals, and 
pass into ecstasy while listening to singing. 

The Order is now indigenous to India, and hence a 
detailed account of it will be given in connection with 
its Indian History. 


This Order, as we have seen, sprung from the 
Kbanwada Tartawsiyya, and traces its origin to 4 Abdu'l- 
Qdir Gilfini or Jilam. 'Abdu'l-Qadir is also called 
Hasanu'l-Husaym, on account of his descent, on his 
mother's side from Husayn and on his father's side from 
Hasan, Muhammad's grandsons. His father's name was 
Ali alih, nicknamed Jangi dost, a Persian phrase which 
means "warlike friend." How the father came to 
acquire this name is not definitely known. That the 
father was given this Persian name and he himself was 
known as Gilani seems to indicate that this Arab family 
must have been long settled in Persia. Gllan or Jilan 
was a district south of the Caspian Sea, where l Abdu 1- 
Qdir was born. The date of his birth is given as 1077 
A. D. At the age of 18 he went to Baghdad and be- 
came a disciple of Abu Sa'ld Mubarak MukjiarramL 


In several texts Mukharrami is corrupted to Makhzumi. 
but as Mukharram was a place in Baghdad, Mubarak's 
name must have been derived from it. Abu Sa'id 
Mubarak was the head of the a Hanball school which 
he handed over to 4 Abdu'l-Qadir. It was in this 
Madrasa that the saint began to lecture, and it became 
so crowded that it was necessary to have it enlarged. 
In 1134 A. D. a huge new building was completed, and 
it was from this centre of instruction that his disciples 
carried his teaching all over Iraq. 'Abdu'l-Qadir lived 
in Baghdad till he died in 1166 A. D. 

He has more than 99 titles, the chief and the best 
known are; Plr-i-Pirdn or Chief of the saints; Pir-j- 
Dastglr or the Saint my helper, Ghawthul-A'zam or the 
Great Refuge, Mahbub-i-Subhdni or the Beloved of 
God, and Muhi'ud-Din, The Reviver of Religion. 

The following anecdote, ascribed to 'Abdu'l-Qadir, 
purports to give his explanation as to how he came to 
have his last designation. It is related that the saint 
said, "In 1117 A. D. when I returned from one of my 
periodic wanderings to Baghdad I met a person who 
was very sick, in fact his entire body was emaciated 
and his face a ghastly yellow. Saluting me he sought 
my help to enable him to sit up. When I stretched 
out my hand to raise him he was at once restored to 
perfect health and became again a strong and handsome 
man. I was surprised at the sudden change that came 
over him, but the man said, 'Do you not know me? I 
am the religion of Islam, and was at the point of death, 
but God has revived me through your help/ When, 


having left him, I arrived at the mosque to say prayer 
every one greeted me as "Muhlu'd-Dln, and kissed my 
hand. Hitherto no one had ever called me by this 

With a view to enhance his dignity many traditions 
foretelling 'Abdu'l-Qadir's advent and glory have been 
ascribed to Muhammad. For instance, there is the fol- 
lowing anecdote quoted by J. P. Brown. It is related 
that once the daughter of the Prophet of God, Fatima, 
saw in a dream, that a man came out of her father's 
apartment, holding a large candle in his hand, the light 
of which extended from the East to the West. She 
mentioned this to the Prophet, in the presence of his 
nephew, 'All, her husband, and the former interpreted 
it, that one would come after him ('All), whose sanc- 
tity would resemble the candle, and be the chief of all 
saints. 4 AlI exclaimed against this, on the ground that 
he himself was the chief. "No," said the Prophet; "the 
one I allude to will have his foot on the neck of all the 
saints, and all will come under his rule; those who do 
not bear his feet on their shoulders and bend before 
him, will bear bags on their shoulders." 4 All would not 
admit this, and declared that for one he would refuse 
to bear him. Just then, the Prophet miraculously 
created a child; and as there was some fruit on a high 
shelf of the room, he asked 'All to reach it down for 
the child. 'All attempted to do it, but was not high 
enough, and the Prophet placed the child on his 
('All's) neck, so as to reach the fruit. 4 Ali having sub- 
mitted to this, "See, see!" exclaimed the Prophet, "you 


already bear the person I allude to on your neck/' 
This child was 'Abdu'l-Qadir himself. (1) 

This alleged prediction of Muhammad concerning 
him is said to have been fulfilled when, in his Baghdad 
Guest House, before a large audience of scholars and 
saints of Iraq, he uttered in the course of a lecture the 
words, "This my foot rests on the neck of all the saints 
of God." At this all the saints there present bowed 
their necks. It is further asserted that, at that very 
instant, three hundred and thirteen saint in other parts 
of the world received the impression of 'Abdu'l-Qadir's 
assertion and forthwith bowed their necks in obedience. 

His 'urs is celebrated on the llth. of the month 
Rabl'u 'th-Tham. On the evening of the 10th. a special 
ceremony is performed in some parts of India in the 
following way. A large green flag, with impressions of 
the out-spread hand (panja) made on it with sandal- 
wood paste, is carried in procession. With this is 
carried sandalwood-paste, powdered sugar-bread 
(mallda), flowers, sweets, and aloes and thus with 
lighted torches and music the people go to an appointed 
place and set up the standard. Then, offering the 
Fdtiha in the name of the plr, the sweets and powdered 
sugar-bread are distributed to the people. Because 
the 'urs itself is celebrated on the llth, that day is 
called Gydrahwin sharif, the Holy Eleventh, the day of 
the saint's death, but as a matter of fact, there is dif- 
ference of opinion as to the actual date on which he 
died. According to some his death took place on the 

(1) Rose, The Danishes, pp. 52, 53. 


8th. and according to others on the 10th, of Rabfu 
th-Thanl. But as he himself was in the habit of recit- 
ing the Patina in the name of the Prophet on the llth 
day of every month, therefore, by common consent, 
the llth, of Rabi'u 1 th-Thanl is kept for reciting the 
Fdtiha in his name. On this day his devotees recite the 
chapters 1, 111, 113 and 114 of the Quran, repeat his 
99 names on food specially prepared, and feed their 
friends and beggars. Others recite the Fdtiha, not on 
food, but on some sweets, which are then distributed. 

The saint is also invoked when cholera or any other 
epidemic is raging. At such times people take out the 
flag of the saint in procession, singing an invocation to 
the saint. Both Hindus and Muslims make gifts of 
money and put them in a plate in which incense is 
burnt. Herklots says, "Some people vow that if, by 
the mercy of the saint, they are blessed with a son or 
daughter, they will make him, or her, his slave. Should 
their wishes be accomplished, on the 10th. or llth, of 
this month they fix on this child a large anklet (A. 
halqa, fcefO on which year by year they pass a smaller 
ring. They cook cakes, place on them eleven small lamps 
made of flour paste, and light them with red cotton wicks 
soaked in butter. They burn aloes and put the ring on 
the child, if it be an anklet, on the right ankle, if it be 
a collarette (tauq), round the child's neck." (l) 

The followers of the Qadiri Order wear an em- 
broidered rose in their caps, the origin of which is 
traced to the following legend. "The ShaykhuVSa'id 

(1) Herklots, Islam in India, pp. 193, 4. 


'Abdu'l-Qsdir JilanI was directed by Khwaja Kbidr to 
proceed to Baghdad. On his arrival there, the Shaykh 
sent him a cup filled with water, the meaning of which 
was that the city of Baghdad was full of holy people, 
and that it contained no place for him. This occurred 
during the winter season, and no flower was in bloom. 
The Shaykh ('Abdu'l-Qadir Jilanl) put a rose in the 
cup, signifying that Baghdad would hold a place for 
him. Seeing this, all present exclaimed, 'The Shaykh 
is our rose', and going to meet him they conducted 
him to the city, and showed him marked respect." (1) 

The form of the rose of Baghdad is as follows: "It 
has two outside and two inside rings, and three circles, 
and is made of green cloth. The first circle signifies 
shari'at, 'God's law as revealed by His Prophet'; the 
second signifies ^tan^at^ or 'Path 1 of the Order; the third 
signifies the marifat, or 'knowledge 1 of God. The 
three together are sign that their acquisition has 
bestowed the hdl, or condition, known as the haqiqat, 
or 'Truth'. The holy word Hay, or 'The Living God 1 , 
manifested to the Shaykh, has for its colour green, and 
for this reason the rose is made on cloth of that colour. 
The circles are white, and the reason is that this same 
is a sign of perfect submission to the Shaykh, according 
to the traditional words of the Prophet, The Divine 
law is my word; the path is my acts (practices); the 
knowledge is the chief of all things; and the truth is 
my condition 1 . Whoever knows these secrets must 
assume the disposition of the moral laws of God, and 

(1) Rose, The Danishes, p. 101. 


the character of the Divine nature. The blessings 
which will accompany him in eternal life are those of 
everlasting felicity and never-ending aid." (1) 


This order originated from the Junaydl Khanwada 
and was founded by piyaVd-Din Najlb Suhrawardi, 
the author of the Adabul-Muridln, Manners of the 
Disciples. The latter died in 1167 A. D., but not much 
is known about his life. 

It was through some of his leading disciples that the 
Order gained in reputation and influence. Special 
reference has already been made to one of his vice- 
gerents, Abu'l-Jannab Ahmad Kfaiwaql (of Khiva or 
Khwarazm), commonly known as Shaykh Najmu'd-Dm 
Kubra, as the founder of the Firdawsl or Kubrawl 
Khanwada. His title Kubrd is an abbreviation of his 
nickname at-tammatul-kubra, "the Greatest Scourge.' 1 
which in the days of his student life was given to him 
by his friends on account of his trenchant and dexter- 
ous style in debate which rendered him always victor- 
ious over his adversaries. He is also called by the title of 
wall tarash, "Fashioner of Saints/' which was bestowed 
upon him because it was believed that the one on 
whom his glance fell in moments of divine ecstasy 
attained to the degree of saintship. Many strange 
anecdotes illustrating the transforming power of his 
glance are found in Muslim hagiography which go to 
show that this influence was not limited to human 

(1) Rose, The Danishes, pp. 103,4. 


beings but extended to birds and animals. One such 
story says that once during one of the moments of his 
ecstasy, Shaykh Najmu'd-Dln was standing at the door 
of his khanaqah, his glance fell on a passing dog. In- 
stantly the condition of the dog was changed and it 
showed such behaviour as corresponded to that of a 
man who had lost himself (i. e., in the mystic sense.) 
Wherever it went dogs gathered round it who would 
put their paws into his (in token of allegiance) and then 
withdraw themselves and stand at a respectful distance 
surrounding it. A few days after, the dog died, and 
by the order of the Shaykh Najmu'd-Dm its carcass 
was buried and a structure was raised over its grave. 

Najmu'd-Dln was one of the 600,000 who perished 
in the sack of Khwarazm by the Mongols in 1221 A, D. 
The story is related that the fame of his character and 
spiritual leadership reached Chengiz Khan who sent a 
message to say that he intended to sack Khwarazm and 
massacre its inhabitants and as the moment had arrived 
for the accomplishment of this catastrophe therefore 
Najmu'd-Dln should leave the city and join him. The 
Shaykh refused to avail himself of this opportunity to 
save his life and replied: "For me to come out from 
among the inhabitants of Khwarazm would be an action 
far from the way of magnanimity and virtue. " Then 
addressing his disciples he said: "A great fire is kin- 
dled in the east which will burn unto the west, therefore 
arise and return to your own countries." When the 
Mongols invaded IQjwarazm, he went out to fight and 
was found amongst the slain. 


Shihabu'd-Dln Suhrawardi was another eminent 
disciple of the founder of this Order. He was born in 
1145 A. D. and died in 1234-5 A. D. He received his 
instruction in Mysticism from Diya Vd-Din, his paternal 
uncle, who appointed him his vice-gerent. In the early 
days of his life he remained also in the company with 
Shaykh Abdu'l-Qadir Gilanl and was highly spoken of 
by him. 

Shihadu'd-Dm was a great exponent of uflsm. Of 
his various works, the most famous is 'Awdrifu'l- 
Madrif, "Gifts of Divine Knowledge 11 , which has been 
used as a manual for the study of uflsm by ufis of 
all Orders. Its Urdu translation is commonly available 
in India. In the original Arabic it was printed on the 
margin of an edition of al-Ghazalfs Ihyaul- Ulum, pub- 
lished at Cairo in 1888. The famous Sa'dl of Shiraz, one 
of his more notable disciples, has a short anecdote about 
him in the Bustdn. The saint is there represented as 
praying that hell might be filled with himself if perchance 
others might thereby obtain salvation. In his days he 
was the chief of the Shaykhs of the ufls at Baghdad 
and mystics from different parts of the Muslim world 
sought his advice in spiritual matters. One such ufl 
wrote to him: "Master, if I cease from deeds I am 
perpetually in idleness and if I perform deeds I am filled 
with presumption, which of these is the better?' 1 He 
replied: "Perform deeds and ask God's pardon for the 
presumption. " (1) 

(1) Md. Husain: Anwaru I'Arifin, p. 332. 


Others of Shihabu'd-Dln's disciples introduced the 
Order to different parts of the East. Sayyid Nuru'd- 
Dln Mubarak Ghaznawl, one of his vice-gerents, came 
to Delhi, and was appointed Shaykhu'l Islam of that 
city by King Altamash. Another of his vice-gerents, 
Baha Vd-Dln Zakariya, to whom we shall have occasion 
to refer again, came to India and settled in Multan, 
and is recognized as the pioneer saint of the Order in 
this country. 

The political influence of the Suhrawardl Order is 
well illustrated by the achievement of one of its saints, 
Amir Sultan Shamsu 1 d-Dm Muhammad b. 'Aliu'l- 
Husayniu'l-Bukharl, born in 1369 A. D. It is said that 
once, when he visited Medina, the Sharif of Haramayn 
refused to recognize him as a Sayyid. Whereupon a 
voice from the tomb of the Prophet acknowledged him 
as a descendant of Muhammad. Later he settled at 
Bursa where he made 400,000 disciples. He married 
Nilufar Khanum, a daughter of the Sultan Bayazld I. 
It is true that such alliances between saints and 
daughters of ruling princes are commonplace legends 
in ufi traditions, but this union is a historical fact. (1> 
It is, too, an admitted fact that he played an important 
part as a mediator in the invasion of Timur. He is 
recognised also as a saint of the Naqshbandl Order, 
and till the abolition of the Monastic Orders in Turkey 
three takias known by his name were held by the 
Naqshbandis. (2) 

(1) The Danishes* p. 161. 

(2) The Danishes, pp. 470, 71, 72. 


The late Canon Sell says about this Order. "The 
majority of its followers are still in Persia, but its 
influence has been felt elsewhere. The teaching of as- 
Suhrawardl was highly mystical and dealt with the 
deeper aspect of uflsm. It is not so much now an 
Order as a school of mystic philosophy, which has had 
a great influence on the teaching of many of the 
African Orders and fosters the growth of fatalism 
amongst them." (1) 


The origin of this Order is generally ascribed to 
Khwaja Baha'u'd-Dm Naqshband, who died in Persia 
in 1389 A. D. The word naqshband literally means an 
embroiderer or printer on cloth, and, as applied to 
Baha Vd-Dln, probably refers to his ancestral profession. 
Another explanation, however, is given by a Muslim 
writer whom Rose quotes: 'This people (taifa) polish 
the exterior of their minds and intellects with pictures, 
and being free from the rust and wiles of life are not 
of those who are captivated by vain colourings of the 
world as varied as those of the changeful chameleon; 
and as Naqshband drew incomparable pictures of the 
Divine Science, and painted figures of Eternal Inven- 
tion, which are not imperceptible, his followers became 
celebrated by the title of the Naqshbandls, The 
Painters'. (2) 

(1) The Religious Orders of Islam, p. 44. 

(2) Rose, op. cit. p. 142. 


Rose further observes, that, "The History of the 
Naqshbandi Order would be of some interest if it could 
be recovered, not merely because it has played an 
important part in Muslim thought, but also because it 
had not a little influence on the political vicissitudes 
of India, Mesopotamia, and, to a less extent, Turkey. 
In order to unravel some pieces of the tangled skein it 
is essential to set forth the spiritual pedigree of the 
Order." For this reason and also because its study is 
of more interest than of those of other Religious 
Orders we proceed to indicate the 'chain of succession' 
of i-his Order as given by Rose a - with some alterations 
and adaptations to bring it in line with the Indian 
tradition of its history. 

1. Muhammad 

2. Abu Bakr 

3. Salmanu '1-Farsi; the Persian companion of 

4. Qasim, a son of Abu Bakr. 

5. Ja'far adiq, a grandson of Qasim from his 
mother's side, and the seventh Shi'a Imam 

6. Bayazid of Bistam, (d. 875 A. D.)the founder of 
the Tayfurl Khanwada. As he was born after the 
death of Ja'far adiq he is believed to have been 
spiritually instructed by him. The living medium 
is said to have been an Indian, one Abu 'All of 

7. Abu'l-Hasan Kharqan! (d. 1033-34 A. $>). He 
was born after the death of Bayazid and hence is said 

(1) Ibid Appendix I. p. 435. 


to have been spiritually instructed by him. Some 
writers give as an alternative to Abu'l-Hasan, the 
name of Abu'l-Qasim Gurganl. 

8. Shaykh 4 All Farmadl (d. 1078 A. D.). He was 
a contemporary of 'Allu'l-Hujwiri, who has spoken 
highly of him in his Kashful-Mahjub. 

9. Khwaja Abu Yusuf Hamadam (d. 1140 A. D.). 
One of his disciples was Ahmad Yasawl, a saint of great 
importance. He takes his title from Yasl, or Hadrat-i- 
Yasl, as it was commonly called, a place on the north 
of Tashkand on the road to Orenburg. Ahmad Yasawi 
founded a school of mystic, to which in the fourth 
generation belonged Hakim 'Ata, the founder of the 
Bakhtashiyya and patron saint of Janissaries. 

10. Khwaja 'Abdu'l-Khaliq GhujdawanI (d. 1179-80 
A. D.). He was born at Ghujdawan, six farsakh from 
Bukhara. MSS. of his works still exist, but little really 
is known about him, except that he studied under the 
above-mentioned Shaykh Abu Yusuf. It was he who 
formulated the first eight of the eleven rules, to be des- 
cribed below, which constitute the tariqa of the 
Khwajas. According to Hartman, 'Abdu'l-Khaliq was 
taught the habs-i-dam or restraining of the breath by 
Khidr, a practice common to one of the forms of the 

11. Khwaja *Arif Rewgari. The saint took his 
title from Rewgar a place in the neighbourhood of 
Bukhara. His death is assigned to the year 1315-16 
A. D. but as his pir died in 1179-80 A. D. he must have 
either lived to a very old age or like other saints of 


this Order, received his instruction spiritually from the 
departed plr. 

12. Khwaja Mahmud Anjir Faghnawi. The last 
name is derived from Faghna a place in the neighbour- 
hood of Bukhara, where he was born. There is much 
uncertainty about the date of his death, which is 
assigned to any year between 1272 and 1316 A. D. 

13. Khwaja 'Azizan Shaykh 'All Ramitam (d. 1306 
or 1321 A. D.). Ramitan is also a place near Bukhara. 

14. Khwaja Muhammad Baba Samasi (d. 1340 or 
1354 A. D.). He was born in Samasi a dependency 
of Ramitan, lying three farsakh from Bukhara. 

15. Khwaja Amir Sayyid Kulal Sokhari (d. 1371 
A. D.). Sokhar, two farsakhs from Bukhara, was the 
place where he was born and buried. He worked as 
a potter (kulal). 

16. Khwaja BahaVd-Dm Naqshband. The founder 
of the Order was born in 1318 A. D. in Qasr-i-Arifdn, 
two miles from Bukhara, where he also died and 
was buried in 1389 A. D. at the age of 73. (1) 

Prior to the time of BahaVd-Dln the school of 
Mystics, with which, as we have shown, his name is 
closely linked, was known by the name of Tariqa-i- 
Khivdjagdn, but since his days it has been called 

In the above pedigree we have shown that the most 
of its saints lived in the neighbourhood of Bukhara. It 

(1) Sec Rose, The Danishes, Appendix I, pp. 435-6 and also 
Khazinatu'l-Asfiya, (Nawalkishor, Cawnpore; Vol II pp. 517-548 
Hadratu'l-Quds (Manzil-i-Naqshbandiyya, Lahore). 


is also noticeable that there were several breaks in the 
continuity of its line of succession. But it is held th^t, 
since there is vital communion between all the saints, 
dead or alive, a Shaykh and his predecessor need not 
be contemporaries. One may receive as real an autho- 
rity from a saint who died several centuries ago, as 
from one who may be living in one's life-time. In 
other words, the succession consists rather in confor- 
mity to the spirit of the Shaykh than in mere formal 
adherence to one's pir. Further, in this Order there 
appears a progressive development of its doctrine, and 
that, for the most part, in keeping with the teaching 
of orthodox Islam. In consequence, of all the ufi 
Orders, this one is the most orthodox in its practice. 

As has been mentioned more than once, this is 
one of the very few Orders which traces its line of 
succession to Abu Bakr. This has been done perhaps, 
to safeguard it against the intrusion of the idea that 
Islam has an esoteric aspect. Such a notion has been 
the fruitful source of many 'innovations' in Islam, and 
is a common feature of most of the religious sects and 
Darwish Orders which claim 'All as their head. 

The orthodoxy of the followers of this Order does 
not permit them to practise Qhikr-i-jali, which is 
recited aloud, but Qhikr-t-khafi, repeated in a low 

There are eleven rules which a Naqshbandl is 
required to observe. The first eight, as stated, were 
divised by 'Abdu'l-gjialiq and the last three by 
Baha'u'd-Dln. They are as follows: 


1. Hoshdardam. 'Awareness while breathing/ Not 
a breath may be inhaled or exhaled in the state of 
forget-fulness of the Divine Presence. 

2. Nazar bar qadam. 4 Watching the steps/ A 
ufl in walking should always have his eyes on his 
footsteps. This he is directed to do in order to 
restrain his mind from wandering, and to be able 
to concentrate his attention on the Divine Presence. 

3. Safar dar watan. 'Journey within one's own 
land." A ufl should always keep in mind that 
he is making a 'journey' from human to angelic 

4. Jfchilwat dar anjuman. 'Ability to enjoy soli- 
tude even while in an assembly/ Here the aim is to 
achieve such power of concentration that, while busy 
in the affairs of the world, one may be able to meditate 
upon God. 

5. Ydd karo. 'Remember/ Never forget the aim 
which a ufl has chosen in his life. Sometimes it is 
said to mean remembering the dhikr which one has 
learnt from the pir. 

6. Bdz gasht, 'Restraint/ While practising the 
dhikr, the ufi should stop at short intervals and say 
some extemporary prayers or repeat the following 
words: 'O Lord, Thou only art my goal. I renounce 
the benefits of this world and of the world to come 
for Thine own sake; bestow upon me Thy blessings and 
grant me Thy vision/ 

7. Nigah ddsht. 'Be watchful/ The ufi is asked 
to shut out the affections of the mind. It also means 


that the mind is to guard against the intrusions of evil 

8. Yad dasht. 'Recollect/ To concentrate upon 
the Divine Presence without the aid of words or 

9. IVuquf-i-Zamanl. 'Temporal Pause'. To exa- 
mine how one has spent one's time. 

10. Wuquf-i-Adadl. 4 Numbering Pause'. To know 
whether the formula of dhikr has been repeated 
as many times as directed by the plr. 

11. Wuquf-i-Qalln. 'Heart Pause'. To form in 
the mind a picture of one's heart with the word Allah 
engraved upon it in Arabic characters. 

The Chishti Order. 


The Chishti Order was the first important religious 
Order to be established in India. It was founded by 
KhwSja Abu Ishaq Shim! Chishti, a brief description of 
whose life has already been given in the preceding chap- 
ter, and was introduced into this country by Khwaja 
Mu'inu'd-Din Chishti Sanjari Ajmeri, who was eighth 
in the line ot succession from the founder of the Order. 
He was born in the town of San jar in Sistan 1142-43 
A. D., or according other authorities, in 1136 A. D. He 
traced his descent on his mother's side from Hasan, and 
on his father's side from Husayn, the grandsons of Mu- 
hammad. His ancestors for several generations were 
reputed to be mystics, for this reason his own inclina- 
tion to mysticism, signs of which appeared in his early 
youth, might be said to be hereditary. At the death of 
his father, whom he lost when he was only fourteen 
years old, he received as his portion of the inheritance a 
garden and a mill-stone, and these were his only means 
of subsistence. 

When he was still young, his native place Sanjar 
was sacked by Tartars, and the sight of the massacre 
and awful atrocities committed by the invaders probably 
intensified his feeling that the world was a place of 
vanity. Thi^impression was the more deeply engraved 


upon his mind by his contact with a certain Shavkh 
Ibrahim Qandozl, who was held in high esteem for the 
sanctity of his life and because he was subject to state 
of ecstasy. It was to him that Mu'inu'd-Dln owed his 
violent experience of 'conversion', whereby . he finally 
broke away from the world and adopted the life of a 
recluse. It is stated that once when Mu'inu'd Din was 
watering the plants of his gardeiy Shaykh Ibrahim 
Qandozi happened to pass by. On seeing him, Mu'lnu'd- 
Dm ran out and with great respect conducted him into 
his garden and presented to him some of its choicest 
fruits. Shaykh Ibrahim, pleased at his warm hospitality, 
is said to have transmitted to him his own deep spiritual 
vitality. There was thus effected, in one instant by a 
symbolic operation, a complete and lasting transforma- 
tion in Mu'inu'd-Dm's life. This sacramental act of 
'transmission 1 was performed by an outward sign 
connected with a piece of bread, which Ibrahim, taking 
out of his wallet first chewed and then handed to 
Mu'inu'd-Dm for him to eat. This bread having been 
in close contact with the holy man was believed to 
possess supernatural power, and is said to have acted 
like magic, imparting to him, in an instant, all spiritual 
knowledge, with the result that he at once resolved to 
renounce whatever worldly possessions he had. He 
therefore sold all that belonged to him and whatever 
he realized thereby he distributed among the poor. 

This is the only occassion when Shaykh Ibrahim's 
name is mentioned in connection with Mu'lnu'd-Dm, 
but we shall not be far wrong if we surmise that the 


young boy of Sanjar, with his inborn religious dis- 
position, must have met his fellow-townsman more 
than once, for the man had a great reputation as a 
very spiritually-minded person. What passed in the 
mind of Mulnu'd-Dln in that hour of his deep spiri- 
tual experience when he met the holy man in his 
garden must remain a secret shrouded in mystery, such 
as veils the experience of many lives as being too 
sacred to disclose. The incident, however, illustrates 
the fact that contact with a saintly person increases 
the fervour of one's spiritual life, and in this way 
stimulates one's love towards God. The story of a 
great change in Mu'inu'd-Din's life, as described by 
his biographers, also illustrates incidently the striking 
belief of Muslim mystics that spiritual vitality can be 
transmitted through some material substance, which 
has been in intimate contact with the person of a holy 
man. Thus saliva, or any portion of food that has 
been chewed by such persons, is regarded as surcharg- 
ed with spiritual power that has emanated from them- 

However that may be, Khwaja Mu 4 inu'd-Dm f 
after his complete renunciation of the world, entered 
upon the life of a wandering hermit in search of a 
spiritual guide. First he spent a couple of years in 
Samarqand to complete his religious education, and 
then he went to Bukhara for further study of the 
Quran under the guidance of Mawlana Hisamu'd-Din 
Bukharl, a mystic and renowned exponent of the 
Muslim scriptures. Eventually be came to Harun, a 


town in the province of NlshSpur, where he was 
formally initiated as a disciple of Khwaja 4 Uthman 
Harunl, a famous saint of the Christ! Order. After he 
had served his master for a long time how long the 
authorities differ, though some make it a period of 
twenty years he was appointed as his vice-gerent and 
directed to go to India. Some biographers mention 
that it was the Prophet Muhammad himself who, in a 
vision, asked him to go to India as his representa- 
tive and convert the idolaters to the faith of Islam. 
In any case Khwaja Mu'mu'd-Din taking leave of his 
spiritual master, started out on his long journey which 
was to end finally at Ajmer in India. 

To appreciate the spiritual merit said to have been 
acquired by Mu'mu'd-Dm on his journey, it is neces- 
sary to remember that, according to ufi doctrine, 
mysticism does not merely consist of knowledge to be 
acquired but includes power and illumination that may 
be gained through personal contact with living saints. 
Such spiritual power and illumination may also be 
sought and received at the tomb of a departed saint. 
The ufi in other words, believes literally in 4 the 
communion of saints 1 . That 'Friends of God 1 do not 
die, is a part of his creed. To him this means com- 
munion with all saints, whether still alive and waiting 
for the call of their Beloved, or departed to enjoy that 
eternal union with God for which, while alive, they 
had denied themselves the riches of this world and 
despised the rewards of paradise and the torments of 
hell. Consequently the degree of the spiritual sanctity 


of a mystic is often determined by the number of 
saints with whom he has actually come in contact, and 
the number of shrines he has visited. 

The hagiographers of Islam, anxious to enhance the 
sanctity and degree of .spiritual power of Mu'lnu'd- 
Dln, describe at length how he met all the famous 
saints of that period and visited all the shrines, in the 
course of his long journey from Nishapur to Ajmer. 
First he came to Baghdad, where he is said to have 
met the great Ghawth 4 Abdu' 1-Qadir Gilani, the 
founder of the Qadiri Order. There he also met 
Abu'n-Najib Suhrawardl and his son and successor 
Shihabu'd-Dln the most renowned saints of the Suh- 
rawardl Order. Thus Mu'mu'd-Dln, though belonging to 
the Chishtl Order, was also endowed with the spiritual 
gifts of these other two famous religious Orders. 
Qadiriyya and Suhrawardiyya. Then passing through 
Hamadan and Tabriz he met in turn Shaykh Abu Yusuf 
Hamadani, and Abu Sa 4 ld Tabriz!. The former was a 
mystic of great fame, and the latter was the spiritual 
teacher of the renowned saint Mawlana Jalalu'd-Dln 
Ruml, author of Mathnaun. Again, in Isfahan he met 
KJjwaja Qutbu'd-Dln Bakjjtiyar Kakl, then in search 
of a spiritual guide. This man was destined to be his 
own famous disciple and spiritual successor in India. 
Passing through Mehna, he visited the tomb of the 
saint Abu Sa'ld Abu'l-Kbayr, and in Khirqan he visited 
the tomb of Abu'l-Hasan JjChirqanL Then, when he 
came to Astrabad he met Shayl^bl Nasiru'd-Dm, an- 
other saint with a great reputation. In Herat he 


stopped for some time at the tomb of ImSm 'Abdullah 
AnsSri, who had been a companion of the Prophet. 
Leaving Herat he came to a place known as Sabzwar, 
where the first incident in demonstration of his spiri- 
tual power is said to have taken place. This was 
connected with the miraculous conversion of Muham- 
mad Yadgar, the Governor of that place. This man 
was notorious for his bad conduct, and had acquired 
great wealth by extortion. As Mu'lnu'd-Dln passed 
through his territory he happened to enter his garden, 
and there spread out his carpet by the tank to rest. 
Yadgar's servants requested him to quit the place and to 
take shelter somewhere else, explaining that their 
master, the owner, was shortly expected, and if he found 
him in his garden he would deal severely with them- 
selves, and might possibly drive him out with insult. 
Mu'Inu'd-Din, however, would not be persuaded to 
leave the garden, either by entreaties or threats. In the 
meantime the Governor appeared on the scene and 
advanced towards Mu'inu'd-Dln in a threatening atti- 
tude, but as soon as he met the steady gaze of his serious 
eyes, fear and trembling seized hold of him, and he saw so 
clearly the evil state of his own sinful soul, that he 
was filled with dread of eternal punishment. The 
narrative goes on to say that in the silence that 
followed a battle went on in the Governor's soul, the 
issue of which wrought a tremendous change in him. 
The once haughty man, now repentant for his past 
sins and resolved to make amends for the future, 
threw himself at the feet of Mu'inu'd-Din, and in 


words like those of Zacchaeus said: "Master, I repent 
of all my evil deeds, and promise that whatever I 
have acquired by unjust method, I will return with 
compensation; and in expiation of my past iniquities 
I will bestow the rest of my goods on the poor. And 
do thou accept me as one of thy disciples." Then 
Mu'lnu'd-Din shared with him a cup of water, drinking 
half himself and giving the rest to him. In the perfor- 
mance of this sacramental act he is said to have 
transmitted some of his own spiritual power to the 
new disciple. The effect of the water thus drunk was 
instantaneous, for we are told that a radical change 
came over the man, his heart was illuminated and 
the former notorious sinner was changed into a saint. 
In accordance with his declaration he sold all that he 
had, compensated those he had injured, and distributed 
what was left to the poor. Finally, he set at liberty 
all his slaves. The proud Governor, now a humble 
disciple divested of all his worldly encumbrances, 
accompanied his new master as far as Hisar Shadman 
where, after receiving his final instructions, he remain- 
ed as his vice-gerent, seeking to lead others into the 
mystic path. 

Leaving Balkh, Mu'Inu'd-Din passed on his way 
through numerous towns and cities, visiting shrines, 
meeting the leading saints and scholars of his time, 
working miracles, turning sinners into saints, and 
converting into Islam here a group of Magi and there 
a village of idolaters. Advancing thus like a victor 
who subdues his opponents and receives homage from 


his adherents, Mu k lnu'd-Dln entered India and march- 
ing over the frontier came to the Punjab, which had 
already been conquered and subdued by invaders 
from the North. In Lahore he spent some time in 
meditation at the tomb of Data Ganj Bakhsh. At 
the distance of a yard from the grave of this saint 
a small structure is pointed out as the site of the 
hut occupied by Mu'lnu'd-Dln during his residence at 
the tomb. From Lahore he went to Delhi, where 
through his miracles he is said to have converted many 
Hindus to the faith of Islam. Eventually in 1165-66 
A.D he reached Ajmer which was destined to be his 
last resting place, and the Mecca of the members of 
the Chishti Order throughout the world, f 

The narrative of his early residence in Ajmer is 
embellished with stories of supernatural events, such as 
miracles performed by himself, but these have not the 
slightest historical value. Nevertheless we give a brief 
description of some of these here, so as to acquaint the 
reader with Muslim ideas of this renowned saint. 

In Ajmer he came into conflict with the ruling 
prince, Raja Prithvl Raj, who resented his entrance 
into his dominion, and a struggle followed between the 
saint and the court magicians. The discomfiture of 
the Raja's magicians before the miraculous power of 
Mu'lnu'd-Din is described in terms no less striking 
and impressive than those used of the men who 
opposed Moses in the court of Pharaoh. 

On first entering the city the spot selected by 
Mu'lnu'd-Din as a resting place happened to be the 


place reserved for the Raja's camels, and he was not 
allowed to stay there. The saint, after pronouncing a 
curse on the camels, which deprived them of the power 
to rise from the ground, took shelter under a tree on 
the banks of lake Anasagar. The following morning 
the drivers found that the camels could not be made to 
stand up. Concluding that this mishap was the result 
of the discourtesy which they had shown to the saint, 
they sought him out and apologised for their rudeness, 
and begged him to restore the camels to their normal 
state. Instantly at a sign from Mu^lnu'd-Dln, the 
camels recovered their power and stood up. News 
of this miracle soon spread throughout the city, so 
that everybody was talking about it. The Raja thus 
hearing of the intrusion of a Muslim mendicant into 
his territory became exceedingly angry and ordered 
his expulsion. When a body of soldiers approached 
the saint with a view to carrying out their master's 
orders, he, like Muhammad on the occasion of his 
memorable flight to Medina, took up a handful of dust 
and threw it over them. This imitation of the 
Prophet's act resulted in similar disastrous conse- 
quences, some of the soldiers being struck with blind- 
ness, others with paralysis. Rendered powerless by 
the miraculous act of Mu'lnu'd-Din, they invoked his 
help and were quickly restored to their normal condi- 
tion, on accepting Islam. Physical force having failed 
to expel him from his territory, the Raja strove to 
overthrow this champion of Islam in intellectual 
combat, hoping that by this means Mu'inu'd-Din 


would acknowledge his defeat and leave the country 
crestfallen. Consequently on the following morning 
Ram Dev, the royal mahant, together with hundreds 
of leading pandits, was ordered to meet Mu'lnu'd-Din 
in religious debate. One glance from the saint was 
sufficient to disclose to the mahant the falsity of his 
own polytheistic beliefs, and to reveal to him the truth 
and beauty of Islam. Thus conquered and subdued 
he became a Muslim. Thereupon Mu'inu'd-Dm drank 
some water from a cup and passed it on to the mahant 
for him to finish. When he had done so a miraculous 
change came over him, his heart was illuminated, and 
he sought to be admitted into the saint's discipleship. 
Mu'inu'd-Din performed the usual rites of initiation 
and changed his name from Ram Dev to Shadi Dev. 
According to some biographers, his former name was 
not Dev but Deo, the latter meaning an evil spirit. 
Thus it came about that he is believed by some to be 
still alive as a supernatural being, and persons sup- 
posed to be possessed of evil spirits invoke his name 
during the annual 'urs of the saint at Ajmer. In 
writing these two names in Persian character there 
is of course no difference between Dev and Deo, and 
it is most probable that this peculiar belief about Ram 
Dev first arose through a confusion in the reading of 
his name. 

The Raja's discomfiture was now complete. He 
had failed to vanquish the saint through the help of 
his soldiers, who indeed had proved traitors to his 
cause; the royal mahant had not only ignominously 


failed him but had himself fallen a victim to the power 
of this Muslim beggar. Alarmed at Mu'mu'd-Din's 
supernatural power, the Raja next sought the assistance 
of Jaypal Jogi, the chief magician of the court. Muslim 
narrators at this point give the most extraordinary 
account of the conflict which is supposed to have 
taken place between Mu'lnu'd-Din and this magician; 
in fact the story of the display of supernatural power 
on both sides surpasses even the wonders of Egypt 
during the time of Moses. 

Jaypal, accompanied by a thousand of his disciples, 
advanced to meet Mu'mu'd-Dln in a combat which 
was to be conducted by invisible forces, and as his first 
precautionary measure, he took control of lake Ana- 
sagar, and so cut off the water supply of the saint and 
his followers. His object in doing this was not merely to 
deprive the Muslims of water to drink, but more 
especially to prevent them from performing their legal 
ablutions, without which, Jaypal evidently was aware, 
prayers offered as a protection against the evil influence 
of the black art would be ineffective. Shadi Dev, the new 
convert to Islam, acting under the orders of Mu'lnu'd- 
Din, somehow managed to get a bucketful of water 
from the lake. He had no sooner carried out the order, 
than the water of the entire lake, and of all the wells 
and water-reservoirs in Ajmer became absolutely dry. 
When the distress of the people through lack of water 
became very great, Jaypal approached Mu'lnu'd-Dm 
and thus addressed him. "You pretend to be a holy 
man, and yet you deliberately permit men, women and 


children to suffer the torments of thirst; such callous- 
ness is not in keeping with your pretensions." 
Mu'mu'd-Din, moved by his rebuke, ordered the con- 
tents of the bucket to be poured back into the lake, 
and instantly the water supply of Ajmer was restored 
to its normal proportions. Then ensued a series of 
magical attacks initiated by Jaypal, but these were all 
repelled by the efficacy of the saint's prayers. To 
mention only a few by way of illustration: hundreds 
of ferocious animals and reptiles, such as lions, tigers, 
snakes, scorpions, etc. would appear from all directions 
at the command of the royal magician, and dart towards 
Mu'mu'd-Din, but they disappeared as soon as they 
touched the magic circle which the saint had drawn 
round himself and his disciples. Then fire would 
descend from above, reducing all the neighbouring trees 
to ashes, but not a spark would enter in the protective 
circle. Failing in such displays of his magical art, 
Jaypal then spread out his carpet of deer skin, and 
seating himself thereon, flew high into the air, but 
Mu'inu'd-Din despatched his wooden clog after him, 
which beat him and drove him down to earth again. 
Thus defeated and humiliated, Jaypal accepted Islam, 
and was re-named 'Abdullah 1 . He then requested 
Mu'lnu'd-Din to pray for him that he might remain 
alive till the day of judgment. The saint assured him 
that the favour would be granted, but informed him 
that on the expiration of the natural length of life, he 
would become invisible. This story accounts for the 
belief which is current among the devotees of Mu'inu'd- 


Din that Jaypal, or 'Abdu'llSh is still alive in Ajmer, 
and that when pilgrims to the shrine lose their path 
it is he who guides them, and when they are in distress 
it is he who helps them. In consequence, it is a 
common practice among the pilgrims at Ajmer to 
invoke him by the name of 'Abdu'llah Baybanl i. e., 
'Abdu'llah of the wilderness, it being supposed that 
he haunts the wilderness in the neighbourhood of 

Mu'Inu'd-Dm, thus triumphant over all the devices 
of the Raja, was now permitted to reside in Ajmer 
peacefully and even to start making disciples. Neverthe- 
less biographers state that, after some time, the Raja 
began to persecute his disciples, and, in particular, to 
oppose plans for the conversion of Hindus to Islam. 
Mu'lnu'd-Dln exasperated at the behaviour of the Raja, 
is said to have ejaculated in words that were meant to 
indicate the supreme authority granted to him by God 
over India: "I herewith hand over Prithvi Raj alive 
into the hands of king Shihbu'd-Dln!" It is said that 
a few days later this fate actually befell him for it was 
in 1192 A. D. the year in question, that Sultan Shihabu'd- 
Dln Muhammad Gborl marched from Ghor with a 
large army to fight against the Raja. A decisive battle 
was fought at Sirhind in which the Raja was defeated 
and taken prisoner. Shihabu'd-Din attributing his 
victory to the blessing of the saint, came to Ajmer to 
pay him his respects, and while there he transformed 
the great temple into a mosque in the brief space of 
two and a half days. It is for this reason that the 


building, as it stands to-day, is called Dhd'i Din kd 
Jhonprd, the two-and-a-half-day structure. 

Shihabu'd-Din at the conclusion of his campaign 
appointed one of his slaves named, Qutbu'd-Dln, to be 
his viceroy in Delhi, and this man, on the death of his 
master, founded the Slave Dynasty. 

It appears that Mu'mu'd-Din remained a celibate 
even to old age, but eventually he married, though his 
age at the time cannot be stated with certainty. The 
Muslim narrators make him out to have been eighty- 
nine years old, and say that he took two wives by whom 
he had four children. There is undoubtedly some 
discrepancy about his age, and in any case chronology 
is not a strong point with these biographers. It seems 
clear, however, that his wedded life began after the 
conquest of Ajmer by Shihabu'd-Din. His first wife 
was Ummatu'llah, who, according to some, was the 
daughter of the Muslim Governor of the fort in Ajmer. 
Others, however, say that she was the daughter of 
some Hindu prince, and that she was taken captive at 
the conquest of Ajmer and presented to Mu'mu'd-Din 
who first converted her to the faith of Islam and then 
married her. His second wife, 4 Asmatu'llah, was the 
daughter of a leading Muslim of that time. His first wife 
gave birth to a daughter only, Bibi Hafis Jamal, who 
became renowned for her piety and austerity. She 
was appointed as one of the successors to Mu 4 inu'd-Din, 
and was by him authorised to make disciples of women. 
She is one of the very few women saints of Islam to 
whom this privilege is said to have been granted. She 


was married to one Shaykh Riyadu'd-Dln, by whom 
she had two children, both of whom died in infancy. 
Bib! Hafiz Jamal lies buried near the tomb of Mu'inu'd- 
Din. By his second wife, 'Asmatu'llah, he had three 
children. His first-born, Hisamu'd-Din, mysteriously 
disappeared in infancy. Some Muslims say that he 
was a great favourite with the Abdals, and that he 
joined them when a child and so was never seen again. 
His second son, Fakhru'd-Din, took to farming, and 
passed his life in a village some thirty miles from Ajmer, 
and died twenty years after his father. His third son, 
Abu Sa 4 ld, dwelt in Ajmer where he died and was 
buried within the shrine of Mu'in'ud-Din, in a porch 
under a marble dome known as Karnatakl Dalan, 
(Karnatak porch). Mu'lnud-Dln's two wives lie buried 
near a mosque called Masjid-i-Sandal. , 

Khwaja Mu k mu'd-Din himself died in 1236 A. D. 
His tomb in Ajmer is the most celebrated of all shrines 
in India. On the occasion of his 'urs, which celebrates 
the anniversary of his death, Muslims from every part 
of India make pilgrimage to it. A remarkable feature 
of the celebrations at this time is that of cooking rice 
with several other ingredients in two huge cauldrons 
and then the distribution of it in portions to pilgrims 
and visitors. This is the only shrine, so far as we know, 
where no Christian is permitted to enter. This re- 
striction was imposed not very long ago owing to the 
careless behaviour of certain European visitors. 

There are several mosques connected with the 
dargdh, one of these was built by Akbar. In it there is 


a Madrasa, largely supported by grants from H. E. H. 
the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Emperor Akbar became 
greatly devoled to the Khwaja from the time that he 
had a son in answer to the prayer of a Chishtl saint, 
Shaykh Sallm, a descendant of Baba Farld. This saint 
had taken up his abode in a cave some 23 miles from 
Agra. When that son, afterwards to rule as Jehaoglr, 
was born to Akbar, he was named Sallm after the 
saint, and that area in which v/as the cave of the saint, 
became transformed into the famous capital city of 
Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar also made annual pilgri- 
mage to Ajmer every year and distributed large gifts 
in honour of Khwaja Mu'in ud-Dln. 


The Chishti Order after the death of 


Two of the lesser known vice-gerents of Mu'inu'd- 
founded minor sub-divisions in the Chishti Orders. 
Very little is known about these men beyond their 
names. One was Shah 'Abdullah Karmani of Bengal, 
who founded the Karmanl Order, the other was Hadrat 
Pir Karim of Ceylon, who founded the Karimi Order. 
Muslim Hagiographers are for the most part silent 
about their activities. We do not know that the fame 
of Mu'inu'd-Din had, in his life-time, extended as far 
as Bengal and Ceylon. So that we cannot say whether 
these men came of set purpose to Ajmer, or whether 
they were merely adventurers and by chance met with 
Mu'inu'd-Din and became his disciples. The presence, 
however, of large numbers of devotees of Mu'inu'd- 
Din in Bengal to-day, is clear indication of that 
country's early contact with the saint of Ajmer. 

But the chief successor and heir to all the spiritual 
gifts of Mu'inu'd-Din was Qu^bu'd-Din Kki. In 
Islamic hagiography he is portrayed as one of the few 
saints who, from their very birth exhibited tokens of 
special divine favour, and whose subsequent spiritual 
dignity was foreshadowed by portents accompanying 
the natural development of their physical and mental 


life. Records of saints of this type indicate the uft 
belief in the doctrine of election. Just as according to 
Muslim theologians God chooses the Prophets without 
any regard to their merits, as an especially privileged 
body of people to be His messengers and His friends, 
so, according to certain ufis, He elects some of His 
saints even before their birth to be His favourites, His 
lovers or Beloved. Although belief in such "predes- 
tinated-saints" forms no part of early Tasawwuf, they 
occupy a prominent place in Indian hagiography. 

There can be no doubt, however, that miracles 
ascribed to their infancy, and this belief in their "pre- 
ordained spiritual dignity/ 1 must have been invented 
by their devotees long after their death, for these 
saints do not seem to have claimed such high privileges 
for themselves. 

Qutbu'd-Dln is described as one of the favourite 
saints of God. He was born in 1186 A. D. at Farghana 
in Isfahan. ' Many miraculous events are said to have 
occurred at his birth. His biographers, describing the 
events of the night in which he was born, say that the 
whole house was illuminated with a dazzling light, and 
that as soon as he was born, he bowed his head in 
adoration to God, and continued in loud Qhikr till the 
morning. It is also related that his mother knew half 
the Quran by heart, and that the child, hearing her 
recite it had himself learnt that portion while still an 

We are told that he came of noble lineage though 
his home was not a wealthy one. He himself claimed 


to be a descendant of the Prophet, and his genealogical 
tree shows him to be the sixteenth in line from Husayn, 
the grandson of Muhammad, and ninth from the eighth 
Imam directly descended from 'All. It further appears 
that almost all his ancestors were mystics, so that the 
very blood of ufis ran in his veins. Indeed, if we are 
to believe our sources, he began, in early life, to show 
signs of the mystic's temperament. His father died 
when he was a little child and he was brought up 
solely by his mother, a pious and God-fearing woman. 
There can be little doubt that he owed much of his 
religious discipline to the early training of his devoted 

1 He received his instruction in Tasawwuf from 
several teachers, in his time Baghdad was not only a 
centre of secular and religious learning but also of 
mysticism, and it was there that he studied it under 
its most renowned teachers, chief of whom was 
Shihabu'd-Din Suhrawardi, the founder of the order 
of that name. The fame of Baghdad as the scene of 
the activities of such noted saints as Shihabu'd-Dln 
Suhrawardi and 'Abdu'l-Qadir Gilani, had drawn 
Mu'inu'd-Dln there while on his way to India and it 
was while young ( Qutbu'd-Din was there studying that 
he met Mu'inu'd-Dm in the mosque of Abu'l-Laytfa, 
and accepted his discipleship. j 

Soon after Mu'lnu'd-Din had settled down in 
Ajmer Qutbu'd-Din left Baghdd, and following the 
footsteps of his master, made his way towards India. 
As he journeyed he paid the customary visits to the 


tombs and shrines of the saints, and met the living 
ufis of his day. In Multan he stayed for some time 
with Baha'u'd-Dln Zakariya and Jalalu'd-Din TabrizI, 
both pioneer saints of the Suhrawardi Order. His 
fame as a saint had already preceded his appearance 
in India, so that when at length he reached the Muslim 
capital of Delhi, having followed the routes taken by 
his master before him he was hailed with every token 
of honour and respect. The king and the populace 
conducted him into the city and prevailed upon him to 
take up his abode there. Mu l inu'd-Din hearing the 
news of his arrival in Delhi, appointed him his vice- 
gevent and permitted him to stay there. 

It was during this period that the pioneer saints of 
the Suhrawardi order were trying to establish them- 
selves in India. For instance, Baha'u'd-Din Zakariya 
had made Multan a centre of the Order. Again, 
Jalalu'd-Din, his fellow-disciple had on the request of 
King Altamash, taken up his abode temporarily in 
Delhi, nevertheless marked preference was shown for 
the Chishti Order. King Altamash himself, successor 
of Sultan Qutbu'd-Din, the founder of the slave 
dynasty, by professing his allegiance to this order had 
given it his royal patronage, holding Qutbu'd-Din his 
spiritual master in the highest esteem. 

When the office of the chief Qadi in Delhi fell 
vacant, the king, anxious to show his regard for 
Qutbu'd-Din offered it to him, but he declined it. Sub- 
sequently Najmu'd-Dln Sughra, a notable scholar and 
close friend of Mu'inu'd-Din, was appointed to the 


office. Even so these saints who enjoyed such royal 
support, were from time to time victims of the 
intrigues and jealousy of high officials. f 

The following incident serves to illustrate the state 
of things that existed. Najmu'd-Din Sughra was at 
first a friend of Qutbu'd-Dln, but on being promoted, 
from the office of the chief Qadi to the dignity of 
Shaykhu'l-Islam, he became very jealous of him. In 
particular he was jealous of his increasing popularity 
with the people, and exceedingly vexed at the honour in 
which he was held by the king. He tried every means 
he knew to bring discredit upon him, but failed. During 
a brief visit of Mu'mu'd-Dln to Delhi he found an 
opportunity to complain to him against Qutbu'd-Dln in 
words that clearly revealed his hatred. The master be- 
coming thus apprehensive for the safety of his beloved 
disciple, spoke to him before leaving for Ajmer, in the 
following affectionate manner: "My son Qutbu'd-Din! 
I desire that you should come along with me to Ajmer 
and that there, as my successor, you should exercise 
authority as spiritual guide/' Thus Qutbu'd-Din, 
always obedient to his master's instructions, left Delhi 
in the company of his master after bidding farewell, to 
his friends and disciples. It is said, however, that when 
they reached the gate of the city, the king and almost 
the whole population, stricken with grief followed 
them with loud lamentation, and urged Qutbu'd-Din to 
return to the city. Mu'inu'd-Din was deeply moved 
by the touching scene, and commending Qutbu'd-Din 
to the protection of God, allowed him to return. 


Qutbu'd-Din is known by the two titles of "Bakhti- 
yar" and "Kaki", which mean respectively "a friend of 
fortune," and a "man of cakes 1 '. The name Bakhtivar 
was given to him by his master Mu'inu'd-Din but how 
he acquired the other is variously explained. The 
following is the account of its origin as given by 
Nizamu'd-Din of Delhi who was second in the line of 
succession from Qutbu'd-Din. He relates how that 
once when Qutbu'd-Din was sitting near the tank 
known as Shamsiya in Delhi, some friends of his drew 
near and expressed a desire to eat hot cakes. The 
saint at once plunged his hand into the water of the 
tank and drew forth just such cakes as his friends 
desired, and from that day he came to be spoken of by 
this name of Kaki. 


Early biographers of Qutbu'd-Din have left us a 
vivid account of the last days of this remarkable man. 
They describe how he himself selected the very spot 
where he desired to be buried and the stipulation he 
made concerning the person who alone should be 
allowed to wash his corpse. Towards the close of his 
life he named Faridu'd-Din, his disciple, as his successor, 
though the latter was not present when the end came. 
One of Qufbu'd-Din's last acts was to bid his disciples 
to make over to Faridu'd-Din his robe, prayer-carpet, 
shoes and staff, properties which since the commence- 


ment of the order had been passed on from master to 
successor, and were thus regarded as holy relics. 


A characteristic feature of the mystics of this Order 
is their use of music, and, although according to the 
orthodox teaching of Islam such is forbidden to Muslims, 
they attach great importance to it. They call it 
Sama literally 'hearing 1 , but it is described by one of 
the saints of the Order as "the hearing of harmonious 
sounds which move the heart, and kindle the fire of 
love for God/' It appears that through the influence 
of Qutbu'd-Dln the custom of holding musical festivals 
became very popular. The orthodox leaders were 
alarmed at the frequency of such assemblies. In Delhi 
music became the subject of fierce controversy between 
the guardians of the shari'at and the ufls of this Order. 

Thus the orthodox 'Ulama petitioned King Altamash 
to put a stop to the use of music by exercising his 
royal authority, but he, embarrassed on the one hand 
by his loyalty to Qutbu'd-Dln and on the other by his 
regard for the law of Islam, adopted a strictly neutral 
attitude in the matter. But popular feeling triumphed 
over orthodox opposition, and it is reported that festi- 
vals of song, prolonged at times for several days, were 
frequently held in Delhi. 

The Faridi section of the Chishti Order. 

, Farldu'd-Din Mas'ud Shakarganj, who is popularly 
spoken of as Bba Farid, was the chief successor of 


Qufbu'd-Din, and the section of the Chishti Order 
founded by him is known as Faridiyya. It is said that 
he belonged to a noble and ancient family of Kabul. 
During the invasion of Chengiz Khan his grandfather 
Shu'ayb with his family fled from their ancestoral 
home and took refuge in the Punjab, where he was 
appointed Qadi of Kathwal, a town in the district 
of Multan. It was here that Farldu'd-Din was 

From his childhood he was deeply religious, and it 
is probable that in early life he was much influenced 
by Baha'u'dJDin Zakariya of the Suhrawardi Order, to 
whom he owed all his education, though he did not 
accept him as his guide in the mystic way. When 
seventeen years' old he came in contact with Qutbu'd- 
Dln during the latter's short stay in Multan and became 
his disciple, receiving his initiation at his hands in the 
Chishti Order. Soon after, having completed his reli- 
gious and secular studies under Baha'u'd-Dln Zakariya, 
he followed Qutbu'd-Din to Delhi. There he served 
his master with great zeal and fervour, and led a life 
of severe austerity and piety. Consequently his 
fame spread far and wide, and soon crowds of people 
began to come to him with urgent requests that he 
would intercede with God for them. But disliking 
popularity and prefering solitude, he left Delhi with 
his master's permission and went to reside at Hansi. 
Even here he was not allowed to pass his time in quiet- 
ness and so fled to Ajodhya where he stayed for a 
considerable time. The last sixteen years of his life, 


however, were spent at Kathwil in Multan, the scene 
of his early life. 

Many stories are current concerning his austerity 
and self-mortification. He is said to be one of the 
few saints of Islam who have performed their prayers 
continuously for forty nights, and he did this hanging 
head downwards, suspended by the feet in a well. We 
are told that he used to take great care to conceal 
his austerities. On the occasion of the prolonged 
prayer just referred to, having searched diligently for 
some place where he could remain unnoticed, he 
sought the help of a friend who would tie him every 
night in the required position, and at the same time 
guard his secret closely. He found such a place 
in a mosque in Uchh, the muadhdhin of which 
agreed to hang him by his feet every night and 
release him before the congregational prayer at 


A simple story is related in explanation of his title 
'Shakarganf. It is said that his mother, in order to 
inculcate in the child the habit of performing the 
regular daily prayers, used to place a few sweets under 
his prayer-carpet as an inducement. Once she neg- 
lected to do so, but Farid, having rolled up his carpet 
was not disappointed, because instead of the few sweets 
he expected to find there was under the carpet an 
abundant supply. His nickname Heaps of Sweets is 
said to rest on this story! 



Baba Farid is believed to be still a wonder-working 
saint, and he is invoked by his devotees in time of 
trouble. So high indeed is the esteem in which he is 
held that he has been given no less than 101 titles, and 
these are often repeated as a charm to heal the sick, 
to escape affliction and to obtain one's desires. A few 
of these titles are as follows; The Present, The Praised, 
The Perfect, The Truthful, The Patient, The Great, 
The Majestic, The First, The Last, The Outward, The 
Inward, The Land, The Ocean, The Light of God, The 
Sight of God, The Grace of God, The Liberality of God, 
The Secret of God, The Spirit of God. 

It will be noticed that some of these titles are to 
be found in the famous Ninety-nine Beautiful Names 
of God, e. g., The Truth, The Great. Moreover, 
the titles, The First, The Last, The Outward and The 
Inward, are the four names especially used by Muslim 
mystics as attributes of God. 

He passed the greater part of his life as a celibate, 
but married in his old age. His first wife is said to 
have been Princess Huzaira, the daughter of Balban, 
King of Delhi. Shortly afterwards he took two more 
wives, who were the maid-servants presented by the 
king to his daughter on the occasion of her marriage 
to the saint. We are told that the king gave a handsome 
dowry and a palace to his daughter, in order that she 
might escape the sufferings of poverty as the wife of 


a hermit, but she very soon decided to share the ascetic 
life of her husband and consequently distributed her 
entire wealth to the poor. According to certain 
biographers Farid had six sons and four daughters. 
The eldest son Shaykh Badru'd-Dln Sulayman, later 
became one of his vice-gerents, while the youngest 
daughter married 'All Ahmad abir, of Piran Kaliar, his 
own nephew and one of his chief successors. 

Baba Farid died at the age of 93, in 1265-6 A. D. 
and was buried at Pak Patan in the Punjab, where his 
'urs is celebrated every year on the 5th, Muharram. 
His mausoleum contains a door, called "Bihishti Dar- 
waza\ the Door of Paradise, which is opened only on 
the day of his 4 wr5, on which occasion his devotees 
make a point of passing through it. In explanation of 
this name and practice it is said that once, when 
Nizamu'd-Dln, the successor of Farldu'd-Dln, was 
present at the shrine, he had a vision of Mahammad 
standing at this door, and saying: "O Nijamu'd-Din 
whosoever shall enter this door will be saved." Since 
then the door has been known by the name of the Door 
of Paradise. 


The Nizami and Sabiri Sections of the 
Chishti Order. 

The Faridi section of the Chishti Order gave rise to 
two streams of mystical teaching associated with two 
famous disciples of Baba Farld, namely Nigamu'd-Din 
Mahbub-i-Ilahl of Delhi, and 4 Alau'd-Dln 'All Ahmad 
abir of Piran Kaliar. These two sub-divisions are 
known respectively as the Nizamiyya and the abiriyya, 
and no section of the Chishti order enjoys so great 
popularity as these two, whose adherents exceed those 
of any other branch. 


Nizamu'd-Dln was himself born in Budaun in 1236-7 
A.D. but his grandparents had come from Bukhara 
and settled down in India. His father died when he 
was a child of five and so he was indebted to his mother 
Zulaykha for his early training. From the various 
accounts left to us we gather that she was a very pious 
woman, who exhibited extraordinary trust in God, and 
there can be little doubt that it was owinr* to her early 
influence that her son grew up to be spiritually-minded 
and in consequence became one of the renowned 
saints of Islam. Nizamu'd-Din proved himself to be an 
obedient son and showed great affection for his mother. 
Indeed, so strong was his attachment to her, and so 


great his reverence for her, that even after her death 
he made it a habit to visit her tomb frequently. 

When twenty years old he heard of the fame of 
Baba Farld and went to Ajodhya, where the saint was 
residing, and in due course he became his disciple. 
After he had satisfied his master with his progress in 
the mystic path, he was appointed his vice-gerent and 
sent to Delhi. Here, however, his relations with suc- 
cessive emperors were not happy. This was in part 
due to the fact that he had made it a rule never to pay 
a purely ceremonial visit to the royal court, and this 
rule he observed so strictly that even when pressure 
was brought to bear upon him by the emperors them- 
selves he would not break it. Nevertheless the hostile 
attitude of the rulers did not prevent leading personal- 
ities of the royal court from becoming his disciples. 
Moreover, so great was the esteem in which he was 
held by the people that hundreds would come every 
day from far and near to seek his blessing. The defiant 
attitude of a person of such influence was considered 
by the emperors to be dangerous, and the following 
incident will illustrate the strained relations that were 
apt to exist between the king and this saint. 

In pursuance of an old custom of Muslim rulers, the 
king, Mubarak Khiljl, at the appearance of a new moon 
used to give audience to the courtiers and the leading 
citizens of Delhi, and they in turn wished him happiness 
and prosperity for the month. Nizamu'd-Din persistent- 
ly refused on these occasions to visit the king and offer 
the customary greeting. This was looked upon as an 



affront to the king, who, in consequence, threatened 
to take severe measures against Nisamu'd-Dln if he 
absented himself at the next new moon. The saint on 
being informed of the threat, visted his mother's tomb, 
and after offering the usual prayers, he is reported tc 
have said, "Dear mother, if the king i* not dead by the 
appearance of the next moon, I shall never come to 
your tomb again. 11 Now the fact is that by a strange 
coincidence, at the time of the appearance of the new 
moon, the king was put to death by a minion of his 
court, a low caste Hindu, who styled himself Khusru 
Khan. This slave inaugurated a reign of terror, but 
Ghiyathu'd-Dln Taghlak having removed him, restored 
order and founded a new dynasty. Even so the rela- 
tion between the new king of Delhi and the saint con- 
tinued to be strained. The latter's presence in Delhi 
was in fact as intolerable to the new Sultan as it had 
been to his predecessor. In 1325 A.D. when Sutaln 
was returning from a successful expedition in Bengal, 
he sent word to Nizamu'd-Dln to quit Delhi. The 
saint on receiving the royal command gave expression 
to the words: "Hanoz Delhi dur ast." "Delhi is still 
far off 11 a Persian phrase which has since become 
popular in the sense of the English proverb, "It is a far 
cry to London", The king, however, was not destined 
to enter Delhi, and so could not summon the saint to 
his court, for he met an unexpected death at Taghlaka- 
bad through the fall of a pavillion erected in his honour. 
This tragic incident is generally believed to have been 
planned by Prince Jawna, who then ascended the 


throne as Sultan Muhammad Taghlak. It has, how- 
ever, been suggested that the cause of the tragedy is to 
be sought not in Prince Jawna, but in the hostility 
that existed between the king and the saint. And 
indeed the pavilion in question was erected by Ahmad 
son of Malikzada Ayyaz, the Inspector of Buildings, a 
man who was known to be an over-zealous disciple of 
Nizamu'd-Dln. It was he who was responsible for 
the faulty construction, whereby the building suddenly 
collapsed when one of the army elephants, whose 
mahawt was a relative of his, stampeded and crashed 
into it. 

Nizamu'd-Dln is known also by the titles of 
Mahbiib-i-Ildhl, the Beloved of God, and Sulfanu'l- 
Awliya the king of the Saints. He died at the age of 
91 and was buried at Qhiyathpur in the neighbourhood 
of Delhi. His tomb, which is well known in that dis- 
trict, has recently been raised to the dignity of a 
monastery by Kbwaja Hasan Nizami who has made it 
a centre of Muslim propaganda. 

One of the saint's famous disciples was Aml^ 
Khusru, well known as one of India's great Persian 
poets and regarded as the Chaucer of Hindustani 
literature, "He was the first to employ the indigenous 
Urdu for literary purposes and also to compose songs 
and write verse* in it. He was the inventor of many 
riddles, rhymes, enigmas, and punning verses, which are 
still popular. He was born in the thirteenth century 
in the district of Etah, and led a chequered life through 
the reigns of Balban, Kaikubad and other sovereigns 


of Delhi. He became a distinguished disciple of 
Nij&amu'd-Dln. He was deeply attached to him and 
died in grief in 1325 A.D. at the death of his pir." (1) 

In course of time the Nizami section of the Chishti 
order itself became sub-divided into two further 
groups to which we shall refer briefly. 


The Hisami section was founded by Hisamu'd-Din 
of Manikpur (d. 1477-8 A.D.) This man was a suc- 
cessor of Shaykh Nuru'd-Din otherwise know as Qutb- 
i- 4 Alam, the son and successor of 'Ala'u'd-Din of 
Bengal. This 'Ala Vd-Dln was a successor of Siraju'd- 
Din, one of the pioneer saints of the Chishti order in 
Bengal, and a vice-gerent of Nigamu'd-Dln. 


The Hamza Shahl section was founded by Shaykh 
Hamza, one of the descendants of Baha Vd-Din Zakari- 
ya of Multan, a famous saint of the Suhrawardi Order. 
Before he became a ufi, Hamza was in the service of 
the royal guard. One night while on duty the thought 
suddenly occurred to him. "How shameful it is for 
me to forget Him who is protecting me every moment 
of my life merely to serve one who rather needs to be 
protected by me". In consequence he resigned his post 
on the following day and adopted the life of a hermit. 
Hamza's line is traced back through several saints of 
the order and especially through Gesu Daraz and 

(1) Ram Babu Saksena, A History of Urdu Literature, p. 10. 


Naslru'd-Dm, to Nizamu'd-Din Awliya of Delhi. Very 
brief reference may be made to these two saints. 

Nasiru'd-Din, also known as Chirdgh-i-Dihlt, the 
Lamp of Delhi, belonged to a Sayyid family and was 
born in Oudh. He was forty when he came to Delhi 
and became a disciple of Nigamu'd-Din. He died in 
1356 A.D. and his tomb, famous as Chirdgh-i-Dihll, 
is to be seen near Shahjahanabad in Delhi. 

Sayyid Mir Gesu Daraz, was a sucessor of Shavkh. 
Nasiru'd-Din and was born in Delhi in 1320 A.D. His 
father, Yusuf Chishtl was himself a ufi and also one 
of the successors of Shaykh Nasiru'd-Dm. Mir Sayyid 
Gesu Daraz consequently had an early opportunity of 
acquiring the knowledge of mysticism. On the death 
of Nasiru'd-Din, his master, he left Delhi and went to 
the Deccan where he died in 1422 A.D. His tomb in 
Gulbarga is a famous resort of pilgrims. 


Makhdum 4 Ala Vd-Dm 'All Ahmad abir of Piran-i- 
Kaliar was born in Herat in 1197-8 A. D. His father 
died when he was only seven years old, and his mother, 
because of their extreme poverty, took him to her own 
brother Baba Farid, with whom she left him. When 
he grew to manhood Baba Farid appointed him to 
supervise his langar khdnd or public kitchen. Subse- 
quently his mother came again from Hert to see her 
son, and was very grieved to find him so much reduced. 
She accordingly complained to Baba Farid about his 


neglect of her son. When Baba Farid made inquiry as 
to the cause of his starved appearance, 4 AlaVd-Dln 
replied, "I was asked to supervise the kitchen but I was 
not told if I myself might eat from it." On receiving 
this explanation the saint was overjoyed at the scruplous- 
ness of his nephew, and forthwith bestowed on him the 
title of abir, or the Patient one, in recognition of his 
power of endurance. Later Baba Farid appointed him 
as his successor, and sent him to Kaliar. There he was 
ill-treated by the people, and on a particular Friday 
when he went to the mosque to take part in the 
congregational prayer, he was forced out of the main 
building into the courtyard. His biographers would 
have us believe that, as a direct consequence of their 
rudeness to the saint, the entire mosque suddenly 
collapsed, crushing to death many hundreds of worship- 
pers assembled within it. A yet further punishment, 
in the form of an epidemic of plague, destroyed vast 
numbers of the population of Kaliar, with the result that 
the survivors fled from the city in terror. The city 
thus depopulated was changed in course of time into a 
forest, and the abandoned houses falling into ruins 
became the dens of wild animals. It was in this desolate 
place that 'AlaVd-Dln abir spent his days in a small 
hut beneath a fig tree, with his disciple Shamsu'd-Din 
Turk as his sole companion. It was this disciple who 
succeeded him after his death. 

'AlaVd-Dln is said to have possessed so terrifying 
a disposition that no one dared come near him; even his 
disciple would serve his meals from behind, never 


venturing to confront him. Like other saints of the 
Chishti Order, * Ala'u'd-Din was fond of music, but the 
musicians whom Shamsu'd-Dm was in the habit of 
employing, took care to seat themselves at a consider- 
able distance from the saint while they sang. After 
twenty years of such solitary existence the saint died 
in 1291 A. D. His 'urs is celebrated on 13th. RablVl- 
Awwal, pilgrims coming to Kaliar from different parts 
of India. The extreme loneliness of his life accounts 
for our lack of some contemporary account of himself 
and his teaching. Such biographical narratives as we 
have abound with stories of supernatural events, many 
of which border on the absurd. 

'Ala Vd-Din's gloomy disposition and irascible tem- 
perament stand out in bold contrast to Nigamu'd-Din's 
amiable nature and wide popularity. Indeed, it is these 
characteristic features in their respective dispositions 
that have led some ufis to formulate the theory that the 
two saints represented two different aspects of the attri- 
butes of Allah. Nizamu'd-Din's life exhibited the Jamdft 
i. e., the Glorious Attributes, while 4 Ala'u'd-Din gave 
expression to the Jaldli, or the terrible Attributes, of 
God. The former, by his sympathy and generosity drew 
thousands to himself, whereas the latter, largely owing 
to his terrifying personality, so isolated himself from 
the human society that he lived and died in the company 
of on lone disciple. Nigamu'd-Din may be looked 
upon as the archetype of that class of ufis known as 
Ahl-i-$uhbat> Associates', and 'Ala'u'd-Din may as that 
of Ahl-i-JZhilwat, 'recluses'. 

The Suhrawardi Order. 

The history of the Suhrawarti Order in Indiajbegins 
with the advent of some of the disciples of Shihabu'd- 
Din Suhrawardi from Baghdad. They were contem- 
poraries of Qutbu'd-Din Bakhtiyar Kakl, whose influence 
at the time was so strong that certain of them transferred 
their allegiance to him, and in course of time their 
names were formally admitted to the calendar of the 
saints of the Chishtl Order. One of these men was 
I-Iamidu'd-Din of Nagore (d. 1279 A. D.), concerning 
whom Shihabu'd-Din has recorded that he was the 
chief of his vice-gerents in India; nevertheless, in Delhi 
he so came under the influence of Qutbu'd-Din as to 
become his disciple. There by the Qufub Minar his 
tomb is to be seen at the foot of the grave of his new 
master. Another disciple to join the Chishtl Order was 
Shaykh Jalalu'd-Din Tabrizl, who for seven years was 
the disciple of Shihabu'd-Din in Baghdad. This man 
also when he came to India accepted the discipleship 
of Qutbu'd-Din who later on appointed him his vice- 
gerent and sent him to Bengal, where he died in 1225 
A. D. Among other pioneers of this Order in India 
were Sayyid Nuru'd-Dln and Shah Turkoman, both of 
whom cultivated the friendship of Qutbu'd-Din but did 
not join his Order. They were buried in Delhi, and the 
shrine of the latter is even now believed to possess 


aling properties. It is a common custom for people, 
to leave a vessel full of water over night at the tomb of 
this saint, and in the morning to give a drink from it to 
the sick as an aid to their recovery. 


The man who undoubtedly did most to spread the 
influence of this Order in India was Baha'u'd-Din 
Zakariya. His ancestors were of the Quraysh tribe, 
and his grandparents on his father's side had come to 
India from Mecca and had settled down in Multan, 
where he himself was born in 1182 A. D. The author 
of the ghuldjatu'l-Arifin, states on the authority of 
Baha'u'd-Dm's disciple, Sayyid Jalalu'd-EHn Bukhari 
that the saint was, through his mother, a grandson of 
4 Abdu'l-Qadir Gllanl, the founder of the Qadiri Order. 

Early in life Baha'u'd-Din made the journey to 
Mecca and thence, after some years, he proceeded to 
Baghdad, where he became a disciple of Shihbu'd-Dln 
Suhrawardl. Under the latter's guidance he soon 
attained perfection in the mystic way and was appointed 
vice-gerent by his master and sent to India. 

The stories that describe this saint's spiritual dignity 
are many and varied. He is said to have been the 
recipient of three mantles, symbols which served to 
indicate that he held the highest authority among his 
contemporaries in the Order. It is said that he 
received one of these in a dream, from the very throne 
of God, and that, on waking from sleep, he actually 
found it on himself . That same night he received the 


other two at the hands of his master Shihabu'd-Dln. 
Of these, one was that which had come down through 
successive generations of saints from the Prophet 
himself; the other was the master's own mantle. Shaykh 
Jalalu'd-Din Bukhari and Baba Farld are both recorded 
to have stated that once in their presence Shaykh 
Baha'u'd-Dln, in a state of ecstasy, exclaimed: "Lord 
grant me Thy highest favour in this world and the 
next. 1 ' A voice was heard saying in reply: "Thou art 
the Qutb of both worlds/ 1 The saint prayed again, 
"Lord, confer yet more than this.' 1 The voice replied, 
"Thou art the Ghawth of my whole creation. " Yet again 
the saint cried out for more, and this time the voice was 
heard to say: "Beyond this remains the stage of prophet- 
hood, and there ariseth no prophet after Muhammad; 
nevertheless I bestow upon thee two of my own names; 
thou artXafeiz: (the great) and_Munlr (the Enlightener)". 
Continuing their narrative the authors tell us that 
Baha'u'd-Din, when the ecstatic experience was over, 
declared, "Any needy person who recites the follow- 
ing invocation, which contains all the titles which I have 
received from God; will have all his needs supplied, 
and God will forgive his sins and increase the light of 
his faith; and if a person recites this prayer every day 
of his life, I promise to stand as surety for him in order 
to obtain for him the rewards of paradise in the day of 
judgment." The words of the invocation are as follows, 
M O my God, for the honour and dignity of the 'Chief 
of Islam and Muslims' the 'Qwffe' of both worlds and 
the 'Gftau>/i' of the whole creation, the Shaykh 'Kater 


and 'Mumr\ the 'Glory 1 (Baha) of the Truth, of the 
Law and of Religion (Din) Muhammad Zakariya fulfil 
thou my desires/* 

BahaVd-Din died in 1267-68 A. D. and was buried 
at Multan, where his tomb is still greatly revered by 
Muslims. He had appointed several vice-gerents, and 
of these he sent some to places outside India such as 
Baghdad and Damascus. / 


His eldest son adru'd-Dm, who is regarded as one 
of the leading saints of this order, succeeded his father 
as vice-gerent in Multan. Baha Vd-Dln had left vast 
wealth, including a large castle, and this was duly 
divided among his seven sons. adr'u'd-Din received 
as his share seven lakhs of gold mohars, besides a 
portion of the landed property nevertheless he distri- 
buted his entire share of the patrimony to the poor. 
When a friend remonstrated with him for having so 
readily thrown away the wealth which his father had 
carefully collected, he replied, "But my father had 
complete control over all wordly desires, and so could 
afford to hoard such wealth, whereas 1 am weak, 
and therefore fear lest wordly possession should make 
me forget God." The following incident, which is 
recorded by the historian Farishta, has often been 
quoted by Muslim writers as one of the saint's miracles. 
Muhammad Shah, eldest son of the reigning king Balban, 
was Governor of Multan, and had married the grand- 
daughter of the late king Altamash. She was a very 
beautiful woman and her husband was deeply in love 


with her. Once, however, in the state of intoxication 
he divorced her irrevocably' i. e., by thrice uttering 
the words signifying separation. On recovering his 
senses he was deeply grieved to learn what he had 
done, for, according to the Muslim law, the only way 
whereby he could take her back as his wife, was for her 
to be regularly married to another and then once 
more be divorced. The Qddl of Multan suggested to 
the Governor that adru'd-Dln, who stood in high 
repute as a saint, be asked to act as an intermediate 
husband by marrying her for one night only. As the 
Governor was most anxious to receive her back as his 
wife he agreed to the proposal. The records state, 
however, that on the following morning adru'd-Dln, 
at the request of the bride herself, Irefused to give her 
up. The Governor was so enraged at this that he made 
the plans to put the saint to death on the next day. 
But it so happened that in the night Mongols besieged 
the city of Multan, and during the course of the day, 
the Governor fell in the fight with the invaders. This 
incident is regarded by the saint's biographers as the 
direct intervention of God thereby justifying his 
retention of the Governor's wife. 

$adru'd-Dm died in 1285 A.D. and was buried in 
MultSn near the tomb of his father. 


Shaykh Ahmad Ma'shuq one of the vicegerents of 
adru'd-Din, is an example of a peculiar type of saint 
in Muslim Hagiology. A merchant by profession he 


was, before he became a mystic, a notorious drunkard. 
He was a native of Qandhar where he kept a shop. 
Business often brought him into Multan, where he once 
happened to meet adru'd-Dln and in a moment his 
whole life was changed. In due course he became his 
disciple and rose to be one of the prominent saints of 
the order. It is related of him that once while bath- 
ing in a river, he prayed thus, "O God, I will not go up 
out of the water, till Thou hast revealed to me the 
dignity that I have in Thy sight." In reply he heard a 
voice'lsaying to him, "So great is thy dignity in my 
sight that on the day of judgment a large number of 
sinners will receive pardon through thy intercession." 
He prayed again, "O Lord this is not enough further 
increase my dignity out of Thy bounteous mercy/' 
Then the voice replied. "I am thy lover and thou art 
my Beloved (mashuq); go now and make others my 
seekers." From that time he came to be known by the 
title of mashuq, the beloved. 

This saint was frequently the subject of ecstatic 
experiences, and in consequence neglected the rites and 
practices of Islam. On one occasion the 'Ulama urged 
him to say his prayers, but he pleaded to be left alone, 
the fact being that he could not bring himself to recite 
the Fdtiha, which forms a necessary part of all Muslim 
prayer. When further pressed, he reluctantly con- 
sented, making a condition that he omitted the verse, 
"Thee we serve and Thee we ask for aid." The 'Ulama 
replied that such prayer would be invalid, and they 
compelled him to proceed to say his prayer in the pro- 


per manner. It is said, however, that when he came to 
the middle of the chapter and began to recite the above- 
mentioned verse, blood was seen to ooze from every 
part of his body; he therefore stopped abruptly and 
exclaimed, "You see I am ceremonially unclean, and 
thus excused from further prayer/* The incident is 
said to have convinced the * Ulamd of his extraordinary 
sancity, and of the fact that he stood in a peculiar rela- 
tionship to God. 


We gather from the history of the religious Orders 
in India that in the process of their break-up into 
sub-divisions there appeared a marked tendency on the 
part of some individuals to ignore not only the original 
teachings of the early saints but the practices of Islam 
also. The chief stress came to be laid on the worship 
of saints and on ecstatic experiences. As we proceed 
we shall observe that some of the leaders of these sub- 
divisions resorted to hypnosis and the use of intoxi- 
cants. Those imbued with these ideas came to be 
spoken of by the followers of the more regular orders 
as Maldmatls (lit. 'blame- worthy'). They are some- 
times referred to as belonging to be-shara (without the 
law) orders. In contrast to the bd-shara, i. e. those 
who observe Islamic rites and practices, (cp. Dr. 
Titus, Indian Islam, p. 125). The Suhrawardi Order in 
particular has given rise to a large number of such 
maldmatl sections. 

It will be seen that this order thus falls into two 
groups, viz: the bd-shara and the be-shara , and in our 


treatment of them we propose to follow this classifica- 
tion. It must, however, be borne in mind, that it is not 
possible to draw a line of demarcation between the two 
classes. As a matter of fact saints who were really 
be-shara are to be found in the ba-shara sections, e. g. 
Ahmad Ma'shuq, who has already been mentioned as 
one of the early saints of this order. Moreover, we 
find a proneness in saints of the ba-shara section to 
degenerate and in course of time to become be-shara . 
For instance, some of the saints of the Jaldll Order 
degenerated in course of time and become founders of 
azdd (or free) orders. 



1. Ba-shara* Section. 


The Jalall section is ascribed to Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din 
Shah Mir Surkh-posh of Bukhara (1192 -1291 A.D.), 
who was a vice-gerent of Baha'u'd-Din Zakariya of 
Multan. This saint was born in Bukhara, but when he 
grew to manhood he came to India and settled down in 
Uchh. His descendants are still known as Sayyid 
Bukhari. Jalalu'd-Din is said to have possessed miracu- 
lous power even from his childhood, T. W. Arnold 
says of him: "Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din is the ancestor of 
generations of saints, some of whom were active and 
successful propagandists of Islam. His khalifa was his 
grandson Jalal b. Ahmad Kabir, commonly known as 
Makhdum-i-Jahaniyan (d. 1384 A. D.) who is said to 
have made the pilgrimage to Mecca thirty-six times and 
to have performed innumerable miracles. One of 
Makhdum-i-Jahaniyao's grandsons, Abu Muhammad 
'Abdullah, known as Burhanu'd-Din Qufb-i-'Alam 
(d. 1453 A.D.), went to Gujrat, where his tomb is still 
a place of pilgrimage at Batawa. His son, Sayyid 
Muhammad ShSh 'Alam (d. 1475 A.D.), became still 
more famous and played an important part in the poll- 


tical and religious life of his time; his tomb is at Rasul- 
abad, near Ahmadabad." 1 

The followers of the Jalall Order, known as Jalalf 
faqirs, wear black threads round their heads, and also 
wear an amulet tied round their arms which is said 
to be made in the form of the Seal of the Prophet 
Muhammad. They also carry a horn which they blow 
when they are in a state of ecstasy. 

These faqirs have their chief seat in the Deccan at 
a place called Penukondah, a town in the Anantpur 
district, where each year on the first day of Jamadi'th- 
Tbanl, they congregate with the faqirs of other Orders, 
and select their representatives to go on a two-years' 
pilgrimage to the tombs of the saints in the Pre- 
sidency. 2 


This section was founded by Mir Sayyid Jalalu'd- 
Din Mukhdum-i-Jahaniyao Jahao-gasht Bukhari, who 
has already been mentioned as a grandson and khalifa 
of Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din Surkhposh. As his august titles 
indicate he is held in high honour among the ufis as 
the Master of the universe and as one who traversed 
the globe. He is said to have met all the saints and to 
have been initiated into all the chief religious Orders 
of his time. Not only so, he is said to have received 
the authority to make disciples in each of these Orders. 
Moreover it is asserted that he travelled round the 

1. Quoted by Dr. Titus in Indian Islam, P. 122, 

2. See Khwaja Khan, Studies in Tasawwuf, P. 155. 


world several times, and a work is still obtainable in 
the book-shops which is alleged to be a true record of 
his journeys. This, however, contains such fantastic 
stories, particularly of cities in Persia and Afghanistan, 
as to make it impossible for us to accept it as an 
authentic journal. 

A story which throws light on Jalalu'd-Dln's charac- 
ter, speaks of how Khan-i-Jahan, minister of ulfan 
Firoz Shah of Delhi, once imprisoned a boy and 
punished him severely. It is said that the saint, at the 
request of the boy's father went to plead with the 
minister for the boy, but the minister having no respect 
for him, refused to see him. Jalalu'd-Dln, however, 
persisted and visited him as many as ten times, until at 
last the minister, in great irritation exclaimed: "How 
long will you continue to pester me, O shameless 
Sayyid?" The saint meekly replied, "Till you have 
ceased to oppress the boy, and gained the pleasure of 
Allah/* The minister greatly pleased with this reply, 
at once released the boy and became a disciple of 
Jalalu'd-Din. The saint died in 1383 A.D. and was 
buried in Uchh. 


This is attributed to Mlran Muhammad Shh 
Mawj-i-Darya Bukharl, a descendant of Jalalu'd-Dln 
Surkh-posh. Originally he belonged to Uchh, the 
home of his ancestors, but later on settled in Lahore, 
where he passed the rest of his life. He lived during the 
reign of Akbar, who held him in high esteem, and the 


Emperor's ultimate conquest of Chitor is attributed, 
by the saint's biographers, to his prayer. The story is 
told of how the Emperor when he found it impossible 
to conquest the impregnable fortress by force of arms, 
resorted to certain holy persons one of whom advised 
him to seek the aid of Mlran Shah. Acting on this 
advice he sent some of his noblemen to the saint, and 
invited him to the royal camp to offer prayer for his 
victory. Mlran Shah dismissed the royal messngers 
with the following words. u Go back to your Emperor, 
and tell him to wait for a tempest at night, which will 
follow shortly after your return to camp. During the 
storm no one will be able to keep his lamp alight, but 
at a distance from the military quarters, there will be 
seen one solitary light unaffected by the wind. Tell 
the Emperor, that he will find me there." 

This prediction was duly fulfilled soon after the 
messengers reached the camp. That night, while a 
very strong wind was blowing, the Emperor, sighted a 
distant solitary light and proceeded towards it bare- 
footed. Having requested the saint to pray for him, he 
was dismissed with the assurance of the desired victory. 
The biographers assert that the fortress of Chitor was 
subdued on the following morning in direct answer to 
the saint's prayer. Akbar, overwhelmed with joy, 
besought Miran Shah to take up his residence in a city 
near to his capital. The saint, acceding to the Emperor's 
entreaty chose Lahore for his new home, was granted 
there, and in Batala, certain freeholds, together with 
an annuity of Rs. 9 lakhs. 


He died in 1604 A. D. and his 'urs is celebrated on 
17th. Ratfu'l-Awival each year in Lahore. Though 
he died while in Batala his body was brought to Lahore, 
where he was buried near Anarkali. In Batala a shrine 
was built at the spot where his body was washed for 
burial. Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab, 
made a grant of Rs. 40 per month for the upkeep of his 
tomb in Lahore. [ 


This section was founded by Hafiz Muhammad 
Ismail, generally known as Miyan Wadda, the four- 
teenth in the line of succession from BahaVd-Dln 
Zakariya of Multan. He was born in 1586 A. D., and 
while still young, was sent by his father, himself a 
mystic, to Makhdum *Abdu'l-KarIm, a famous pir of 
those days who had his khdnaqah at Langar-i-Makhdum 
on the Chenab. When he reached the age of twelve 
he was given the task of grinding corn for the }&anaqatis 
kitchen. The story is told of how once his master paid 
him a surprise visit and was astonished to find the lad 
lost in meditation, the hand-mill, meanwhile, grinding 
the corn automatically, without his aid. 4 Abdu'l-Karim 
on witnessing the miracle at once released his disciple 
from this duty. Ismail, however, insisted upon work 
of some kind being given to him, accordingly he was 
set to milk the cows. It soon came to be noticed that 
the cows he tended yielded unusually large quantities 
of milk, and so the people of the neighbourhood began 
to bring their cows to him to be milked. This was to 


4 Abdu'l-KarIm yet further evidence of his disciple's 
saintly character, and led him to pronounce him a saint, 
and no longer in need of his instruction. Taking leave 
of his master he retired to the banks of the Chenab 
and seated himself under a shisham tree, where, within 
a short time, he is said to have made perfect as many 
as one hundred and fifty disciples. Finally he came to 
Lahore and took up his residence in the part of the 
city known as Telpura. There he started a maktab for 
the purpose of instructing his pupils in the art of read- 
ing the Quran. It is believed that he possessed such 
a power as a teacher that each of his disciples became 
hdfiz in a remarkably short period of time. He is re- 
ported to have declared that this virtue would continue 
to be potent at his tomb even after his death. It was 
this notion that led to the establishment of the maktab 
atJjis tomb, which at one time drew large numbers of 
students filled with the desire to acquire the art of 
reading of the Quran. It is also believed that by eating 
the herbs and leaves of plants which grow in close 
proximity to the tomb, the intellect is quickened so 
that the Quran is memorized more easily. 

Ismail died in 1683 A. D. His strict orthodoxy is 
indicated by the fact he desired that no dome should 
be erected over his grave, but the present sajjada- 
nishin, i. e., successor, has built a shrine and a separate 
room in which he sits daily, reading the Quran. 

He had three brothers who like him passed their 
life in retirement, living in a state of celibacy. Two 
of them, viz. Khalil and Ibrfihim have their tombs in 


a place called Chhani Wachak in Sialkot, while the 
tomb of the third, Husayn, is in Lahore, in a graveyard 
known as Bibi Goristan. 

Ismail's successor was his disciple Sayyid JSn 
Muhammad Hudurl, whose grand-father, Sayyid 
ShamsuV Arifin Ghawrl, came from Ghawr and settled 
in Lahore. His tomb was built by one of his ciplides, 
*Abdu's-amad, a merchant, who also added a mosque 
to it. The tomb is to be seen in Lahore on the west 
of Shahu Garhi, and south of the road leading to Miyan 


Dawla Shah, the founder of this section, was eighth 
in the line of succession from BahaVd-Dln Zakariya 
of Multari. He "was born in 1581 A. D. during the 
reign of Akbar. His father was 'Abdu'r-Rahim Khan 
Lodi, a descendant of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, grandson 
of Bhalul Shah Lodi who died in 1488. This would 
make him a Pathan by descent, but he is nevertheless 
claimed by the Gujars of Gujarat as belonging to their 
tribe. His mother was Ni'mat Khatun, .great-grand 
daughter of Sultan Sarang Ghakhar. 

"In the reign of Sultan Sallm, son, of Sultan Sher 
Shah, (1545-1553 A. D.) a large force was sent to sub- 
due ghwas Khan, who had rebelled in support of 'Adil 
Khan, Sallra Shah's elder brother. Kljwas Khan met 
with a crushing defeat and sought refuge with the 
Ghakhars, who supported him, and a battle was fought 
near Rhotas, in the Jhelum district, in which Sultan 


Sprang Ghakhar was killed, and all his family were 
afterwards made captives. A daughter of Ghazi Khan, 
son of Sul^Sn SSrang, was among the captured, and she 
had at the time an infant daughter at her breast. This 
was Ni'mat Khatun, who was taken with her brother 
to Dilhi and in the first year of Akbar's reign (A. D. 
1556), shortly after Humayun's death, she was married 
to 'Abdu'r-Rahlm Lodi, then an officer of the Imperial 
household. But Shah Dawla was not born of this 
marriage till the 25th year of Akbar's reign (A. D. 1581) 
which was also the year of his father's death. 

"Where Shah Dawla was born is not known, but 
his widowed mother returned to her native country, 
Pathas, now represented by the Jhelum and Rawalpindi 
districts. On her arrival, however, she found that, 
though she was the great-granddaughter of Sultan 
Sarang, she was as much a stranger there as in Hindus- 
tan and no one had any regard for herself or her fallen 
family. For five years she had to earn her living by 
grinding corn in the village of Sabhala in the pargana 
of Phirhalat, whence she removed to Kalh, where she 
died in 1590 A. D. after four more years of toil."2 

Shah Dawla, now left an orphan and friendless, 
was sold to a Hindu as a slave. At his master's house 
he exhibited great piety, and on account of his faithful 
services, he soon obtained his freedom. Once set at 
liberty he decided to lead the life of a hermit, and 

1 Rose, Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North- 
West Frontier Province. Vol. I. P. 631. 


therefore he bacame a disciple of Sayyid Nasir Mast of 
Sialkot, who had the reputation of being a saint. 

The author of the Tadhkiratu'l-Asfiyd, says that 
Nasir Mast had another disciple, also called Dawla, 
whom he specially favoured and intended to appoint as 
his successor. The story is told of how, one night 
when Sayyid Nasir Mast lay dying on his bed, he called 
three times for Dawla, this favourite disciple, but each 
time he was absent and the response was mads by 
Shah Dawla, who, however, was sent away as not being 
the person he wanted. But towards morning, before 
he breathed his last, he exclaimed: 

"To whom God (Mawld) grants favour 

'Tis he becomes Shah Dawla" (king i.e. saint) 
and then afterwards appointed Shah Dawla his suc- 
cessor, and bestowed on him his mantle. 

For ten years after the death of Shah Nasir Mast, 
Dawla "remained in the neihbourhood, growing yearly 
in reputation and power. He built many buildings, 
mosques, tanks, bridges and wells, the most notable of 
which was the bridge over the Aik. After this Shah 
Dawla moved to Gujrat and settled there permanently in 

obedience to divine instructions It is said that 

he never asked for money and that he paid his labourers 
promptly. He was also most successful in finding the 
sites of the old ruins, whence he dug up all the materi- 
als he required for his buildings. He was liberal to 
the poor, irrespective of creed, and had a peculiar 
attraction for wild animals, keeping a large menagerie 

Rose, op. cit. pp. 633, 34. 


of all sorts of beasts and birds. His tolerance made 
him beloved of all classes and there were both Hindus 
and Musalmans among his disciples. He became very 
famous for his miracles and received large gifts. The 
attraction towards him felt by wild animals largely 
contributed to the general belief in him." 

He died in 1676 A.D. and his tomb and shrine lie 
on the eastern side of the town of Gujrat. He was 
succeeded by one Bhawan Shah, concerning whom 
there is some doubt as to whether he was a real or an 
adopted son of the saint. In any case the present pirs 
of this section are descended from him. 

"Many tales of his miracles are told of Shah Dawla, 
but that which is chiefly associated with his name is 
the miracle of the Chuhds, or 'Rat children/ said to 
be born through his agency with minute heads, large 
ears, rat-like faces, and without the understanding or 
the power of speech." 

"The popular idea is that these unfortunate beings 
have been blessed by the saint, Shah Dawla of Gujrat 
in the Punjab, and though they are repulsive objects, no 
contempt of them must be shown, or the saint will 
make a chuhd of the next child born to one who despises 
one of his proteges. It is this fear which has brought 
about the prosperity of Shah Dawla's shrine at Gujrat. 

"The common superstition as to origin of the chuhds 
is this: Shah Dawla, like other saints, could procure 
a child for a couple desiring one, but the first child 
born in response to his intercession would be a chuha 
brainless, small-headed, long-eared and rat-faced. 


The custom used to be to leave the child as soon as it 
was weaned, at Shh Dawla 's Khdnaqdh and as an 
offering to him. After the saint's death the miracle 
continued, but in a modified form. Persons desiring 
children would go to the saint's shrine to pray for a 
child, and would make a vow either to present the 
child when born or to make an offering to the shrine. 
In some cases when the child was duly born in response 
to the prayer, the parents neglected to make the pro- 
mised gift. Upon this the spirit of the offended saint 
so worked on the parents that the next child born was 
a ckuhd, and all subsequent children as well, until the 
original vow was fulfilled. 

"The cult of Shh Dawla offers few unusual fea- 
tures. No lands are attached to the shrine and its pirs 
are wholly dependent on the alms and offerings of the 
faithful. Three annual fairs are held at the shrine, 
one at each 7d and the third at the 'urs, on the 10th, 
of Muharram. A weekly fair used to be held on 
Fridays, attended by dancing girls; but this has fallen 
into abeyance. There are no regular rules of succession 
to the shrine, and each member of the saint's family has 
a share in it. Three of them, however, have a special 
influence and one of these three is generally known as 
the sajjdda-nishln, or successor of the saint. The 
general income of the sect is divided into three main 
shares, each of which is divided into minor shares a 
division per stripes and per capita. The shareholders 
also each take in turn a week's income of the shrine. 

M There is a notable off-shoot of the Shfih Dawla 


fa<ftrs in an order of facfirs who properly own allegiance 
to the Arkhund of Swat. A disciple of ArkhOnd, 
named Ghazi Sultan Muhammad, a native of A wan, a 
village in Gujrat district on the Jammu border, has 
established a considerable following. He lives now at 
Shah Dawla's shrine, but has built himself a large stone 
house at Awan/' 1 

2. Be-Shara Sections of the Order. 


This section of the Suhrawardi Order was founded 
by Sayyid Lai Shahbaz, a vice-gerent of Baha'u'd-Din 
Zakariya. Very little is known about him and about 
the section of the Order which takes his name. As he 
was in the habit of wearing red garments, the epithet 
Lai was added to his name. 

He is described by the hagiographers as having led 
the life of a libertine. He not only disregarded the 
precepts of Islam, but never said even the obligatory 
prayers nor observed the month of fasting On the 
other hand, he is said to have been addicted all his life 
to the use of wine and other intoxicants. 

His devotees ascribe his antinomian mode of life to 
his desire to conceal his spiritual dignity from people; 
and in justification of his use of intoxicants they say, 
that his holy touch changed the wine hito water! He 
died in 1324 A.D. and was buried in Sindh, where his 
tomb is regarded as a place of pilgrimage. 

1. Rose, op. cit. pp. 630, 31. 


The ufis of this Order, now few in number, dress 
in red and use intoxicants, in imitation of their leader. 


Musa Shahl Suhag, a vicegerent of Sayyid JalSlVd- 
Din Surkh-posh founded a new section of the Suhra- 
wardl Order, which is called after his name. He is 
described to have bten one of the hidden saints of his 
time. He concealed his spiritual dignity by living 
among eunuchs, who were dancers by profession. The 
epithet Suhdg, affixed to his name, indicates that he 
used to dress and adorn himself like a woman. The 
story is told that once in Ahmedabad, his native place, 
there occured a great scarcity of rain. The qddl of the 
city, who himself was a saint, told the people that if 
Shah Musa could be prevailed upon to pray, God would 
surely answer his prayer. On a search being made 
for the saint he was discovered among the eunuchs, 
and was entreated to offer prayer. Raising his eyes 
towards heaven, he prayed thus: "O my husband, if 
you are not going to send rain at once, I am going to 
deprive myself of these bridal ornaments. 11 He was 
about to break his bangles, when lo! the clouds appear- 
ed on the horizon, and soon it began to rain heavily, 
continuing for several days. 

This incident brought him into prominence, and 
he soon gathered around him a large number of dis- 
ciples. He, too, did not observe the precepts of Islam 
regarding prayers and fastings. We are told that the 
orthodox 'Ulamd of the city once persuaded him to 


join him in prayer, and for this purpose they put off 
his female attire of red cloth, and dressed him in white 
garments. When he began to say his prayer, these 
garments turned red, and when the prayer was over 
he said, "My husband desires me to remain a bride 
(suhdg) but these wretches would reduce me to a 

Amazed by this strange incident they apologised 
to him for their presumption. He died in 1449 A.D. 
and after his death the * Ulamd and other saints of the 
neighbourhood appointed one of his disciples to be his 
successor whom they adorned like his master in the 
dress and ornaments of a bride. 

The followers of this Order, who are now rare, 
always call themselves sadd suhdgin, a married woman 
whose husband is alive. 


The origin of this sect according to the statement 
of its faqlrs, is described to be as follows. In a place 
called Bahadurpur, situated at a distance of 20 miles 
from Alwar, there lived during the reign of the im- 
mediate successors of Aurangzeb, a wealthy jeweller 
named Ni'matu 1 llah. Once on business he went to 
Egypt where he heard of Da'ud, a man who had the 
fame of being a great saint but who led the life of a 
libertine. When Ni'matu 'Hah paid his visit to this 
reputed saint, he was offered a drink of some intoxicant 
and though he was a pious Muslim and would not 
touch such thing he drank it off in deference to 


Dfi'dd's authority as a man of Allah. It is said that 
the instant he finished drinking he fell into a state of 
ecstasy, tore off his clothes and taking the dust from 
the feet of Da'ud rubbed it all over his body. Finally 
after distributing all he had with him he accepted 
his discipleship. One day Da'ud said to Ni'matu 'llah, 
"It is now time that my soul should leave this body 
and enter yours. So when I die you go to Alwar 
where you will find Sayyid Rasul Shah, make him your 
disciple and guide him to the experience which you 
have gone through under my direction; he will be the 
founder of a new sect of the ufis." Da'ud, when he 
had finished speaking, died, and according to the belief 
of the faqlrs of this Order his soul entered the body of 
Ni'matu 'Hah. 

The latter, acting upon the last advice of his late 
ptr, went to Alwar and sent for Sayyid Rasul Shah. 
When he came he was offered a drink. As soon as he 
drank it up, his life was changed; he shaved off his 
head, moustaches and eye brows, and became a disciple 
of Ni 4 matu 'llah. Rasul Shah lived for many years 
in company with his pir, and served him by preparing 
the drink of hemp for him. Then one day Ni'matu llah, 
in words similar to those of his predecessor, said to 
him, "Rasul! My soul is now about to leave this 
mortal frame and enter yours, you then shall be 
the founder of a new sect of ufls which will be 
known after your name." Shortly after Ni'matu llth 
expired, and, in course of time, he came to be regarded 
by certain Muslim jewellers and merchants as their 


patron saint. Rasul Shah, in spite of his antinomian 
habits, gained the reputation of being a saint. He 
soon gathered round himself a large number of fol- 
lowers who used to pay him divine honour. He was 
recognised, as foretold by his plr, to be the founder of 
a new sect called Rasul Shahl after his name. It is 
customary among the faqlrs of this sect to worship 
their pir by falling before him in adoration. 1 

The following is an account of them as given by 
Rose, "They wear a white or red handkerchief on the 
head tied in the shape of a peaked cap: they also keep 
a handkerchief containing ashes which they rub on 
their bodies and faces; they shave the head, moustaches 
and eye brows, wear wooden clogs, and in the hot 
weather carry hand fans. They not only see no harm 
in drinking spirits, but look on it as a virtue, and it is 
said that they have, or had till lately, a special license 
to manufacture their own liquor. Their taste for 
drink drew them into close sympathy with the Sikh 
Sirdars of pre-annexation times and Ranjit Singh is 
stated to have allowed them a monthly grant of 
Rs. 200 for spirits. They are a small sect and not 
celibate. As a rule men well-to-do, they are never 
seen begging and many of them are men of literary 
tastes, popularly credited with a knowledge of alchemy. 
Their chief centre in the Punjab is a building near 
Landa Bazar in Lahore, and they have also a building 

(1) The faqirs or this order believe that when their pir dies 
his soul enters in one of his disciples who becomes his successor. 


in the environs of that city near Khu-i-Mlran, but are 
also returned from Jhelum." 1 

Sayyid Rasul Shah was seventeenth in order in 
the line of succession from Baha'u'd-Dln Zakariya of 

(1) Rose: A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Pun- 
jab and Northwest Frontier Province. Vol. Ill, p. 324. 

Rose's above account of the faqirs of this sect is in full agree- 
ment with the statement of the author of the Tahqiqat-i-Chishti< 
The Investigations of a Chishti, a book written after thorough 
inquiry about the Sufis and their Orders and shrines in Lahore. 

The Qadiri Order. 


This Order was established in India as late as three 
hundred years after the death of its original founder, 
Shaykh 'Abdu'l-Qadir Jilanl or Gllani, by Sayyid 
Muhammad Qhawth, tenth in the line of succession. 
He was born at Aleppo, and in his youth he travelled 
as far as India, and after spending some time in Lahore, 
he went back to his home, eventually returning in 1428 
A. D. He settled in Uch, which has already been 
described as the centre of the activities of the saints of 
Suhrawardi Order. The fame of the founder of the 
Qadiri Order had previously reached India, and he was 
already honoured as Plr-i-piran, "the saint of saints." 
When therefore Muhammad Gljawth arrived, he soon 
became popular, and in a remarkably short space of 
time gathered around him a large number of adherents. 
Sultan Sikandar Lodl, the Afghan ruler of Delhi, not 
only became his disciple, but also gave his daughter to 
him in marriage. He is said to have done this in 
obedience to the command of Shaykh *Abdu'l-Qadir 
who appeared to him in a dream and ordered him to 
give his dauhgter to Muhammad Qhawth in marriage. 
No child, however, was born of this union. Ma^iammad 
then took a second wife, Efifima, a daughter 


of Abul Fatah, fourth in the line of descent from 
aflu'd-Dm, who is regarded as the founder of a 
colony of Sayyids in Uch. This afiu'd-Dln was a 
nephew of Abu Ishaq Gazrunl, a Governor of Lahore. 
It is said that the latter had bestowed upon him a robe 
of honour and then bidden him go on his way, with 
permission to choose as his future home the place 
where his camel should happen to stop. When there- 
fore, on reaching the site in Uch now known as 
Muhalla Gllaniyan, his camel sat down, that spot was 
selected by afiu'd-Din as the quarter to be occupied 
by himself and his descendants This part of Uch, now 
inhabited by the descendants of Muhammad Ghawth, is 
called Gllaniyan, with reference to the district Gllan or 
Jilan, the home of their illustrious ancestor, Shaykh 
'Abdu'l-Qadir. The other part of Uch is occupied by 
the desendants of Sayyid Jalalu'd-Dm Bukharl, the 
famous saint of the Suhrawardi Order, and is called 
Muhalla Bukhariyan, 

Muhammad Ghawth had four children born to him 
by his marriage with Fatima. He died in 1517 A. D. 
and was buried in Uch. Sayyid Mahammad Ghawth 
was succeeded by his son 4 Abdu'l-Qadir II who in his 
early lite indulged in various luxuries. On his father's 
death, however, when succeeding him as Khalifa, his 
life underwent a complete change. He renounced the 
world and returned to the Government all the royal 
credentials for freeholds and annuities which had been 
granted to his father by the king. He passed the rest 
of his days in a life of absolute poverty, in which he was 


not spared various persecutions and troubles. These, 
however, he bore with complete resignation and faith 
in God. Meanwhile his brothers held high offices 
under the Government, but he himself steadily refused 
to take advantage of any opportunity that came his 
way of gaining favours at the royal court. Indeed, his 
contempt for the world was so pronounced that he 
scrupled to visit the ruling princes, even when specially 
invited by them. The story is told, how once, when a 
prince sent him a persuasive invitation, he replied in a 
stanza which may be rendered as follows: 

I have nojdoor to which to go 

From this one door of Allah. 

While seated here, come weal or woe, 

I am content with either. 

Whoso, in this world, wears the cloak 

Provided by the King of Love, 

Feels a delight he could not have 

Though robed in light in heaven above. 

The hagiographersjrecord many miracles said to have 
been performed by him, chiefly works of healing. He 
died in 1533-34 A. D. and was buried in Uch. 

ii. Sub-sections of the Order. 

Shah Qumes, the founder of this section was seven- 

teenth in the line of descent from 
Qdir GilanL He and his father, Abul-HaySt, are 
counted among the pioneers of the Qadiri order in 
India. He lived in Bengal. 


"Shah Qumes most probably flourished in the 16th, 
century, as tradition connects him with Akbar and 
Humayun's war against Sher Shah Sur, though even so 

his birth cannot be carried back to 1425 His cult 

is said to be connected with Bihar and three large 
fairs are held, one in that Province, one at Ludhiana 
and a third at Sadhaura itself. 1 ' (l) / 


This section was founded by Bahlul Shah Darya'i, 
a disciple of Shah Latlf Barri. The latter 's plr Hayatu'l- 
Mlr, is said to have become a disciple of 'Abdu'l- 
Qadir, some three hundred years before the time of 
which we are writing! Further, he is supposed to have 
been endowed with life immortal, and in consequence 
is known as Zinda plr, i. e, a plr who is still alive. It 
thus comes about that Bahlul Shah, notwithstanding 
the gap of some three centuries between him and the 
original founder, is accounted fourth in the line of 

We do not possess any details concerning the life 
of Bahlul Shah himself, but around his pir Shah Laflf 
Barri and the pir of his ptr, Hayatu'1-Mlr, there have 
grown up certain legends and they now rank among the 
more popular saints. Rose describing the cult connected 
with La^lf Barri writes: "About 10 miles north of 
Rawalpindi is a famous Ramkund or Rama's pool, with 
a Hanuman Kund, a Lachhman Kund, a Suraj Kund and 

(1) Rose, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and 
North- West Frontier Province. Vol. i. p. 542. 


a Sita Kund, but in the last-named no Hindu will bathe 
though bathing in all the others is meritorious on any 
holy day and more especially on the first of Baisakh at 

iheSankrant Two miles to the south of Ramkund 

is Nurpur Shahan (in Tehsil Rawalpini); where a 
Mohammadan fair is held on the first Thursday after 
Baisakh 15th. Ecstasy and frenzy (haT) are not unknown 
on this occasion. The fair begins on the arrival of an 
offering of every kind of fruit in season from Peshawar, 
and cannot commence without it. It is held in honour 
of Shah-i-Latif Barri or Barri Sultan, said to have been 
a pupil of Sayyid Hayatu'n-Nur Qadiri. Barri Sultan 
used to be supplied daily with milk by a Gujar, but the 
buffalo which gave the milk always used to die on the 
day it was milked for the saint. At last the Gujar was 
reduced to a bull, but the saints bade him milk it too. 
It also died, the Gujar only recovered his cattle from 
the spring to see them all turned into stones, where 
they stand to this day, because he disobeyed the saint's 
behest not to look back, when he called out their 
names one by one at the spring." (1) 

4 The ziyarat of Hayatu'1-Mir, 24 miles north-east of 
Manshara at Balakot on the bank of the Kunhar Ndla, 
is in Mohammadan belief the sitting place of Sakhi 
Hayatul-Mir, who is said to have been endowed with 
life everlasting, while according to Hindus it is the 
sitting place of Bha'i Bala. At the 'Id one day men 
and the next day women assemble there. It has a 
spring known as Sharbat, which has medical properties 

(I) Rose, op. cit. vol. I. P. 130. 


being believed to cure leprosy and other diseases and 
twenty and thirty sufferers are generally to be found 
there." cl) 


This section is ascribed to Sayyid Muqlm Muhkam- 
'ud-Dln, who was a vice-gerent of Hayatu'1-Mlr, the 
saint alluded to above as the plr of the pir of Bahawal 
Shah Darya 1 !. Of Muqlm Shah himself we know little, 
but his great-great-grandfather, Sayyid Bahawal Shah 
is held in high esteem as a very famous saint of the 
Qadiri Order. The latter's tomb is to be seen at 
Muzang in Lahore, and in connection with it the story 
is current that in the day of Bahawal Shah a river ran 
past this spot and that he used to seat himself on its 
banks, and pass his days in meditation. But the women 
of the neighbourhood complained to their husbands that 
when they came to the river to draw water they were 
exposed to the gaze of the faqir. Driven away from 
one place he eventually settled himself at another 
further along the bank, but when here also he began to 
meet with opposition, he angrily smote the river and 
ordered it to change its course. The river, we are told, 
now began to flow at a distance of four miles from its 
original position, and meanwhile in the bed of the old 
stream there appeared a hillock which the saint chose 
as the place in which to pass his days. 

It it said that he drove three wooden pegs into the 
ground near him, each of which immediately sprouted 

(1) Rose, op. cit. vol. I. P. 594. 


into a tree. Two of them are said to be still green, 
but one, a neem tree, is now dried up. The attendant at 
his shrine on receiving an offering of Rs. l/4/-will give 
the visitor a bit of this neem wood, which is valued as a 
relic, and is generally made into beads for a rosary. 
The hagiographers depict this Bahawal Shah riding on 
a lion and carrying a snake in his hands in place of a 

Muqlm Shah spent his early days at this shrine of 
Bahawal Shah in meditation, and it was here, while 
sleeping one night that his pious ancestor is said to have 
appeared to him in a dream and directed him to the place 
now known as Miyanl Muqim Shah, rousing himself 
from sleep, obeyed the order and preceding thither 
met Hayatu'l Mir, who admitted him in the Qadiri 


The Nawshahl Order owes its origin to Shah Ma 4 ruf 
Chishtl-Qadirl, a descendant of Baba Farld Chishti and 
a vice-gerent of Sayyid Mubarak Haqqani. The latter 
was a son of the famous Sayyid Muhammad Gbawth. 
already mentioned as the pioneer of the Qadiri Order 
in India. So that, in the person of Shah Ma'ruf the 
two lines of succession united, but it was the Qadariyya 
which took precedence and his spiritual descendants 
are counted in the line of that Order. Though the 
Nawshahl section is traced back to Shah Ma'ruf, yet 
the distinctive title Nawshah (bride-groom) was actual- 
ly given for the first time to Hajl Muhammad, a dis- 


ciple of Shah Ma'ruf s vicegerent, Sulayman Shah. In 
fact, the records say very little about the originator of 
this section, beyond mentioning him as its titular 

Shah Haji Muhammad is regarded as having been 
endowed with the dignity of sainthood from his very 
birth. The story goes that once, when he was an in- 
fant of six months, a woman of the neighbourhood 
approached his cradle intending to take him in her lap, 
but she became greatly alarmed on removing the 
coverlet to find a snake coiled round his body. Her 
loud shriek brought the mother to the cradle, but she 
failed to find any cause of fear, as in reality no snake 
was to be seen. While still wondering at what she 
was told about the snake, the mother heard a voice 
saying, "Fear not, the woman is ceremonially unclean 
and was thus stopped from taking the holy child into 
her arms. 11 

When Haji Muhammad reached the age of 17 he 
retired from the world and lived in the desert. His 
parents eventually sought him out and took him to 
Naushahra, in the Punjab, where they prevailed upon 
him to get married to the daughter of a religious man. 
Henceforth Naushahra became the home of Haji 
Muhammad and his parents. The saint, however, 
continued to live as a recluse spending his night in 
meditation on the banks of the river and his days in a 
mosque, reading the Quran. Six years after he had 
settled at Naushahra he heard the fame of Sulayman 
Shah Qadirl and became his disciple. Within a short 


space of time he became perfect in the mystic path 
and received from his pir the title of Naushah Ganj 

Hajl Muhammad had the reputation of being a very 
hospitable man, for he was always ready to feed beg- 
gars, and when his own resources failed he would go 
out and beg from door to door till he had collected 
sufficient for all his guests. The story is told of how 
once when he went to beg for some flour at a neigh- 
bour's door, the woman of the house was in the act of 
kneading some flour, but on seeing the saint at a 
distance she hid it it quickly under her thigh, and then 
apologised to him saying that she had non. When 
the saint had departed she discovered to her horror 
that the flour had stuck to her body, and no amount 
of effort could detach it from her thigh, until her hus- 
band went to the saint and, confessing her fault, 
besought him to pray on her behalf. 

Hajl Muhammad died in 1604-5 A. D. and was 
buriedlat Chani Sahnpal at the Chenab, opposite Ram- 
nagar in Wazirabad tahsil. 

Some of the disciples of Hajl Muhammad have 
become famous saints of the Qadiri order. One such 
person was Muhammad Fudayl, a native of Kabul. 
In search of a pir he came to India and became a 
disciple of Hajl Muhammad. After he had acquired 
perfection in the mystic path he was appointed a vice- 
gerent and sent back to his home. Being given to 
ecstatic experiences he neglected the obligatory prayers. 
The * Ulamd of Kabul then came to him and threatened 


to punish him if he would not say his prayers. Fudayl 
argued that prayer could not be offered without the 
customary ablution and that in his case he was unable 
to perform it. The 'Ulamd desiring to test the truth 
of his assertion, brought some water and proceeded to 
pour it on his arms so as to help him to perform his 
ablutions, but to their great surprise they noticed that 
it did not even wet his hands. He died in 1699-1700 
A. D. and was buried in Kabul. 

The Naushahi section was further sub-divided by 
Ilajl Muhammad's two disciples, Pak 'Abdu'r-Rahman 
and Pir Muhammad Sachyar. The followers of the 
former are known as Pak Rahmanis and those of the 
latter as Sachyaris. When 4 Abdu'r-Rahman was 5 years' 
old Hajl Muhammad once happened to fix his gaze 
upon him with the result that the child turned insane, 
and came to be spoken of as Mad Rahman. His 
parents, abandoning all hope of the child's recovery, 
presented him to Hajl Muhammad. The child was no 
sooner received by the saint than he recovered his 
sanity. When he grew up the saint allotted to him 
the duty of carrying bread to those who were appointed 
to till the ground attached to the monastery. It is 
said that each time he carried out the bread he would 
receive two portions as his daily ration, but instead of 
eating them himself he used to give them away to some 
beggar. Many days were passed in this manner so that 
he became much reduced in health. At last the matter 
was brought to the notice of Hajl Muhammad who 
ordered him to eat his meal in future in his presence. 


The other disciple, Plr Muhammad Sachyar, was 
one day about to get married, but instead turned faqlr, 
and for this reason some have been led, though 
wrongly, to consider him the founder of the Naushahl 

The following story explains how he came to be 
known by the title of Sachyar. Hajl Muhammad on 
the occasion of the wedding of his son Hashim, accom- 
panied the marriage procession to the house of the 
bride. While there, according to the custom of the 
country, the bride's relatives demanded of him a 
present in cash of Rs. 100. But, as the saint had nothing, 
he turned to his disciples asking them to lend him the 
amount, but none of them were able to help him out. 
Plr Muhammad, however, unhesitatingly replied, 
"Never fear. I will get you the amount, 11 and saying 
this he went out and began to pray. While still^pray- 
ing a man came to him and besought prayer for his 
wife who was lying ill. After offering prayer on her 
behalf Plr Muhammad followed the man to his house, 
and there healed the woman. Her husband was so 
delighted that he thereupon made him an offering of 
Rs. 100 and a horse. The saint duly returned with 
these and presented them to Haji Muhammad as gifts, 
and since then he received the title of Sachyar, 4 true 
friend 1 . 

The faqlrs of Naushahi and of its two sub-divisions, 
contrary to the rules of the Qadiri Order, hold musical 
festivals and on such occasions shake their heads 
violently to and fro. The faqlrs of Pak Rahman! are 


said to exceed those of SachySr in their frenzied be- 
haviour. Rose, who writes concerning the Pak 
Rahmanl faqlrs, says that, "when subject to religious 
frenzy they hang themselves on trees with head down- 
wards and sway their bodies violently backward and 
forwards shouting Ilia lldh till they faint from exhaus- 
tion. They explain this custom by a story about Pak 
Rahman ascending to heaven, and on being recalled by 
Naushah, thinking it respectful to his tutor to descend 
with his head foremost." (1) / 

(1) Rose, op cit. Vol. Ill, P. 199. See also, Nur Ahmad Chishti, 
Tahqiqat-i-Chishti, Lahore, P. 428. 

The Qadiri Order (continued) 

The Husayn Shahl and Miyan Khel Sections 

The Husayn Shahi 

This section is ascribed to Hadrat Shah Lai Husayn 
of Lahore, a disciple of Bahlul Shah Darya 'i. His mother 
was a Rajput woman of the Dhadha tribe, and his 
paternal ancestors were known as Kalsaral. Thus 
Lai Husayn's own name was originally Dhadha Husayn 
Kalsara'l. The first of his ancestors to accept Islam 
was a man named, Kalsara'l, who became a Muslim 
during the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlag, and was 
appointed by him to be Shaykhu'l-Islam. The family 
name, Kalsara'l, dates from that time, Lai Husayn 
showed, even as a child, a marked preference for 
clothes of saffron and red colour, hence the epithet 
Lai added to his name. Very early in life it became 
clear that he possessed a religious disposition, and 
while still only ten years' old he was initiated into the 
Qadiri Order by Bahlul Shah Darya 1 !. For twenty-six 
years he strictly followed the rites and practices of 
Islam, and led a life of real austerity. But on reaching 
the age of thirty-six, it is said that while studying a 
commentary on the Quran under a certain Shaykh 
Sa'du'llah in Lahore, he came one day to the verse; 
"The life of this world is nothing but a game and 


sport." (vi. 32). He asked his master to explain this 
to him, but when the usual meaning was given he 
refused to accept it, saying that the words must be 
taken literally, and that henceforth he himself would 
pass his life in sport and dancing. This incident proved 
to be a turning point in his career and from that time 
he sought to express in life the extraordinary views he 
held. In consequence he abruptly left the madrasah 
and went about shouting and dancing in public. He never 
returned to his student life and religious practices. We 
are told that one of his first acts on leaving his studies 
was to throw his book. Maddrik, a commentary on the 
Quran, into a well. His fellow-students, grieved at the 
loss of so valuable a work began to chide him, where- 
upon he turned and addressed the well as follows: "O 
water, return my book, for my friends are anxious to 
have it;" on saying this he drew it out unsoiled! 

He now gave himself up to the life of a libertine 
and spent so much of his time in drinking, dancing and 
music that he became, in the language of the ufis, 
malamati, blameworthy. It is said that his plr Bahlul 
Shah Daryai, hearing of the change in his disciple came 
to see him and, strange to relate, in spite of the freedom 
from restraint which he himself witnessed in Lai 
Husayn's manner of life he expressed himself satisfied 
with the hidden sanctity of his disciple, and thereupon 
confirmed him in his position as his vicegerent in 

IJassu Tell, famous as the saint of oilmen, was a 
contemporary of Lai Wusayn. He kept a shop at Chawk 


Jhhanda near the Mori gate. At first he used to sell 
corn, but later at the direction of his plr, Shah Jamal 
(whose tomb is in Ichhra), he started selling oil. Lai 
Husayn, who was in the habit of visiting the 
tomb of Data Ganj Bakhsh, would stop on his 
way at the shop and spend some time in dancing 
and shouting. One day Hassu Tell, teasing him said, 
"O, Husayn, why this dancing and shouting? You have 
no cause for such ecstasy, for I have never seen you in 
the court of the Prophet." But on the following day, 
when Muhamad held his court in the spirit world, with 
all the prophets and saints in attendance including 
Hassu Tell as one of the representatives of the living 
saints on earth, a child appeared, who first went to the 
lap of the Prophet, and was then passed from one to 
the other, finally coming to Hassu Tell. While playing 
on the latter's knee he plucked out some hairs from 
his beard. When next Lai Husayn stopped at the 
oilman's shop Hassu repeated his taunt that the man 
was not worthy of being admitted into the Prophet's 
court. For reply Lai Husayn quietly produced the hairs 
which he had plucked from Hussu's beard ! The oilman 
was at first thrown into great consternation, but re- 
covering his equilibrium retorted after a moment's 
silence: "So it was you, was it ? Ah well, it was as a 
child that you got the better of me !" 

Lai Husayn's name is popularly associated with that 
of another person called Madhu, and in fact, the two 
are so constantly thought of together that the saint 
commonly goes by the name of Madhu Lai Husayn as 


though the master and this disciple of his were one 
person. Madhu was a young Hindu boy, a Brahmin by 
caste, to whom Lai Husayn was, one day, irresistibly 
attracted as he saw him pass by. So strong indeed was 
the fascination he felt for the boy, that he would rise 
in the middle of the night and, going to his house, 
would walk round it. In time Madhu himself felt the 
attraction of Lai Husayn and, coming under the spell of 
his fervent love, began to frequent his house, and even 
joined him in drinking wine. Such intimate connection 
between a Hindu boy and a Muslim faqlr ot question- 
able character very soon become the talk of the place. 
Madhu's parents feeling it to be a disgrace to their 
family, tried their utmost to dissuade the boy from 
going to Lai Husayn, but in vain. 

So far Madhu, though the bosom friend of Lai Hu- 
sayn, had not yet renounced Hinduism. It was, we are 
told, a miracle wrought by Lai Husayn that finally led 
him and his parents to the conviction of the truth of 
Islam. The story goes that once when Madhu's parents 
were going to Hardwar to perform the bathing ceremony 
they desired to take their son with them. Lai Husayn, 
however, would not let him go, though he promised to 
send him later. When the parents had reached Hardwar, 
Lai Husayn made Madhu shut his eyes and then, after 
striking his feet upon the ground, to open them again. 
Madhu did as he was told and was greatly astonished 
on looking round to find himself in Hardwar! His 
surprise was shared by his parents, who marvelled at 
his arrival from such a distance within so short a space 


of time. Impressed by this miracle, Madhu and his 
parents on their return to Lahore accepted Islam at the 
hands of Lai Husayn. 

The latter died in 1599 A. D. at the age of 63 and 
Madhu who survived him for forty-eight years was 
buried in a tomb next to that of his plr, in Baghbanpura, 
in Lahore. The shrine containing their tombs continues 
even to this day to attract dense crowds of people of 
all classes. The 'urs used formerly to be celebrated on 
22nd. Jamadi 1 th-tham, i. e. the anniversary of Lai 
Husayn's death; but later, in order to avoid any incon- 
venience through the date for the celebration falling 
in the heat of summer, it was agreed to make the festival 
coincide with the advent of spring so now the 14th. 
Baisakh and the last Sunday in March are the recognised 
dates for its celebration. 

Lai Husayn had sixteen Khalifas, four of them were 
called Khaki, four Gharlb, four Dlwan, and four Bilawal. 
After his death four of them, viz. Khaki Shah, Shah 
Gharlb, Diwan Madhu, and Shah Bilawal took up their 
abode at his shrine, and were eventually buried within 
its precincts. (1) 

The Miyan Khel Section. 

This section was founded by Mir Muhammad, com- 
monly known as Miyao Mir. His original home was 
Siwastan, where he was born in 1550 A.D. He received 

(1) A full account of Lai Husayn and Madhu, and of their 
shrines may be found in, Nur Ahmad Chishti, Tahqiqat-i-Chishti* 
p. 31 ff. 


his early training in mysticism from his mother who 
was herself initiated in the Qadirl Order. When he 
grew up into manhood he became a disciple of Khidr 
Siwastanl, a saint of cynical disposition who lived the- 
life of a hermit in the solitude of a desert, wearing 
nothing but a loin-cloth throughout the year. In winter 
this Khidr would pass the night time in a furnace that 
had been heated during the day. The story is told how 
one day in summer, when he was sitting in the blazing 
sun, the ruler of Siwastan visited him, and standing 
close by cast his shadow upon his body so as to protect 
him from the sun. The saint raising his head asked him 
what he wanted. The ruler said "I desire to be permit- 
ted to do you some service." The saint replied. "The 
one service that I would have you perform is that you 
get away from here and do not cast your shadow upon 
me." The ruler, retreating a short distance, then re- 
quested the saint to pray for him during the hour of his 
worship. But the saint rebuked him, saying, "God for- 
bid, that in the hour of worship I should think of any 
one else beside Him/' 

After spending some time under the discipline of 
Kbidr Siwastanl, Miyaa Mir eventually went to Lahore 
for the purpose of study. Within a short period he 
completed his studies and settled permanently there. 
He had arrived in Lahore during the latter part of 
Akbar's rule, and**lived on through the successive 
reigns of Jahaogir and Shahjahan. 

Prince Dara Shikoh, son of the Emperor Shahjahan, 
held Miyan Mir in high esteem and wrote a biography 


of him, under the title of the SakinatiCl-Aivliyd which 
has come down to us. Though the prince knew the 
saint intimately and paid him frequent visits, yet for 
some reason or other he became a disciple of Mullah 
Shah, one of Miyan Mir's vicegerents. Dara Shikoh 
has depicted the saint as a man of high principles, 
one who scorned material possessions, shunned cheap 
popularity, and exibited at all times the utmost con- 
tempt for wordly pleasures. To him the true renuncia- 
tion was that wherein a ufl, in his search after God, 
becomes so absorbed that he grows unconcerned about 
the ordinary necessities of life, and is anxious only to 
live in continuous meditation upon God. His biogra- 
pher tells us that he had a habit of saying that the 
purging of one's self from every love except that of 
God is the first step towards the mystic Path. He 
would enjoin upon his disciples the cultivation of 
humility, and urged them to avoid the company of the 
rich and of men of high dignity. In this connection he 
often used to quote the saying of Muhammad. ''The 
last thing that goes out of the head of the righteous is 
love of dignity." He himself is described in words 
which indicate that he endeavoured to live up to the 
standard of austerity which he set before others. He 
remained a celibate all his life. 

Miyan Mir's favourite disciple was Miyan Nattha, a 
native of Sirhind, who also waited upon him. The 
saint liyed in the upper story of his house while Miyao 

(1) Our information concerning the life of Miyan Mir and his 
associates are chiefly derived from this book. See also, Nur Ahmad, 
op- cit. p. 250 ff. 


Nattha occupied the lower. Every night it was his 
custom to carry water to his master for the ablutions 
before prayer. One night, according to Dara Shikoh, 
he was late in taking the water and on reaching the 
room he failed in spite of a thorough search, to find 
his master. Astonished at the saint's sudden dis- 
appearance, he spent the whole night seated outside 
the door, awaiting his return. Great was his surprise 
when, early in the morning, he heard his master shout- 
ing from within the room to bring the water. Miyan 
Nattha, curious to know where he had been during the 
night and how he managed to get inside the room, 
naturally asked for an explanation. The saint at first 
would not reply, but when Miyao Nattha persisted in 
his enquiry; he answered, "I generally spend my night 
in Mt. Hira, in the vicinity of Mecca, where Prophet 
Muhammad used to meditate in his early life. 11 

Miyo Nattha was very much subject to states of 
ecstasy and would often pass whole day in some desert 
place, lost in profound meditation. Dara Shikoh 
speaks of him as one who could understand the langu- 
age of birds, trees, plants, etc., and tells the story of 
how Miyao Mir once asked him where he resorted for 
meditation. The disciple replied. "At first I used to 
meditate in Ichra, but there the noise of the trees and 
plants praising God disturbed me, and so now I retire 
to the corner of a shrine in Mohalla Junayd Khalifa. 1 ' 
Miyfin Mir jokingly retorted: "Aha! listen to all the 
talks of this oilman! 1 * (This probably was an allusion to 
his previous occupation). 


Another story of similar type is told on the autho- 
rity of Miyan Nattha himself. Once a jinn, the owner 
of vast wealth, pressed him to take as much of it as he 
desired, but he refused saying that it was of no use to 
him. A little further he heard a tree calling out to 
him, and as he drew near to it, the tree thus addressed 
him. "You did not listen to the jinn, well now take a 
little of my root. When desired you just put a bit of 
it into some molten metal and it will turn it into pure 
silver." Nattha still paying no attention, passed on, and 
heard a plant which called out to him from some dis- 
tance ahead, saying: "Take me along; a little bit of 
me if put into some metal will turn it into gold." 
Whereupon Miyan Nattha turned to God in prayer 
and cried: "O Lord of the Universe, these Thy 
creatures distract me from contemplation of Thy- 
self! Command them never again to address me 

Miyao Mir died in 1635-36 A. D., and was buried in 
Lahore at the place now known by his name, Prince 
Dara Shikoh sent to Siwastan for the saint's cousin, 
Muhammad Sharif, to come to take charge of the 
shrine, and his descendants still serve there as its 
attendants. The Prince commenced to build the shrine 
and also planned to make a road of red stone all the 
way from the saint's tomb to the Fort, but before the 
work was completed he was put to death by his brother 
Aurangzeb. The edifice remained unfinished for a 
whole year, and then, when Aurangzeb himself visited 
the place, he gave orders for its completion. 


Within the precincts of the shrine, but outside the 
area enclosing the saint's tomb, there are many graves. 
Chief of these is that of Miyan Nattha who had died 
before his master in 1618 A. D. Others are the tombs 
of the descendants of Muhammad Sharif the first guar- 
dian of the shrine. Attached to the shrine is a Baradari, 
which contains the tomb of Princess Nadirah, sister of 
Dara Shikoh. The story goes that the Princess from 
the time she was nine years' old, used to come to the 
saint and assist him to make his ablutions for the 
midday prayer. After two years of such service the 
saint said to her, one day, "Daughter! You are now 
growing up, do not trouble to come any more." The 
following morning she was found dead in her apart- 
ment, it being surmised that she died of grief, so dis- 
tressed was she that the privilege of serving the saint 
had been taken away. 

The 'urs of Miyan Mir is held on the 7th. of 
RabiVfh-thani, and is celebrated for a night and a day 
during which a continuous stream of people visit the 
tomb. Hundreds of temporary shops are set up in 
booths on both sides of the road leading to the shrine. 
The anniversary celebrations are also, unfortunately, 
attended by women of ill-fame, as well as by singers 
and musicians who throughout the night give free 
performances of their dancing and singing. A fair is 
also held there on every Wednesday in the months of 
Savan and Bhadun, and on these days people throng to 
the shrine and take part in celebrations of a type 
similar to the 'urs. 

The Naqshbandi Order. 

The first saint of this order to enter India was 
Khwaja Baql Billah Berang, seventh in the line of 
succession from Khwaja BahaVd-Din Naqshband, the 
founder. Baqi Bi'llah acting on the instruction of his 
pir, came to India and settled in Delhi, where he died 
after three years. 

He may be considered to have merely introduced 
the Order into this country, for it was his disciple and 
vicegerent, Ahmad Faruql, who really established it 
here. This man, in fact, exerted so great an influence 
upon the people that for a time it seemed as if the 
Naqshbandi Order would supersede the rest of the 
Orders in India. The importance that came to be 
attached in course of time to this one may be judged 
by the following remarks made by Rose, /The history 
of the Naqshbandi Order would be of some interest if 
it could be recovered, not merely because it has played 
an important part in Muslim thought, but also because 
it has had no little influence on the political vicissitudes 
of India, Mesopotamia, and, to a less extent, Turkey."* 
Since these words were written much material relating 
to the Indian history of the Order has been recovered, 
and as a result of the keen interest recently shown in 
the Order by the Muslims of the Punjab, a consider- 

*Rose, The Danishes, P. 435. 


able literature on the subject is now available in both 
Urdu and Persian. This history, however, so far as 
India is concerned begins with Ahmad Faruqi of 

Ahmad Faruqi was born in 1563-64 A.D. in Sirhind. 
It is asserted by the ufls of this Order that his coming 
was known to the saints centuries ahead, and that 
Sirhind, long before his birth was regarded as the 
place in which he would appear. Khwaja Ahmad 
Amkangi is stated to have sent Baqi Bi'llah, his dis- 
ciple, to India for no other purpose but to initiate the 
long-expected saint into the Order. Baqi Billah 
himself, on reaching Delhi, was informed by divine 
revelation concerning every detail in the personal 
appearance of this chosen saint of God and was 
instructed to look out for him. But we are told that as 
early as five years hundred before his birth * Abdu'l-Qadir 
Gllani had foretold Ahmad's coming and had announc- 
ed that he would be a great reformer of Islam. l Abdu'l- 
Qadir went so far as to entrust his i^hirqa or, patched 
garment to his son 'Abdu'r-Razzaq, to be passed on 
from generation to generation till the appearance of 
Ahmad, when it should be bestowed upon him. It is 
said that his duty was eventually performed, in 1604 
A. D., by Sayyid Sikandar Qadirl, a descendant of 
'Abdu'l-Qadir GilanL (1 > 

A number of supernatural events are said to have 
taken place at his coming, such as that all the saints 

(1) Abul-Fayd Khwaja Kamalud-Din. Rawdatu l-Qayyumiya- 
Part I p. 108. 


who were dead appeared to his mother and congratu- 
lated her upon his birth. His father saw Muhammad, 
in company with all the prophets, come near the 
infant and repeat the adhdn in hij ears and enumerate 
his virtues. Further, we are told that for a whole 
week from the day he was born no musician could 
use his instrument. Many of them took this to be a 
sign of God's disapproval of their profession and 
relinquished it. Like Muhammad he too was born 

Ahmad's father, Shaykh 'Abdul-Ahad, was a very 
distinguished ufl who held authority to make disciples 
in fifteen different religious orders and when Ahmad 
reached the age of discretion his father initiated him in- 
to all of them. But so far neither 'Abdu'1-Ahad nor his 
son had come into touch with the Naqshbandl Order. 

In 1598-99 A. D. when his father died, Ahmad 
left his home with the intention of making the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. His route lay through Delhi 
where a friend introduced him to Baqi Bi'llah, who 
constrained him to stay with him for a week. It did 
not take long for Ahmad to come under the influence 
of his host, and before the week was over it was 
agreed to prolong his stay there. Eventually he gave 
up the idea of making the pilgrimage and became a 
disciple of Baqi BHlah. At the end of two months 
he was appointed a vicegerent by his new pir and sent 
back to Sirhind. 

Four years after he paid another visit to Baqi 
Billah, and, contrary to all custom, the disciple was 


received with every token of respect by his ptr. He 
was alloted an eminent place in the monastery where 
even his pir would sometimes sit along with his own 
disciples and listen to the mystical expositions of 
Ahmad. The extraordinary treatment that Ahmad 
received from his plr roused the jealousy of some of 
the other disciples, nevertheless his fame rapidly grew 
and he soon outshone all contemporary ufl teachers. 

Shortly afterwards he returned to Sirhind, and it 
was on this occasion that he received the Khirqa of 
the Qadiri order, to which reference has been made 
above. Ahmad has left it on record that when he 
assumed this ghirqa the spirit of 'Abdu'l-Qadir with 
that of *All. and the spirit of BahaVd-Dm with that 
of Abu Bakr (in company with all the departed saints 
of their respective orders) came to him, each claim- 
ing him to be the representative of his Order. While 
the contention was still in progress, the spirits of the 
founders of the Chishti and Suhrawardi Orders, attend- 
ed by companies of departed saints, also appeared 
to him, and each put forward his argument in support 
of his claim that Ahmad should represent his Order. 
The dispute is said to have been continued from morn- 
ing till noon. At last appeal was a made to Muhammad, 
who decided the matter by saying, "Let there be 
united in Ahmad the spiritual power of all the religi- 
ous orders, and let each of you bestow upon him the 
right of supreme authority in your orders. But the 
Naqshbandiyya should take the precedence of all orders 
with him, since it is traced to my friend Abu Bakr, 


and because it is in keeping with the Law of Islam, 
for he is to be the reformer of my religion." (1) 

The above story is often quoted by the ufls of the 
Naqshbandi Order not only to show the superiority 
of this Order over all the rest, but in justification of 
their claim that its plrs have authority to make disciples 
in all the others. As a matter of fact the Khalifas of 
Ahmad did, for a time, initiate disciples into all the 
religicus orders, but later on the practice was restrict- 
ed to the Naqshbandi and Qadirl Orders only. This 
restriction arose through indulgence by others in such 
practices as music which are contrary to the law of 

In 1603-4 A. D. Ahmad paid his third visit to his 
pir. On this occasion Baqi Bfllah eulogised him, 
enumerating the points of distinction in his character. 
For instance, he said, "Ahmad has guided us to the 
true interpretation of ufi pantheism. In the know- 
ledge of mysticism he is like a sun while we are like 
planets revolving round him. Indeed, after Muhammad 
there have never been a saint in dignity equal to 

Soon after his return from Delhi he went to Lahore, 
where he was welcomed by the ufis and the 'Ulmd 
as a saint and reformer of Islam. While he was still 
there, news reached him of the death of his pir, so he 
hastened to Delhi where he was acknowledged as the 
head of the Naqshbandi Order. He was soon acclaim- 
ed as the much-needed Mujaddid, or reformer of Islam, 
(1) Md. Part I. pp. 109,10. 


and in consequence the order itself came to be known 
as the "Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddadiyya." 

The fame of Ahmad soon spread far and wide in 
India, and he began to exercise great influence over 
all classes of the people. He not only acted as a pir 
but, in keeping with his title, he also exerted himself 
to purge Islam of numerous heretical teachings which 
were current among Muslims, much of it due to the 
influence of Akbar's eclectic religion, Din-i-Hahi. He 
further set himself up in opposition to the Shi'as who 
were gaining much influence at the time, and wrote 
several treatises in refutation of their tenets. In a 
word, he endeavoured to restore Sunn! Islam to its 
pristine condition. The result was that from all quarters 
of the country the orthodox enthusiastically hailed 
him as the saviour of their religion. He is said to 
have tried to convert even Faydl and Abu'l-Fadal, 
Akbar's chief religious advisers, from their heretical 
beliefs. His success, however, was most marked in the 
reign of Jahaoglr, when many of the leading officers 
of the court became his followers. Moreover he tried 
to effect certain religious reforms among the Emperor's 
soldiers, for whose spiritual instruction he appointed 
Badf u'd-Din, one of his own disciples. These activities, 
but more especially his effort to combat Shi'a influence 
in the state, roused the temper of Asaf Jah, the Shi 4 a 
prime minister of Jahangir. As he had the Emperor's 
ear he prevailed upon him to exercise his royal authority 
to curb the progress of the new movement, arguing that 
it might prove to be dangerous to the state. Acting 


upon his advice, the Emperor promptly transferred 
to distant provinces such of his leading officers as 
were Ahmad's disciples; for instance, jChan-i-Khanan 
was sent to the Deccan; Sayyid adar Jahao to Bengal; 
Khan-i-Jahao to Malwa; and Mahabat Khan to Kabul. 
When the more influential friends of the saint had 
been scattered, Ahmad himself was summoned to 
appear at court. Foreseeing the danger of persecution, 
he sent his family away to Afghanistan, and came, 
attended only by his immediate followers, into the 
presence of Jahanglr. On being brought before the 
king he refused to make the customary obeisance to 
him, and when urged to observe the usual court 
etiquette, he replied, "I have never bowed my head 
to any of God's creatures, and I never will!" This 
gave an opportunity to his enemies to whisper to the 
Emperor of the grave danger he ran in granting liberty 
to a person of such marked independence of character. 
The saint and his companions were, thereupon, ordered 
to be imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior. News of this 
aroused the most indignant feelings among his followers, 
and for a time an insurrection seemed imminent. In 
particular, Mahabat Khan, shocked at the news of his 
ptr's imprisonment, was on the point of returning from 
Kabul at the head of an army. Fortunately, however, 
the saint intervened and issued orders from the prison, 
that no one was to rise in revolt on his behalf, 
adding that any one who gave way to violence would 
incur his greatest displeasure. Thus tranquility was 
restored among his followers. 


Ahmad remained a prisoner for three years, by 
which time Jahaogir became convinced of his innocent 
character, and not only granted him his freedom, but, 
impressed with his saintly life, actually became his 
disciple. The Emperor, following the advice of his 
pir, proceeded to make several changes in matters of 
state. For instance, the custom of falling prostrate 
before the king, which had been in force from the 
time of Akbar, was discontinued; the use of beef, 
which had hitherto been prohibited was made permissi- 
ble, a new mosque was built close to the Diwan-i-'Am 
in the fort, for the special convenience of the king 
and his courtiers, and the Sunn! code was adopted 
as the law of the state. Ahmad's triumph over the 
Shi'as at court was also complete. Their influence 
indeed declined to so great an extent that their 
Mujtahid, Sayyid Nuru'llah, was trampled to death 
by an elephant at the order of the king. In short, 
from the time of Ahmad the influence of the plrs of 
the Naqshbandi-Mujaddadl Order continued to be an 
important factor in the courts of the Moghal Emperors (1) 
Aurangzeb, the bigotted Muslim, who was a disciple 
of Ahmad's son Ma* sum, was himself a product of this 
Order. Ahmad died in 1625 A. D. at the age of 63, 
and was buried in Sirhind. 

We shall not attempt to describe any of the 700 
miracles which are said to have been performed by 
him, but shall content ourselves instead with a brief 
account of his teaching and achievements as a ufl 

(1) Ibid. 124-130; 186-195 


and a reformer Undoubtedly the chief service that 
he rendered to Islam was through his reforms. He 
extirpated the heresies introduced by Akbar, drove 
out the Shi'a beliefs and practices which had found 
their way into the court of Jahangir through the 
influence of his wife Nur Jahao, and purged ufism 
of many of those extraneous elements which had 
become attached to it through its long history. It was 
because of his efforts to harmonise the doctrines of 
mysticism with the teachings of the Quran and Sunnat, 
that he came to be looked upon as the person foretold 
by Muhammad in the following tradition, "Among 
my people will arise a man who will be called Sila" 
This word is interpreted by the ufls to mean, one 
who shall reconcile his followers to God and also 
harmonise the teaching of the mystics with the law of 
Islam. Another tradition which is quoted as having 
reference to him, runs as follows, "Muhammad said: At 
the beginning of the tenth century, during the period 
intervening the reigns of two powerful monarchs, 
there will arise a man who shall be my namesake; 
he shall be a great light, and shall carry many thou- 
sands with him into paradise," Ahmad forbad his 
disciples to make use of the following practices, though 
they are still considered permissible in certain of the 
other religious Orders: the use of music; dancing 
while in the state of ecstasy; prostration before one's 
pir; the worship of the saints and shrines, and illuminat- 
ing the tombs of saints. 

He also revised to theology of the uf!s. For 


instance, in the matter of their belief about God the 
ufis were divided into Wujudiyya and Shuhudiyya, 
The one holding an extreme pantheistic view, the 
other a modified view of it. Ahmad reconciled the 
two by asserting that a ufl in the early stage of 
mysticism fails to see any distinction between the 
Creator and the creatures and he is a Wujuch, a mynist; 
but in the higher stages he gains the knowledge of 
the " two as existing separately and is thus a Shuhudi, 
a modified pantheist, 

Ahmad is credited with as many as 644 treatises on 
different religious subjects. His teachings are mainly 
embodied in a series of letters which were collected 
in his lifetime and are now published in three large 

We shall speak again of Ahmad in the following 
chapter in connection with the peculiar dignity which 
he claimed for himself and for his three immediate 

The Naqshbandi Order. 

The doctrine of Qayyumiyat, to be explained in the 
present chapter, is peculiar to the teachings of the 
Naqshbandi-Mujaddadi Order and requires separate 

Ahmad Sirhindl was the first of the saints of Islam 
who claimed for himself and for his three immediate 
successors the title of Qayyum. It would seem that 
the Qayyum is to be considered higher in rank and 
dignity than the Perfect man. (1) He is described as 
follows: The Qayyum is the dignitary on whom the 
whole order of existence depends, and under whose 
control are all Names, Attributes, and things actual 
and potential. All things, whether they belong to the 
past, the present or the future men, animals, birds and 
plants in fact every animate and inanimate object 
the throne of God, the Preserved Tablet, the Pen, the 
Planets, the fixed stars, the sun, the moon, and the 
heavens with all their signs of the Zodiacs, are "under 
his shadow, 11 i. e. (government). 

It is through his command that the heavens and 
their 'Zodiacs 1 move in their courses, that the waves 

(1) The doctrine of the Perfect Man has been expounded by 
Ibnu'l-'Arabi and Jili, also see, Nicholson, Studies in Islamic 


rise and fall in seas and oceans, that the leaves in the 
trees shake and rustle, that the rains fall from heaven, 
that fruits ripen, that birds open their beaks (to receive 
food), and that day succeeds night. Every event, small 
or great, takes place according to his command. No 
a drop of rain falls without his knowledge. The earth 
remains motionless or quakes in accordance with his 
will, and every one of its inhabitants receives joy or 
sorrow, pleasure or pain according to his discretion. 
Not a single moment or day, week, month, or year can 
prove auspicious or inauspicious to the world without 
his order. There can be no harvest, no growth of any 
plant unless he wills. In fact, every conceivable event 
takes place as he desires and directs. 

Moreover, all ascetics, worshippers, pious people 
and saints occupied with God's praise, remembrance 
and meditation, in huts and cells, on mountains and by 
the banks of rivers or seas, either with their tongues 
or with other organs of spiritual communication 
(/ata'i/) all such are engaged by the will of the Qayyum, 
and unless their worship is first accepted by him it 
does not reach unto God. 

The Qayyum is 'the substance' of all that exists 
actually or potentially, and all beings, except God, are 
to him what 'accidents' are to 'substance'. He is the 
Vicar of God on earth. The Absolute bestows upon 
him a special essence, called mawhub. (1) on which de- 
pends the subsistance of the universe, yet though he 
is the 'Substance' of all, the application of this term is 
(1) Lit; given. 


not commensurate with his dignity. Even so, since 
the universe stands to him in the relation of 'accidents', 
we call him 'substance 1 , for there is no substance with- 
out accidents, and no accidents without substance. 
Every Qhawth, Qutb, Abdal etc. is a representative of 
the Qayyum and is his servant. Verily, he is the Vicar 
of God, and all the Afrdd a} of the world turn to him. 
He is moreover the qibla of the universe and of all its 
inhabitants, whether they know it or not. Such is 
the dignity of the office of Qayyum as bestowed upon 
Ahmad Sirhindi and his three immediate successors. 
But this office was strictly limited to these four and 
no other can receive this high dignity in future. 

Ahmad further asserted that God fashioned his 
body with the substance that was left over after the 
creation of the body of Muhammad. The second 
Qayyum, Ma'sum, a son of Ahmad, states in one of 
his letters that, "Ahmad said that God used the resi- 
due of the substance of the body of Muhammad to 
form his body and those of his three successors. **In 
this connection a story is told of how one night after 
his prayer Ahmad's whole body became so luminous 
that it dazzled the eyes, and at that moment he receiv- 
ed the following 'revelation' from God: "O, Ahmad! 
this thy body, is made of the residue of the substance 
of Muhammad's body, which I had reserved for thy 
sake, for thou wast to be my beloved. " (2) 

(1) A frad< are those saints who are not under the Qutb, the 
head of the invisible hierarchy of the saints. 

(2) Abul-Fayd Khwaja Kamalu d-Din op. cat. Part I. pp. 93>97. 


It is said that when God bestowed upon Ahmad 
the dignity of the Qayyum, the spirit of Muhammad 
appeared to him and said: "You are indeed my son, 
like Ibrahim and Qasim. (1) The honour and privilege 
which God has given to you, no other saint has ever 
received from Him. You have been raised a thousand 
years after me, at a time when God might raise up an- 
other Prophet to reform religion, but as there can 
arise no Prophet after me, you are sent forth into the 
world endowed with the dignity of those exalted 
messengers of God who were known as Ulul-azam^ 
"Possessors of constancy/' and all the acts of such 
prophets will proceed from you, and through you my 
religion will be reformed. Muhammad then turned to 
the spirit of Khadlja and said, " Ahmad is your son 
also, for God has given him to us both, and he is 
brother of Qasim and Ibrahim, 11 Whereupon Khadija 
affectionately embraced him and said, "You are the 
best of all my sons." (3) 

Another story, illustrating his dignity in virtue of 
his Qayyumiyat (the office of Qayyum), runs as follows. 
Once Ahmad saw the angels, jinn, human beings and 
the entire creation performing their namaz and making 
prostration towards him. He 'concentrated his mind' 
to find out why he was the recipient of such higher 

(1) Muhammad's two sons born of Mary the Copt, and Khadija, 
who died in their infancy. 

(2) The following nine are said to have been Ulu'l-cazam 
Prophets: Noah, Abraham, David, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Jesus, 
and Muhammad. 

(3) Ibid, Part I. 99-100. 


honour. He was forthwith 'inspired' to know that the 
Ka'ba itself had come to visit him and that he was so 
completely surrounded by it that every one prostrat- 
ing towards the Ka'ba was actually prostrating towards 
himself. At the same time he received the following 
"revelation": "O Ahmad! your great desire was to 
visit the Ka'ba, and lo! I have sent the Ka'ba to visit 
you. I now bestow upon the ground whereon stands 
your monastery, the dignity of the Ka'ba and I also 
deposit within it the light of the Ka'ba itself." The 
Ka'ba then entered the monastery of Ahmad, and the 
ground whereon the monastery stood itself became so 
intimately one with the Ka'ba, that the former was 
first 'annihilated' and then received its 'subsistence' in 
the latter, and thus all the realities of the Ka'ba came 
to exist in the monastery also. An angel was then 
heard to proclaim, "This mosque (monastery) of Ahmad 
Sirhindl has superiority over all the mosques of the 
world, and he who ever performs prayer in this mos- 
que will acquire the same degree of merit as though 
he had offered prayer in all the mosques of the world." 
It is on the basis of this legend that the Muslims of 
India, more especially those of the Punjab, make a 
pilgrimage to this particular mosque. The tomb of 
this saint himself is said to be situated at a distance of 
about twenty yards from this ground which is now 
regarded as being quite as sacred as that of the Ka 4 ba. (1) 
The next great favour which Aljmad, as the Qayyum, 
claimed to have received from God was that He 

(1) Ibid Part I. pp. 100-101. 


bestowed upon him the title of the 4 Depository of God's 
Mercy', and actually made him the custodian of 
'His Treasury of Mercy 1 . At the time when he receiv- 
ed this favour he declared that he saw an infinite 
number of angels descending from heaven and standing 
before him, in rows, with folded hands, and that they 
said to him; "We are the angels of mercy, and God has 
commanded us to carry out your orders." Thus Ahmad 
not only claimed that he was the treasury of God's 
Mercy but also that its distribution was entrusted to 
him. He further asserted that he had given the charge 
of keeping the seal of the permit to enter heaven on 
the day of judgment to his son, Sa'ld. He declared 
that all who receive from God a permit to enter heaven 
on the day of judgment must first get the impress on 
it of his seal. Other acts of Mercy, such as rescuing 
sinners from hell, and assisting people at the Bridge 
and at the Balances, he has entrusted to his son and 
successor, Ma'sum. (1) 

The story is related that once Ahmad went to the 
graveyard in Sirhind, where one of his ancestors, 
RafiVd-Dln, the founder of the city, was buried. 
There it was revealed to him that henceforth, by virtue 
of his visit to that cemetery, no one buried in it will 
suffer the usual punishment of the grave till the day 
of judgment. <2) 

Similar sanctity is said to attach to the land situated 
to the north of his monastery. This is called 4 heavenly 

(1) Ibid Part I. pp. 101-102. 

(2) Ibid Part I. pp. 154, 155. 


land' and it is believed that any one buried in it will 
surely go to heaven. Ma'sum writes that his father 
once told him that God had graciously made his burial 
place 'heavenly' and that if a handful of earth from 
this ground be cast into the grave of any one, the soul 
of the person there buried will not suffer from any tor- 
ment of hell. This particular piece of 'Heavenly land' 
measures 40 yards in length and 30 yards in breadth. 
On its western extremity is a well concerning which 
Ahmad once declared that any one drinking of its 
water thrice, would escape the touch of the fire of hell 
and most surely enter heaven. (T) . * . 

The following story is yet a further illustration of 
the high claims which this saint made concerning his 
personal dignity as the Qayyum of his age. It is said 
that once in Sirhind plague was raging very violently. 
When the mortality became excessive, people hastened 
to Ahmad and asked him to pray that the epidemic 
might cease. After offering prayer Ahmad declared: 
"God demands one of my children on behalf of .the 
people, and I have agreed to give one." The same day 
his son Muhammad Isa, eleven years old, died of the 
plague. His death, however, though believed to have 
taken place by way of relief for the people, failed to 
bring about any abatement of the epidemic. Con- 
sequently, the people came once again to Ahmad and 
entreated him to pray on their behalf. This time he 
was informed by a 'revelation* from God that yet an- 
other son of his must die on behalf of the people. 
(1) Ibid Part 1. p. 160. 


Again the saint consented to the death of his son, 
Farukh, then ten years old. He also was attacked by 
the plague and died the same day. Even this did not 
have the desired effect, for the epidemic continued to 
rage as violently as before. The devotees of the saint 
once again besought his prayers. Ahmad now offered 
his daughter Kulthum, and also the wife of his son 
Ma'sum, and in consequence of his prayer they both 
fell ill and died of the plague. It is said that when 
Kulthum was lying on her deathbed, about to breath 
her last, angels appeared to the saint and congratulated 
him. But this being no occasion for joy, he greatly 
wondered at their felicitations, whereupon God is said 
to have sent him the following extraordinary 'revela- 
tion 1 : "O Ahmad! rejoice, for I have chosen thy 
daughter, Kulthum, for my prophet Yahya (John the 
Baptist), and these angels and saints who stand around 
her bed are there to solemnize her marriage with him." 
On receiving Ahmad's consent the ceremony was per- 
formed by 'the spirit of Muhammad/ and then the 
spirits of all the prophets and angels bore witness to it. 
As soon as the ceremony was over she breathed her 
last. The saint forbade the people to mourn over her 
death, for he said that he saw Yahya with a great con- 
course of the angels and the spirits of the saints and 
the prophets following the bier of Kulthum as if they 
were marching in a wedding procession. He also said 
that when her body was laid in the grave the spirit of 
Yaljya caught hold of it. 1 

(1) Ibid. Part I. 157-158. 


Ahmad even declared that he had access to 'the 
Preserved Tablet/ The story goes that one of his dis- 
ciples, Shaykh Tahir, fell in love with a Hindu girl, 
and in consequence renounced Islam and became a 
Hindu. Ahmad prayed earnestly for him and he was 
guided back to Islam. Soon after he again apostatized, 
and again his faith was restored to him by the prayer 
of the saint. When this was repeated the third time, 
the saint studied the 'Preserved Tablet/ and discovered 
that it was recorded of him that he would die as a 
'sinner.' The saint records that he then erased the 
word 'sinner 1 and wrote the word 'saint 1 in its place! 
Tahir then repented sincerely of his lapse into Hinduism 
and became a devoted disciple of Ahmad. Soon after 
he received from the saint permission to make disciples 
in the Chishtl, the Qadiri and the Naqshbandi Orders, 
and was also raised to the dignity of the Qutb. Ahmad 
finally sent him to Lahore as his vicegerent, where he 
lived until his death (163031 A. D.) (1) 

The second Qayyum and successor of Ahmad was 
the latter's third son, Muhammad Ma'sum 'Urwatu'l- 
Wuthqa, born in 1598-99 A.D It is said that the name 
Ma'sum, 'sinless/ was given to him in accordance with 
the instruction of 'the spirit of Muhammad/ At his 
birth the spirit of Muhammad, in company with the 
spirits of all the prophets and saints, is said to have 
come and repeated the a^han in the ears of the child. 
Miraculous events are said to have marked each stage 
of his development. 

(1) Ibid, Part I p. 327. 


The second Qayyum claimed to have learnt from 
his father the meanings of the mysterious letters which 
and found at the beginning of the certain chapters of 
the Quran. It is said that no one had ever known their 
meanings except Muhammad and his more intimate 
companions. It was a thousand years after the time 
of Muhammad that they were revealed for the first 
time to Ahmad, and the only person to whom he 
transmitted this knowledge was this son, his successor. 
It is related that in the period during which the father 
was expounding the meanings of these letters to his 
son, every precaution was taken against the possibility 
of being overheard by any man, jinn or spirit. For 
instance, the evil spirits and demons were imprisoned 
in the ocean, and the angels were made to stand in 
tiers with folded hands, round about Ahmad and his son. 
Both the Qayyums at this time had miraculously trans- 
ported themselves to Mecca, and had shut themselves 
up inside the Ka 4 ba. For three days the instructions 
continued to be given and they are said to have been 
of such terrible nature that at every exposition of the 
mystery Ma'sum became unconscious. But at the end of 
the three days the saint had only completed the unfold- 
ing of the one letter, qdf . It is said that the mysteries 
attaching to the remaining letters were subsequently 
revealed to Ma'sum by God Himself. a) 

Prince Aurangzeb, who in his early youth was a 
devotee of Arimad, now became a disciple of Muhammad 
Ma'sdm. The reason given for his accepting QayyQm 

(1) Ibid. Part I pp. 164 166. ~~ 


II as his plr is said to be as follows. He dreamed one 
night that the day of judgment had come, and that 
sinners were being dragged down to hell. The angels 
of hell came to him also to drive him into the fire, but 
as they were about to take hold of him shouts were 
heard from all sides, "Here comes Imam Ma'sum! 
Imam Ma'sum! Imam Ma'sum! he is our deliverer! !" 
The Qayyum then appeared on the scene delivered 
the sinners from hell, and instead sent them to 
heaven. Finally Ma'sum turned to Aurangzeb and 
bade the angels release him on the ground that he was 
his disciple. It is said that on the following morning 
he went to the Qayyum and became his disciple. (1) The 
saint, after initiating him into his Order, predicted that 
he would succeed his father as Emperor of India. From 
that time Aurangzeb was supported in his contest 
against his brothers for the throne by this saint who 
wielded very great influence throughout the Empire. 
It was largely through the influence of this puritanical 
plr of his, Ma'sum, that he reimposed the jizya on his 
Hindu subjects and forbade the use of music. Even 
the practice of Sama* at the shrines of the Chishti 
saints was put a stop to. 

The third Qayyum was Khwaja Naqshband Huj- 
jatu'llah, born in 1624-25 A.D. He was the second son 
of Qayyum II. The year of his birth is regarded as 
remarkable, and is called sdl-i-muflaq, 'the absolute 
year/ for it was in this very year that Qayyum I died, 

(1) Ibid. Part II p. 38. 


that Qayyum II succeeded him, and that Qayyum III 
was born. ; 

Like his predecessor, Hujjatu'llah also influenced 
very greatly the reigning Emperor, Aurangzeb, in his 
political career. The biographers of Qayyum III say 
that it was at the instigation of this saint that Aurang- 
zeb led out his great expedition against the Shi'a king- 
dom of South India. 

A large number of miracles are declared to have 
been performed by him. The most astonishing of these 
is that he is said to have raised to life his grand- 
daughter after she had been dead for three days. It 
is said that his grand-daughter, Taju'n-Nisa, once fell 
ill, and after suffering for some time died. When the 
news was conveyed to the Qayyum he said that she 
was not dead but alive. The doctors did their best to 
revive her but they did not find any sign of life in her. 
When three days had passed, and her body began to 
show signs of decay, the people approached the saint 
and requested him either to allow to make preparation 
for her burial or else raise her to life. Whereupon the 
saint approached the body and called her by name, at 
which she at once sat up. (1) 

The fourth Qayyum Zubayr, was a grandson of 
Qayyum III. It is related that his father, Abu'l 'All, 
took the veil, after the manner of women, when 12 
years old but discarded it when Zubayr was born 12 
years afterwards. Such supernatural events as are 
said to have taken place at the time of the birth of the 

(1) 7W7~"Part III, p?9a " 


first three Qayyums are reported to have occurred at 
Zubayr's birth also, and countless miracles are said to 
have been performed by him from his childhood on to 
old age. 

It was during the time of the fourth Qayyum that 
Aurangzeb died, and in the subsequent war of succes- 
sion between princes A'zam and Mu'azzam, the saint 
appears to have played an important role in deciding 
its final issue. He openly championed the cause of his 
disciple, Mu'azzam, and encouraged him with the 
promise of victory in his fight with his brother. As 
predicted the battle ended in favour of Mu'azzam, who 
ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. 
Zubayr, however, never allowed him to forget that 
it was through his influence that he had gained the 

The fourth Qayyum passed the rest of his life amid 
the turbulent times of the now decaying Muslim 
Empire. The hostile forces of Marhattas, Rajputs, 
Sikhs, Jats, the French and the English were closing in 
upon Delhi. It was during this time that Delhi was 
sacked by the Persians under Nadir Shah ( 1739 A.D.) 
who took away the Peacock Throne and with it 
immense treasure. 

The decay which had set in was due in the main to 
the intolerance and fanaticism with which the four 
Qayyums had imbued the Moghal Emperors in parti- 
cular Aurangzeb and his successors. It is notable that 
the Muslim Empire in India was at the height of its 
glory in the time of Akbar, in whose reign Qayyum I 


assumed office, and that it lay in ruins when the last of 
the Qayyums died, in 173940 A.D. Equally note- 
worthy is the fact that at the death of Zubayr the 
Naqshbandl-Mujaddadi Order had spread to every 
part of the Muslim world. 

Some Minor Orders. 


This Order is ascribed to Uwaysu'l-Qaram, who 
derived his title from Qaran, a village in Yaman. He 
was a contemporary of Muhammad but was prevented 
from seeing him chiefly because of his high sense of 
duty to his own mother and also owing to the fact that he 
was subject to states of ecstasy which periodically over- 
mastered him. He is said to have received instruction 
in a mysterious way from the spirit of Muhammad. 
Thus it is that when a ufl is known to have no ptr, he 
is said to be an 'Uwaysi. 1 The custom, to which refer- 
ence has already been made (p. 190} , of connecting 
two saints or mystics in a spiritual genealogy who could 
never have met because separated by a long space of 
time or distance, is really derived from this Uwaysl 
order. The one is said to have received instruction 
from the ruhdniyat ('spirituality/ elsewhere we have 
translated this word by 'spirit') of the other. Such cases 
are common in the Naqshbandi other. (See pp. 187-190). 

The following anecdote concerning Uways is related 
by the author of the Kashfu'l-mahjub: The Apostle said 
to the Companions: 'There is a man at Qaran, called 
Uways, who at the Resurrection will intercede for a 
multitude of my people, as many as the sheep of Rabf a 


and Mudar. Then turning to 'Umar and 'All, he said: 
'You will see him. He is a lowly man, of middle height, 
and hairy; on his left side there is a white spot, as large 
as a dirhem which is not from leprosy (plsti) and he has 
a similar spot on the palm of his hand. When you see 
him, give him my greetings, and bid him pray for my 
people. 1 After the Apostle's death 'Umar came to 
Mecca, and cried out in the course of a sermon: 'O men 
of Najd, are there any natives of Qaran amongst you ? 
They answered, 'Yes'; whereupon 'Umar sent for them 
and asked them about Uways. They said: 'He is a mad 
man who dwells in solitude and associates with no one. 
He does not eat what men eat, and he teels no joy or 
sorrow. When others smile he weeps, and when others 
weep he smiles.' 'Umar said: 1 wish to see him.' They 
replied: "He lives in a desert, far from our camels. 
'Umar and 4 All set out in quest of him. They found 
him praying and waited until he was finished. He 
saluted them and showed them the marks on his side 
and the palm of his hand. They asked his blessing and 
gave him the Apostle's greeting, and enjoined him to 
pray for the Moslem people. After they had stayed 
with him for a while, he said: 'You have taken trouble 
(to see me) ; now return, for the Resurrection is near, 
when we shall see each other without having to say 
farewell. At present I am engaged in preparing for the 
Resurrection/ When the men of Qaran came home, 
they exhibited great respect for Uways. He left his 
native place and came to Kufa. One day he was seen 
by liarim b. HEayySn, and after that nobody saw him 


until the period of civil war. He fought for *AlI, and 
fell a martyr at the battle of Siff!n." (1) 

D'Ohsson in his work on the Ottoman Empire says 
that Uways formed the first order of the anchorites who 
practised the greatest austerity. He writes: "This 
visionary pretended also to have received from the 
heavenly visitor the plan of his future conduct, and the 
rules of his institution. These consisted in a continual 
abstinence, in retirement from society, in an abandon- 
ment of the pleasures of innocent nature, and in the 
recital of an infinity of prayers day and night. Uways 
even added to these practices. He went so far as to 
draw out his teeth, in honour, it is said, of the Prophet, 
who had lost two of his own in the celebrated battle of 
Uhud. He required his disciples to make the same 
sacrifice. He pretended that all those who would be 
especially favoured by heaven, and really called to the 
exercises of his Order, should lose their teeth in a 
supernatural manner; that an angel should draw out 
their teeth while in the midst of a deep sleep; and that 
on awakening they should find them by their bedside. 
The experiences of such vocation was doubtless too 
severe to attract many proselytes to the Order; it only 
enjoyed a certain degree of attraction for the eyes of 
fanatic and credulously ignorant people during the first 
days of Islamism." (2) 

Uways was regarded as the patron saint of many of 
the trade guilds in Turkey, especially that of the barber 

(1) Kashf al-Mahjri, pp. 83, 84. 

(2) Quoted by Rose in The Darvishes, pp. 266, 267. 


tooth-drawers. According to Rose he is also the patron 
of bowmen and camel drivers. 

As we have seen the place assigned to Uways in 
Indian hagiology is significant. There were indeed many 
saints who were termed 'Uwaysi' and some of them 
originated certain of the other Minor Orders. One 
such Order is called Madarl, and we shall now proceed 
to give a brief account of it. -^ 


This Order is ascribed to BadlVd-Din Shah Madar. 
Unfortunately there is much confusion in the various 
details given concerning him by different hagiographers. 
The following account is based on the M ir'dt-i- Madarl, 
a manuscript copy of which is to be found in the Buhar 
Library, a section of the Imperial Library, Calcutta. 
The Mir'dt-i-Maddri is said to have had for its sources 
the Iman-i-Mahmudi, a work believed to have been 
written by Mahmud Kanturi, one of the vicegerents of 
Shah Madar. 

Shah Madar was a Jew, and his father, Abu Isfraq 
Shami was a direct descendant of Aaron, the brother 
of Moses. The birth of Shah Madar is said to have 
been announced to his father in a dream by Moses 
himself, who named the child BadlVd-Din (the maker 
of religion), and said that he would be like unto him in 
the dignity of sainthood. According to Moses' predic- 
tion signs of the 'Mosaic saintship' showed themselves 
in Madar in his youth. He received his early education 
from a Jewish teacher, Hadlqa Shmi, a man who 


knew all the scriptures by heart and truly followed 
their teachings. This Hadlqa is said to have performed 
many miracles in his life. 

When Shah Madar was still young hi*"parents died, 
and he, broken hearted over his loss, went to his master 
Hadiqa and said, "I have acquired mastery over all the 
Scriptures and have learnt much from you about the 
mysteries of religion, but so far I have not entered at 
all into the experience of union with God. You have 
taught me of one Ahmad, foretold in the Torah and 
Injil, who was to come after Moses and Jesus, and 
through whom alone one could find God. Where is he 
to be found? 1 ' His master replied, "Ahmad has passed 
away from this world, but his followers are to be found 
in Mecca and Medina.'* Whereupon Shah Madar 
renounced all his worldly possessions and went to 
Mecca. There he spent some time in the study of the 
Quran and Traditions and then mastered the Fiqh of 
all the four Sunnl Schools of Jurisprudence. Even so 
his soul was not satisfied. At last, disappointed, he 
thought of returning to his home in Syria, but when he 
went to make the circuit of the Ka'ba for the last time, 
he heard a voice saying to him, "If thou art a seeker 
after God, hasten to the tomb of Muhammad in Medina/' 
In obedience to the voice he went to the Prophet's 
tomb and as he kissed it he heard a voice saying to him, 
"Peace be on thee, O BadiVd-Din Shah Madar ! God 
willing, thou wilt soon attain thy goal/ 1 Shortly after- 
wards the spirit of Muhammad appeared and, in the 
presence of 'All's spirit, instructed him in the mystery 


of the religion of Islam. Afterwards Muhammad com- 
mended him to the care of * All and ordered him to 
instruct him as one of his own sons in esoteric know- 
ledge. Shah Madar next went to Najaf Ashraf, the 
sacred place of the followers of 'All. There he was 
introduced by 'All to Imam Mahdi, the twelfth invisible 
Imam, who further instructed him in the twelve heavenly 
books. We leain of these books thus incidently in 
this connection. They are enumerated as follows: The 
four books which were revealed for the children of 
Adam, viz., 

Torah, Zabur, Injil and Furqan. 

Four which were sent down to the jinn viz. Rakuri, 
Jajari, Dashari and Wallyan. 

Four which were revealed to the Angels viz. Mir 'at, 
A'lnu'r-Rab, Sirr-i-Majir and Mazhar-i-Alif. 

When Shah Madar had been thoroughly instructed 
in all esoteric and exoteric knowledge, Imam Mahdl 
took him to the spirit of 'All, who then appointed him 
his vicegerent and ordered him to go to Medina. There 
the spirit of Muhammad directed him to proceed to 

Another version of his life speaks of him as an Arab 
of the Quraysh tribe, and traces his genealogy on his 
father's side to Abu Hurayra and on his mother's side 
to ' Abdu'r-Rahman b/ Awf , both companions of Muham- 
mad. His father's name, according to this version, is 
said to be 'All. In his spiritual genealogy, he is con- 
nected, through 'Abdullah Makki and Sh%ykhul-Jarib 
Muqaddasi with JayfGr ShUini. The story goes that 


Tayfur's plr had been a disciple and companion of Jesus 
Christ, and that Jesus informed Tayfur that he would 
live to a great age and see Muhammad! Jesus is further 
said to have instructed him to remain hidden in a cave 
till the appearance of Muhammad, and then to accept 
his religion. 

Though obscurity surrounds the origin of Badl'u'd- 
Din, there is reason for believing that, on reaching 
India, he first went to Ajmer where he is said to have 
received instruction as to his future activities from the 
spirit of Khwaja Mu'mu'd-Dln. Thence he went to 
Makanpur, in the neighbourhood of Cawnpore, where 
he died in 1485 A. D. There is some difference of 
opinion as to his age at the time of his death. Accord- 
ing to some he lived to be 250 years old; according to 
others 150. (1) 

His tomb in Makanpur is visited by crowds of both 
Muslims and Hindus, and is the scene of an annual 
fair. Women are excluded from his shrine because it 
is believed that any woman entering it is immediately 
seized with violent pains, as if her whole body were 
wrapped in flames of fire. On the occasion of his 'urs 
the rite of fire-walking is performed by Madari facftrs. 
Burning coals of fire are spread on the ground and 
sandalwood is sprinkled upon them. Then the facfirs, 
following their leader, jump quickly along the path of 
coals, shouting meanwhile "Dam Madar; Dam Madar;" 

(1) See, Ghulam Sarwar, Khazinatu'l-Asjiya vol. II, (1914, Nawel- 
kishor Press, <awnpore) pp. 310-311. See also, AkhbanCl Akhyar 
Munaqiau'l-Asfiya Mu'arijub l-Wilayat. 


i. e. 'By the breath of Madar;' Their cry is believed 
to be a protection against injury from the hot coals, 
as well as a cure for the bite of a snake or the sting 
of a scorpion. After the performance their feet are 
washed and are found to have received no injury. 

Sometimes devotees of the saint vow a black cow at 
the time of his birthday, which is supposed to have been 
the 17th. Jamadlu 1-Awwal. The cow is then slaugh- 
tered and the meat distributed among faqlrs. This 
custom is called "gdi lutnd" i. e., plundering the cow. 


This order is an offshoot of the Tayfuri Khanwada. 
and is attributed to Shaykh 'Abdullah Shattari a des- 
cendant of Shaykh Shihabu'd-Dln Suhrawardi. The 
name Shattdr literally means *speed\ and is a term ap- 
plied by the ufls to certain mystical practices whereby 
they are enabled in the shortest possible time to arrive 
at the state of 'annihilation 1 (fand) and 'subsistence* 
(Jbaqd). 'Abdulllah was the first to receive the title 
of Shatfari on the completion of such practices. It 
was given to him by his pir, Shaykh Muhammad 'Arif, 
who afterwards sent him to India. Wherever he went 
'Abdullah sought out the ufis and said to them: "If 
you possess any spiritual gift, I request you to share 
it with me, otherwise I invite you to share mine". He 
also made this proclamation in every place through 
which he passed: "Let everyone who is a seeker after 
God come to me and I will lead him to God. 1 ' 

When in India he first took up his residence at 


Jaunpur, the capital of the then reigning Sulfan, Ibra- 
him Sharqi. But soon his relations with the court 
became strained and he was obliged to leave for Malwa, 
which then was a small independent Muslim state. 
Therein its capital Mandu he lived till he died in 
1428-29 A. D. ; . 

Shah Muhammad Ghawth of Gwalior was a famous 
saint of this Order, fourth in the line of succession 
from 'Abdullah Shattarl. He travelled extensively, 
making acquaintance wherever he went with leading 
saints and ufls of his time. First he laboured hard to 
acquire the esoteric knowledge peculiar to uflism, 
which consists chiefly of the art of magic and methods 
of summoning jinn. Later, he turned his attention to 
the study of mysticism and devoted himself to the 
purification of his heart for the purposes of attaining 
to the knowledge of God. Soon he rose to be a mystic 
of so high an order that he held authority to make dis- 
ciples in the fourteen Khanwadas becoming at length 
a Qutb of his age. The Emperor Humayun held him in 
very high esteem, and indeed it was in consequence of 
his friendly relation with Emperor that Sher Shah, 
after defeating Humayun, regarded Muhammad Ghawth 
with suspicion. A further pretext for the new ruler's 
persecution of the saint was found in his book Mi raj 
(ascension). In this he described his experiences in 
the path of spiritual progress, frequently making use of 
pantheistic expressions. Such a book was considered 
sufficient reason for condemning him to death. Muham- 
mad Ghawth fled from Malwa and took shelter in Guj- 


rat, which then formed an independent state under 
Sultan Muhammad III. But the ' Ulamd of Gujrat also 
prepared a brief against him and presented it to the 
court. The Sultan however refused to take any step 
unless it was signed by Shah Wajihu'd-Din, a courtier 
for whom the king entertained great regard. 

When Shah Wajihu'd-Din was urged by the ' Ulamd 
to add his signature to the brief, he went personally to 
Muhammad Ghawth in order to hear his explanation 
of the objectionable passages in his book. Shah 
Wajihu'd-Dm was so impressed with Muhammad 
Ghawth, that he refused to sign the brief on the ground 
that the passages in question were uttered in the state 
of ecstasy and hence beyond the purview of the juris- 
diction of the 'Ulama. In conseqence, Muhammad 
Ghawth was acquitted of the charge of heresy and 
hailed as a saint. Shah Wajihu'd-Din himself became 
his disciple. (1) 

Muhammad Qbawth was the author of several 
books which dealt for the most part with magic, in- 
cantations, and the methods of summoning the jinn. 
The most notable of his extant writings are, Jawdhir- 
i-lghamsa and Awrcd-i-Qhawtinyya. The saint died in 
1562-63 A. D. and his tomb in Gwalior is famous as a 
place of pilgrimage. 

Shah Wajihu'd-Din, succeeded Muhammad Ghawth, 
and in time came to be regarded as a famous saint of 
Gujrat. He founded a great Madrasa, which was a 
centre of learning for the whole of that district and 

(1) Sec Ghulam Sarwar op. cit. pp. 332-333. 


actually existed as late as 1820-21 A. D. He lived 
during the reigns of successive rulers of Gujrat, and 
witnessed its conquest by Akbar. 

He too was a notable author, and is said to have 
written about 300 works, but of course this is gross 
exaggeration. Some of his writings may still be seen 
in the Library of Plr Muhammad Shah in Ahmadabad. 
He 4j^yi^lpl8 A. D., and was buried in the centre of 
his 'great Mtadrasa. Over his tomb a beatiful shrine 
was built by Murtada Khau, the Governor of Gujrat 
during the reign of Jahaugir. 


The meaning of the word qalandar has not yet been 
satisfactorily defined. In an article written on the 
subject a few years ago, an Indian ufi claimed that it 
is derived from one of the names of God in Syriac. (1) 
Others have sought to find its derivation in the Persian 
Kaldntar, a chief man, or Kalantar a rough, uncouth 
man, but both of these are rejected by Rose as highly 
improbable. Further, the idea has been put forward 
that the term is derived from the Turkish Qarinda or 
Qalanddri, both meaning musical instruments, or again, 
that it is connected with the Turkish word qdl, mean- 
ing pure; but all such attempts to trace it to known 
word in various languages are beset with difficulties. 

The term, whatever its meaning, is applied to an 
order of faqlrs, of which we have varying descriptions. 
According to some writers these faqlrs form a class of 

(2) Asnar-i-Tasauwuf Lahore, July 1925.. 


begging monks, but others speak of them as a tribe of 
nomads who make their living by conjuring and the 
exhibition of performing bears, etc. Others, again, 
give a more honourable account of its members, 
depicting them as a pious people who travel about, 
mostly without shoes, and practise the severest acts of 
austerity, and at times live in a state of ecstasy. (1) But 
in the hagiology of Indian Islam the Qalandariyya is 
an order of faqlrs who are so absorbed in religious 
reveries or overcome to such an extent by ecstatic 
experiences that they are unable to distinguish between 
things lawful and unlawful. Members of this order 
are distinguished by the fact that they shave their 
heads, eyebrows, moustaches and beards. 

The first man known to have had the name Qalan- 
dar is said to bave been 'Abdul- 4 Aziz Makki. It has 
generally been believed that he was a companion of the 
Prophet himself. According to ufi legend he is not 
only still alive, but is said to have been living though 
the ages from the time of Abraham until now! In 
Pakpatan, close to the tomb of Baba Farld, a small 
mound (sarddba) is pointed out as the place inside of 
which he is said to be now existing through in a state 
of unconsciousness self-induced by the effect of Habs-i 
Dam, the holding of the breath. 

According to an account current in India, the order 
was found by Sayyid Khidr RumI Qalandar Khapra- 
dari, a disciple of 'AbduVAziz Makki. The word 

(1) For a fuller discussion on the term see Rose, The Danishes* 
pp. 169-70. 


Rum! indicates that he belonged to Rum, or Turkistan, 
while the title Khapradari is connected with a cup which 
he called Khaprd, and always carried with him. It is 
said that this cup possessed the miraculous quality of 
being able to supply to any one whatever was wanted. 
The peculiarity of this order whereby the members 
shave their heads etc, is thus explained. Khidr Ruml's 
pir, 'Abdu'l-'Aziz owing to his very great age had lost 
all his hair, and his disciple in his ardent desire to 
imitate his master in every detail of his life and ap- 
pearance, shaved off the hair of his face. 

It is said that Khidr Rumi once came to Delhi and 
there met Khwaja Qutbu'd-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki, who 
initiated him in the Chishti Order and gave him the 
authority to make disciples in it. In return Khidr 
Ruml received Qutb-ud-Din in the Qalandarl order and 
bestowed upon him a like authority. Thus originated 
within the Chishityya a sub-section called the Chish- 
tiyya-Qalandariyya; and in the Qalandariyya called the 

The biographers of Khidr Ruml say that he was a 
contemporary of the following saints; 'Abdu'l-Qadir 
Gilani, Shihabu d-Din Suhrawardi, Mawlana BahaVd- 
Dln the father of Jalalu'd-Din Rumi, BadlVd-Din Shah 
Madar, Faridu'd-Dm l Aftar and Faridu'd-Din Shakar- 

The Qalandar! Order was introduced into India by 
Sayyid Najmu'd-Din Qhawhu'd-dahar Qalandar. The 
saint was at first a disciple of Nizamu'd-Din Awliya of 
Delhi, but later at the suggestion of his pir he went to 


Rum and became a disciple of Khidr Rumi, who ap- 
pointed him his vicegerent and sent him back to India . 
Najmu'd-Din is said to have journeyed twice to 
England and China and to have made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca forty-two times. Among his acts of austerity 
it is mentioned that once he fasted for a period of 
forty years, breaking his fast every evening with the 
leaves of the plum tree; and that, further, he remained 
seated for thirty years on one stone. His chest, we 
are also told, used to give out the sound of 'Hu\ the 
ufi's abbreviated name for God (Allah). Legend 
tells us that he lived to the great age of 200 years, and 
that he died in 1432 A. D. His shrine is at Mandu in 
Malwa, close to the palace of Sultan Muhammad 
Ghawri. He was succeed by Qutbu'd-Dm Binadal 
Qalandar Sarandaz-i-Ghawthl. The title Sarandaz 
means one who casts away his head, and is said to have 
been given to him because at the time of performing 
E)Hikr his head would become severed from his neck. 
He died in 1518 A. D. at the age of 145. He was the 
last of the Qalandari saints to have lived to over 100 

Another saint of this order whose name is still 
venerated all over North India, was Sharfu'd-Din 
Bu'AU Qalandar of Panlpat. He at first held the office 
of a Mufti in Delhi and was a disciple of Shihabu'd-Dln 
Chishtl, fourth in the line of succession from Qu^bu'd- 
Dln Bakhtiyar Kakl. The story goes that once when 
he was delivering a lecture and parading his learning, 
a faqlr stood at the door and said, U O Sharfu'd-Din, 


it is not for this that you were born how long will 
you continue in such disputations?" This gentle 
rebuke sank deep into his heart, and forsaking his 
office and the pulpit he began to seek peace in solitude. 
Eventually he cast away his books into the river 
Gumtl, and as an act of penance continued to stand 
knee-deep in its waters for several years. Then he 
heard a voice saying to him: "O Sharfu'd-Dm, thine 
austerity has been accepted, ask whatsoever thou 
wiliest." He replied, "Nothing but Thee, and Thee 
alone." He was then told that his prayer had been 
heard, and he was ordered to come up out of the 
water. Sharfu'd-Din said, "If this is Thy desire take 
Thou me from this water by Thine own hand, as for 
myself I have no desire to leave this 'sea of love'." At 
the next moment he found that some one had lifted 
him up from the water and had placed him on the 
ground. Exasperated at the conduct of this stranger, 
he cried out, "Shame! thou hast spoiled my labour of 
many years. But a few more moments and I would 
have attained my goal." The stranger replied, "I am 
* All, and son-in-law of the Prophet; art thou not aware 
that I am also known by the title of yad Allah, the 
hand of God?" "Saying this 'All imparted to him 
spiritual power and disappeared. From that time he 
became a Qalandar. According to others he was 
initiated into the Qalandarl Order by Najmu'd-Din 
Ghawth Qalandar. 

Sharfu'd-Din's teachings are contained in a series of 
letters addressed by him to his disciple Ikhtivaru'd-Din. 


He died in 1324 A. D. and was buried at first in 
Karnal, but the people of Panipat, claiming him to be 
a native of their city, disintered his body and re-buried 
it in their own city. There is a legend, however, which 
says that when the people of Panipat came to remove 
his body they were prevented from carrying out their 
design by some supernatural portent, and so they 
merely dug up a few bricks from the tomb and, placing 
these in a coffin, carried them away in procession. 
On reaching Panipat they cpened the coffin and, to 
their great surprise, found his body in it! It is now 
supposed that he lies buried both at Panipat and 

His 'urs at any rate is held at both the places from 
the 9th. to 12th. Ramadan, during which days both 
shrines are illuminated and musical festivals are held. (1) 


The designation Malamati is derived from maldmat. 
*'blame," and signifies one who is "blameworthy." 
The term has been generally applied to the saints of 
this Order, as indicating that they stood in a special 
relation to God, and, in consequence, were not subject 
to the Divine ordinances. This however does not 
appear to have been the meaning which the early 
exponents of uflsm attached to the word. Rather it 
was used by them for a mode of life sometimes adopted 

(1) For Qalandari saints see Asrar-i-Tasawwuf. Manzil-i-Naqsh- 
bandiyya, Lahore, July, 1925. The above account of the Qalandari 
order is chiefly derived from this Sufi Journal. 


by the ufls whereby they cloaked their sanctity by 
affecting the manners of the libertine. - 

The first saint to follow the path of maldmatiyya 
was Dhun Nunul-Misri who has been mentioned in 
the earlier chapter of this book (see pp. 19, 20). He 
was regarded by the ' Ulama of Egypt as a zindlq or 
freethinker. It was his disciple, Hamdunu'l-Qassar, 
who founded the Malamati Order. 'Allu'l-Hujwirl 
speaking about him writes as follows: "He has many 
fine sayings on the subject. It is recorded that he said: 
Al-maldmat tarku s-salamat, "Blame is the abandon- 
ment of welfare. 1 If anyone purposely abandons his 
own welfare and girds himself to endure misfortune, 
and renounces his pleasures and familiar ties, in hope 
that the glory of God will be revealed to him, the more 
he is separated from mankind the more he is united to 
God." (1) 

The order was introduced into Constantionple by 
Shaykh Hamza, a Mulla of Brusa, in the 16th, century. 
There the maldmatls came to be known as Hamzawis, 
after the name of Hamza. They formed a secret Order, 
with an organization strikingly like that of the 
Freemasons. "Shaykh Hamza was executed soon after 
the accession of Sultan Murad (111), apparently in 
1575. The ground of his condemnation was said to be 
his excessive reverence for the Lord Jesus, and he 
was sentenced to be stoned at the Hippodrome, but, 
out of fear of a popular outbreak, as soon as he was 
brought out of his prison his throat was cut. One 

(1) Kashf ul-Mahjub. p. 66. 


wonders if he was influenced by Qabiz, founder of 
the Khumbasihis, a sect which held Jesus to be morally 
superior to Muhammad. He too, had been executed 
with exemplary promptitude in 1527. " (1) 

It is a fact that from the early days of uflsm, 
there have appeared from time to time men of this 
type who have led the life of a libertine under the 
pretext of being followers of the Malamatl Order. 
*Aliu'l-Hujwir! writing as early as the eleventh 
century A. D. says: "He who abandons the law and 
commits an irreligious act, and says that he is follow- 
ing the rule of "blame," is guilty of manifest wrong 
and wickedness and self-indulgence. There are many 
in the present age who seek popularity by this means, 
forgetting that one must already have gained popular- 
ity before deliberately acting in such a way as to make 
the people reject him; otherwise, his making himself 
unpopular is a mere pretext for winning popularity. 1 ' 
Describing the true principles of the Malamatiyya, 
4 Aliu'l-Hujwin writes: "Now blame (malamai) is of 
three kinds: it may result (1) from following the right 
way (maldmat-i-rast r of tan), or (2) from an intentional 
act (malamat-i-qasd kardan), or (3) from abandonment 
of the law (jnalamat-i-tarh kardari). In the first case, 
a man is blamed who minds his own business and 
performs his religious duties and does not omit any 
practice of devotion: he is entirely indifferent to the 
behaviour of the people towards him. In the second 
case a man is greatly honoured by the people and 
(I) Rose, The Darvishes, p. 230. 


pointed out among them: his heart inclines to the 
honour in which he is held, and becomes attached to 
those by whom it is bestowed: he wishes to make 
himself independent of them and devote himself 
wholly to God; therefore he purposely incurs their 
blame by committing some act which is offensive to 
them but which is no violation of the law: in conse- 
quence of his behaviour they wash their hands of 
him. In the third case, a man is driven by his natural 
infidelity and erroneous beliefs to abandon the sacred 
law and abjure its observances, and say to himself, 
"I am treading the path of blame:" in this case his 
behaviour depends on himself alone. 11 'Aliu'l-Hujwiri 
has given several anecdotes to illustrate the correct 
meaning of Malamatiyya. One such runs as follows: 
"A story is told about Abu Yazld, that, when he was 
entering Rayy on his way from the Hijaz, the people 
of that city ran to meet him in order than they might 
show him honour. Their attentions distracted him 
and turned his thoughts away from God. When he 
came to the bazaar, he took a loaf from his sleeve and 
began to eat. They all departed, for it was the month 
of Ramadan. He said to a disciple who was travelling 
with him: "You see! as soon as I perform a single 
article of the law, they all reject me.' 1(1) Abu Yazld, 
being at that time on a journey, was not legally bound 
to observe the fast. 

Several of the Malamatl sections have been noted 
in the description of the Suhrawardi Order. A few 
(1) Kashf ul-Mahjub, p. 65. 


further types of the faqlrs of this Order may be briefly 
described here. These it is true have no direct 
connection with ufism, but are interesting inasmuch 
as their peculiarities have had a certain amount of 
influence upon the masses. 

(1) Libertines, who drink intoxicants and lead a 
free life and do not practise any religious duty. They 
claim to be the followers of Jalalu'd-Din Rumi or 
Fakhru'd-Dm 'IrfiqI. Their life, of course, is in mani- 
fest contradiction to their claim. 

(2) Faqlrs who take opium, Indian hemp and 
other drugs, as they say, to produce quiescence of 
spirit. Sometimes, however, the noxious drugs are 
taken in excessive doses in order to stimulate the 
imagination and craving for exaltation of their mind; 
but in reality the effect is such as to make them wild 
and terrible. These Faqlrs claim to belong the Qadiri 
and Suhrawardl orders. 

(3) There are those who are devoted to music, 
and feign ecstasy. They imitate the ufis of the 
Chishtl Order in their external practices, but do not 
follow the precepts of Islam. 

(4) Others are given to hallucinations, and 
because of their wild talk have come to be looked 
upon as ufls. 


The Indian ufism has largely been built upon the 
mystical ideas of Persia where it has reached the 
point of its highest attainment by fifteenth century. 
The situation has been historically summarised in the 
following words of Evelyn Underbill: "Muhammadan 
mysticism, appearing in the eighth century in the 
beautiful figure of Rabi'a the 'Muslim St. Teresa 1 
(717-831), and continued by the martyr Al-Hallaj, 
(ob. 922), attains literary expression in the eleventh 
in the 'Confession' of Al-Ghazali (1055-1111), and has 
its classic period in the thirteenth in the works of the 
mystic poets 'Attar (c. 1140-1234), Sa'df (1184-1263), 
and the saintly Jalalu'd-Dln (1207-1273). Its tradition 
is continued in the fourteenth century by the rather 
erotic mysticism of Hafig (c. 1300-1388) and his suc- 
cessors, and in the fifteenth by the poet Jaml (1414 

In the opinion of the same author the note of 
decadence of the mysticism of Islam was struck at 
the time of Hafiz, but it will not be far from the 
truth to say that in spite of signs of deterioration 
it continued to progress till the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. It then reached a point from which 
there was no hope of further progress. But its diver- 
gence from Islam started long before it began to 

(1) Mysticism, p, 462. 


deteriorate. In its course of progress it gathered 
elements which were foreign to Islam, and so now in 
its doctrine of God, in its outlook upon life, and in its 
conception of the relation of man to God, it differs to 
a very great extent from the early Islam preached 
by Muhammad. A ufi whether a Wujudl or Shuhudl 
i. e., a monist or modified pantheist, is never in his 
theology an Ijadl, one who believes that God created 
the universe out of nothing. Further, the practice of 
paying an excessive homage to the saints and worship 
in shrines cannot be reconciled with the religious 
duties based on the rigid monotheistic teachings of 
Islam. Nevertheless the extraordinary thing is that 
though the present form of ufism is made up of ele- 
ments many of which contradict the teachings of the 
Quran it has found an abiding place in Islam and is 
integrally related to it. It is now woven in the very 
texture of the orthodox faith of the Muslims. A 
pious Muslim some time or other in his life generally 
gets initiated into some religious Order. Such initia- 
tion in many cases may mean nothing beyond a simple 
bay at, repenting of one's sins and making a profession 
of faith at the hand of some plr, and then promising 
to be a good Muslim in future, but it also gives the 
right to belong to that particular Order and grants 
the privilege of being reckoned as a spiritual child of 
the saint who had founded that Order. Thus it is 
not uncommon to find a Muslim calling himself by 
such titles as Hanafl Qadirl, or Hanafl Qadiri Chishtl, 
which indicate that in the matters of the Canon ^ aw 


he belongs to the Hanafi School of Jurisprudence and 
at the same time by virtue of his bay at to a pir he 
belongs to the Qadiriyya or to the Qadiri and Chishtl 
Orders in ufism. 

This incidently illustrates that the point of primary 
importance is not the teaching but the Shaykh. ufism 
in action centres round the personality of its several 
Shaykhs or plrs. It is they who in its development 
have contributed from their own personal experience 
and thus have given rise to multifarious forms all of 
which to a great extent are the expressions of the 
inner experience of the founders. This explains the 
existence of varieties of mystical teachings in Tasaw- 
wuf. The pantheism of Hallaj, the monism of Ibnu'l- 
4 Arbi, the emotionalism of the saints of the Chishtl 
Order, the legalism of the Khwajas of the Naqshbandi 
Order, the high ethical standard of al-Ghazali, the 
sensuous symbolism of Hafiz, the magical display of 
Gurzmar faqirs, the strange peculiarities of the 
Qalandars, the antinomian tendency of the Malamatis 
are all found existing under the name of Tasawwuf 
in Islam and are tolerated by the leaders of the dif- 
ferent mystical schools. Even a way has been found 
to justify the extreme pantheistic expressions like 
those of IJallaj and Bayazld, which otherwise would be 
condemned as blasphemy. The term Shathiyat has been 
invented to be applied to all such expressions of the 
ufis which if uttered by a non-ufl, will be considered 
blasphemous. A ufl, no matter what his doctrinal 
beliefs and mode of living are, above all is God's 


'Ashiq, a lover, and as such he stands in a different 
relation to God from others who are merely 'abd, 
slaves. It is this peculiar relation that a ufi has 
with God that entitles him to act and speak in a 
manner which would be highly presumptuous and 
even bleasphemous in others. : 

It is because of this element of love that ufism 
has been the source of vitality to Islam. It bears out 
the truth of what some one has said "Dogma and 
duty are not the whole of a religion. There are in 
our nature needs of loving and of suffering, as well 
as of believing and of doing; and no faith that does 
not contain something to satisfy these needs could ever 
have wielded that vast power which, as a matter of 
fact, has been and is being exercised by Muhammadan- 
ism. Hence the importance of the school to which 
the name of ufls is generally given." (1) 

It is chiefly because of this element of love that 
it has appealed to the masses and has inspired the 
poetical works in the Persian and Urdu languages. If 
the mystical element in Persian and Urdu songs and 
poetry were lost, one wonders what would be left. It 
is true that the eloquence of the Quran is regarded 
by the Muslims as an outstanding miracle, but the 
part that the mystical poetry plays in the lives of 
Muslims is in some ways greater than that of the 
Quran itself. To a Muslim the Arabic Quran is the 
sublime word of God, but the msytic song speaks in 
a language that is easily understood for it speaks in 
(1) Williams S. Lilly Many Mansions, p. 118. 


terms of love and appeals to the deepest emotion. It 
rouses in his heart the innermost longing for union 
with God. This is what led Dr. Pusey to observe that 
the speedy growth of mystical doctrine in the thin 
and arid soil of Muhammadanism also bears eloquent 
witness to the longing innate in the human heart for 
union with God. (1) 

There is another sense in which ufism in its work- 
ing process may be said to be a source of vitality to 
Islam. It provides various means by which a man can 
give expression to his religious feelings. It is because in 
its system it is not so rigid and stern as are the 
precepts of Shari'at in Islam. This is best illustrated 
in the striking difference that one can see between 
the worshippers in a Mosque gathered for congrega- 
tional prayer and the devotees of a saint when they 
assemble in a shrine to pay homage to him. In a 
Mosque the prayers are offered in a solemn, dignified 
and orderly manner according to the prescribed 
details, but in a shrine one can see men, women and 
children all giving expressions to their inner feelings 
of devotion to the man whom they believed was a 
lover of God, and though his remains lie buried in 
tomb, yet he lives and receives their homage, hears their 
prayers and intercedes on their behalf. There in his 
shrine or dargdh, the royal court as they call it, they 
are free to honour him in the manner that they would 
:hoose and to express their love in whatever form 
they like. Of the crowd of worshippers, therefore, 

(1) Quoted in op. ctt. p. 119. 


some would fall prostrate, some would stand with 
their hands spread out and some would go round 
the tomb as the pilgrims do in Mecca round the Kaaba. 
This of course, does not mean that the shrines of 
different saints have no fixed forms of devotion. In 
a shrine while masses are free to show their devotion 
to the saint according to their inner urge there is 
to be found also a uniform method of offering the 
Fdtiha, or of making a manual or vow to be fulfilled 
when a favour is granted. Similarly one may find set 
methods of muraqiba or meditation, and the custom 
of tying a thread or a piece of rag to the railing or the 
door of a shrine as a reminder to the saint of the 
favour asked by the devotee, and the practice of 
lighting a lamp, especially on Thursday, the two latter 
being universally observed. On the other hand as one 
goes from one shrine to another one can also notice 
distinctive features. The monotonous chanting of 
Illallah, or Allahu, or simply Hu accompanied with the 
movement of the body from right to left which grows 
faster and faster, the Sama, or the musical festival 
accompanied with raqs, or dancing of the devotees 
though not quite peculiar to the ufls of the Chishti 
Order, are yet outstanding features of this Order's 
worship. The emphasis on the observance of the 
shari'at alongside ufi practice to the exclusion of 
Dhikr-i-jali, marks the Naqshbandl Order. The pierc- 
ing of the body and playing with red hot iron are 
feats exclusively appropriate to the Gurzmar faqirs. 
To be suspended by the feet while in the state of 


ecstasy is the peculiar custom found only among the 
Naushahls. Similarly the Qalandars with their head, 
beard, eye-brows and moustaches clean shaven, 
wandering from place to place, the Rasul Shahis in- 
dulging in intoxication, the Malamatis leading, the life 
of libertines all go to show the peculiar and strange 
practices tolerated in present-day ufism. 

ufism, however, is best illustrated in the indi- 
genous songs and poems of the ufls which are sung 
by the native faqirs. For this reason we now proceed 
to give a metrical translation of a Punjabi sacred lyric 
which may be regarded as typical of modern uft 
literature in India. This poem is entitled, Si Harfl 
Dholla, i. e. a lyric of thirty stanzas in praise of the 
Beloved. The poet's nom de plume isTalib. The poem 
is one of those which are often sung to the accompani- 
ment of music, usually a sdrangl, or fiddle. This was 
originally translated by Professor R. Sirajuddin and 
Rev. H. A. Walter, both of Lahore and we give it 
with some alterations. This poem is a thoroughly 
native, pure Punjabi poem, the popularity of which is 
evidenced by the fact that it is used as an early 
morning hymn by the street singers who go about sing- 
ing such songs partly as religious worship and partly 
with the object of receiving alms. 


Come, Love, within the soul Thy dwelling place doth lie, 
Thy distant hone desert, and to my fond heart fly! 
Thou sayst Thou dost bide than the neck vein more nigh.d) 
Yet, vexing one, Thy form is veiled before mine eye. 

(1) cp. Qunn 50: 15. 



O, Love, deceive no more! Thy fickle words forsake! 
Without us and within Thy dwelling Thou dost take. 
My heart, with wiles bewitched, a captive Thou dost make: 
Then into words of scorn Thy mocking accents break. 


Oh, Love, for all our woes no pity hast Thou shown, 
Exiled from Home, to pine in far off realms alone. 

Through Thy false deed, Who once had made our souls Thine 

In this strange land, alas, no peace my heart hath known. 


Thou only art; all else is unearthly. 
Why press this vain debate if one or separate we? 
Since, when Thy face is shown, my sighs Thy grief nust be, 
And in my prayers for death, my tears are tears of Thee. 


I sleep, and at my side Love sinks in slumber deep: 
When first my eyes unclose, He rouses, too, from sleep. 
I laugh, He shouts for joy; His tears fall when I \xeep: 
Yet bargains He, nor cares my plighted hours to keep. 


None knows my state save Love; for no one else 'twere meet. 
I sacrifice my all, an offering at Love's feet. 
Each moment yearns my heart its guileless Love to greet: 
Unless Love quickly come, this heart must cease to beat, 


'Twas told that the Beloved to holy Mecca camfc: 
That never man should know He chose Muhanjnad's name. 
Medina, now, His home: and Talib'sd) fond lip^ frame 
Prayers for "God's peace" on Him, and His higi service claim. 

(1) Talib, meaning a seeker of God, is the|nom de plume of 
the poet. 



A gift I crave whose sight sweet thoughts of Thee shall start; 
With ring from Thy dear hand, or necklace, Thou must part. 
In Hindustan, my home; Thou in Medina art. 
Slain by Thy love, what sins had soiled my helpless heart? 


By telling o'er Thy name each passing hour I grace. 
Leave town and vale and make my heart Thy resting place. 
Love reigns the Lord of all; His, earth and sky and space. 
Since Thou hast made me Thine, whom else should I embrace? 


If e'er my lips, unsealed. Thy mystery reveal,(2) 
From mighty rivers' depths great flames of fire will steal. 
Blood from God's throne will rain, the stars will earthward reel. 
Ah, Love, what streams can cool when these hot fires I feel? 


My years of youth were spent in doleful tears and sighs. 
Now, to my aged heart, Love's winged arrow flies. 
Bring hither my Beloved, the darling of mine eyes. 
Talib's true love from heart as well as tongue doth rise. 


My artless Love goes by nor casts on me His eyes. 
Heedless, He passes by; counsel Him, O, ye wise! 
Medina, now, I seek, there my sole refuge lies. 
O, Talib, plead thy love, till from His course He hies. 

(1) From this stanza onward the disciple speaks of himself as 
woman, a bride, a wife, and uses the feminine gender for himself, 

nd the masculine for the Divine Beloved. 

(2) This refers to the esoteric truth of the Sufis, supposed to 
tave originated with Muhammad, to which the Sufi's lips must ever 
emain sealed. 



Beloved, my heart yearns to see Medina fair, 
All hidden grief and pain to lay before Thee there. 
Long years have sped since Love left me to lone despair. 
All men, O Talib, now toward Thee some malice bear. 


Apart from the Beloved, no comfort can I gain. 
Should one Love's kahma read, these inward fires might wane. 
Remembering Love my lifeless heart revives again. 
O, let Love learn, at last, my piteous cries of pain! 


Thou who my surety art, O Love, stir not away. 
Summon me to Thyself, and share my grief, I pray. 
Secure my pardon, Love for I have gone astray. 
To my dead soul give life, and sinless I shall stay. 


Mount Sinai's lofty my Love hath put to shame. 
Mounting the throne on high, all-holy God, His name. 
To tread Medina's streets, as the Beloved, He came; 
Now, guiding on the Path, as Chishti, spread His fame. 


Inside and out my Love holds His high Sovereignty: 
In every place He dwells, the First and Last is He. 
Save only the Beloved, none other can there be. 
I live but by His life. Love's own eternally. 


From the great Presence sought, Thy bounteous Love I own. 
Afar or near, O Love, I see but Thee alone. 
All from Thy light have come no other source have known. 
Send pardon from Thyself, nor bid my steps begone. 


Never to know my Love were no man's mournful fate. 
To her who is Love's bride my life I consecrate. 
For her whom Love hath called, with welcome all would wait. 
That Love mine arm would hold, my longing passionate. 



Stricken to death, I lie, crushed by Thy beauty's wave. 
In Thy love's ocean vast my soul hath found its grave. 
In every town men's tongue for Thee their tribute save, 
To Thee our lives we yield: to see Thy face we crave. 


This daily task to do, of old my destiny 

That I His praise proclaim, whenever Love summons me. 

O, friends, I am consumed; Love's form I cannot see. 

My Love hath learned to work with what strange witchery! 


Who, from the path of Love, my steps shall turn aside? 
My life, if Love desire, to Him would I confide. 
Love will not faithless be; my trust hath time defied. 
Since Love hath held mine arm, with me He must abide. 


Love, I am slain, whom man with gibes and taunts assail. 
My heart Medina craves, for justice there to wail. 
Come, O, my Love, behold, I have removed my veil 
Credence my witness wins to Thy dear beauty's tale. 


In the Beloved's way, friends, I am lost to sight. 
Then lest I be not found, let all in search unite! 
This very Love, the thief 0, seize His arm with might! 
A seeker after Love, know me, by day and night. 


"Negation's"*!) medicine, Love, for mine eyes was brought; 
And now, save only Love, I can distinguish naught. 
Love's citadel He showed, with every splendour fraught. 
Love, I am lost indeed: what magic hast Thou wrought? 

(1) Nafi athbat. See p. 100. 



Love, I would die for Thee, most ravishing Thy grace. 
Bring news, O friends, from whence come the Beloved's face. 
My soul with joy grows faint, and faster, my heart's pace. 
What if, this morn, should come Love's step and His embrace. 


My necklace is God's praise, wherewith I am arrayed. 
My ear-rings are the prayer, "God's peace" my lips have prayed. 
Love, on my heart, for gems, longing for God hath laid. 
The nuptial bed I mount, invoking Chishti's aid. 


The heavenly lightnings flash, and blazing fountains spout. 
With Sinai's splendour clothed, my glory shines about. 
Love, entering at last, "My follower", calls out. 
Beings of lights and fire and earth, (1) "God's blessing" shout. 


To meet Love, as He comes, with bended head I go, 
"God's benediction" ask, and at Love's feet bow low. 
This hand-maid's ministry, unworthy, all must know. 
Talib, Thy slave to keepthis boon, O Love, bestow. 


How bountifully, Love, Thy gracious mercies fall. 
Ever Thy faith I own, Thy Kalima recall; 
Ever at Thy blest tomb, I sacrifice my all; 
Ever on Chishti, Guide, with grateful spirit, call. 

(1) That is, angels, jinn and men, who, as the Muslims be- 
lieves are created out of light, fire and clay respectively, See 
Quran, 15: 26, 27 and 4: 13, 14. 


List of the saints of Indian Sufism arranged chrono- 

* Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order. 

Name Date of 

Place of 



1. *Mu'inu'd-Din Ajmerl (1) 1236 


2. *Qutbu'd-Dln Kaki (2) 1237 


3. *Shamsu'd-Din Altamash 1237 


4. 'Jalalu'd-Dm Tabrezi 1244 


5. Muhammad Turk 1245 


6. Badru'd-Din Ghaznawl 1259 


7. Jamalu'd-Dm 1261 


(1) He collected the sayings of his plr, Khwaja 
'Uthman Harunl, under the title of Anisu'l-Arwafa. 
Friend of Spirituals. His own teachings are found in 
the collections made by several of the saints of the 
Chishti Order and also in his letters, Maktubdt. 

(2) He collected the sayings of eight ufl saints of 
the Chishtl Order who had preceded him in a book and 
called it Hisht Bahisht, Eight Paradises. He also 
wrote Dalilu'l-Arifin. The Proof of the Mystics. 


^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order (contd.) 

Name Date of Place of 

Death Shrine 

8. *Faridu'd-Dln Shakar- 

ganj (1) 1266 Pakpatan 

9. Najibu'd-Din Mutawak- 

kil 1272 Ghiyaspur 


10. Nizamu'd-Dln Abu'l- 

Mu'ayyid 1273 Delhi 

11. Hamldu'd-Din ufi 1274 Nagore 

12. Qadi Hamldu'd-Din 1279 Nagore 

13. DaudPalhi 1281 Delhi 

14. Imam 'All Lahaq 1287 Sialkot 

15. Burhanu'd-Dln Mahmud 

Abu'l-Khayr 1288 Delhi 

16. **Alau'd-Din Ahmad 

Sabir 1291 Piran-i-Kaliar 

17. Badru'd-Dm b. 'All 

Ishaq (2) 1291 Ajodhan 

(1) He is^said to be the author of the following 
books on ufism: Jawahir-i-Faridl, The Gems of 
Farid, Irshad-i-Farldl, The Instructions of Farid, 
Tadhkiratu'l-Fuqara. The Memoirs of Ascetics, 
FawctidtCs-Sdlikln, The Things Beneficent to the 
Travellers. The last named being the collection of the 
sayings of Nizamu'd-Din Awliya of Delhi. 

(2) He is reputed to be the author of the famous 
book on Gfism, Asrdru'l-Awliyd, *The Mysteries of 
the Saints/ 


Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
1. The Saints of the Chishti Order (contd.) 

Name Date of Place of 

Death Shrine 

18. Muntakhabu'd-Dm (1) 1296 Deogiri 


19. Sayyid Muhammad b. 

Sayyid Mahmud 

Kirmani 1311 Delhi 

20. Nisamu'd-Dln Shlrazi 1318 Delhi 

21. *Shamsu'd-Din Turk 1318 Panipat 

22. Qadl Muhiu'd-Dm 

Kashani 1319 Delhi 

23. Khwaja 'Alau'd-Dm b. 

Shaykh Badru'd-Dln 1320 Pakpatan 

24. Shamsu'd-Din 1320 Zafarabad 

25. *Sharfu'd-Dm Bu 4 All 

Qalandar (2) 1324 Karnal & Panipat 

(1) He preached Islam in Deogiri. It is said that 
many who refused to accept Islam on his preaching 
were turned into stones. 

(2) He wrote the following books on ufism: 
Maktubdt, 'Epistles'. Hikmat Nama, The Book of 
Wisdom'. Hukum "Hama Shaykh Bu "All Qalandar,' 
'The Commands of Bu 4 Ali Qalandar. Matfinaun Bu 
'All Qalandar. 


'^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 

1. The Saints of the Chishti Order (contd.) 


Date of Place of 




*Nijamu'd-Din Awliya 





*Amir Khusru (2) 








Wajlhu'd-Dln Yusuf 




Muhammad Imam (3) 








Fakhru'd-Din Rozi 



(1) His sayings have been collected by several of 
his disciples, the most famous of these is Fawdidu'l- 
Fuwad, "The Beneficent to the Heart." 

(2) He is known as the Chaucer of Urdu literature. 
The number of his works is said to have been equal to 
the number of the names of God, ninety-nine, and the 
number of his poems are said to have amounted to five 
hundred thousands. But this must be an exaggeration. 
He ranks very high also in Persian literature and is 
known widely as Tuti-i-Hind, the parakeet of India. 
He was the first to employ Persian metres in Urdu and 
his famous production Khdliq Ban, a rhymed vocabulary 
of Arabic and Persian words in common use explained 
in Urdu is still widely read by youths. The authorship 
of Ral}atul-M uhibbin, 'The joy of the Lovers,' a book 
on ufism is ascribed to him. 

(3) He was a grandson of Bsba Farid and wrote 
Anwdrul-Majalis, The Illumination of the Assemblies 1 , 
in which he collected the sayings of Niz5mu*d-Dln 
Awliya (see 26). 



1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order (ccmfcf .) 


33. Mir Hasan 'Ala'i 

Sanjari (1) 

34. Diyau'd-Dm Barm (2) 

35. Burhanu'd-Din Qharlb 

36. Hisamu'd-Din Sokhta 

37. 'Azizu'd-Dln ufi 

38. Shamsu'd-Dm Yahya 

39. Malikzada Ahmad 

40. Shaykh Danial 

Date of 

Place of 

41. Fakhru'd-Dm Zaradi 

42. Piya'ud-Dm Bakhshl (3) 

1336 Deogiri (Deccan) 
1338 Delhi 

1340 Deogiri 

1341 Sanbhar (Ajmer) 
1341 Delhi 

1345 Delhi 

1346 Delhi 

1347 Satrakh (near 


1347 Was drowned on 
his way to Mecca 
1350 Budaun 

(1) He was one of the vicegerents of Nizamu'd- 
Dln Awliya (26) and collected the sayings of his pir in 
what is now well-known as Fawaidu'l-Fawdd *Bene- 
ficent to the Heart 1 . 

(2) A vicegerent of Nizamu'd-Din Awliya (26) 
and the author of the famous historical treatise, Tdrikk- 
i-Firoz Shdhi, The History of Firoz Shah'. He 
wrote his own mystical experience under the title of 
Hasrat Kama, The Book of Regret. 1 

(3) He was one of the vicegerents of Bsba Farid 
(8) and wrote Silku's-Suluk, The Mystic Path and 
Sharfy-i-Dud-i-Surydnl, 'A Commentary on a Syrian 
Prayer' and other books on ufism. 


^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order, (conid.) 


Date of 

Place of 

43. Faridu'd-Dm (1) 1351 

44. Kamalu'd-Dm 'AllSma 1353 

45. Naslru'd-Dln Chiragh-i- 

'Dehli (2) 1356 

Akhl Siraju'd-Dln 1357 

adru'd-Dm Hakim 1358 

Qutbu'd-Dm Munawwar 1359 
4 Ala Vd-Dln Nablll 1361 

Siraju'd-Din 1361 


51. Jalalu'd-Dm Kabiru'l- 

Awliya 1364 

52. Hamldu'd-Dm Qalan- 

dar (3) 1367 

53. Sayyid Muhammad b. 

Mubarak Kirmam (4) 1368 



Patan (Ahmed- 




(1) He wrote Sururu 's-$udur \ 'The Gladness ot 
Hearts' in which he collected the sayings of Hamidu'd- 
DmNagorl (see 12). 

(2) The authorship of Adabut-Talibin, The 
Manners of the Seekers, 1 and Intibdhu'l-Muridln, The 
Awakening of the Disciples', are ascribed to him. 

(3) He is said to have written Iptayrul-Majdhs, 
The Best of the Assemblies' which gives a collection 
of the sayings of NasIru 1 d-DmChiragh-i-Delhl(see 54). 

(4) He was one of the vicegerents of Nalru f d- 
Din (45) and wrote Sayru'l-Awliya 'Lives of the Saint 's. 


1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order. (confcJ.) 

Name Date of Place of 




Yusuf Chishti (1) 1372 











'Abdu'l-Muqtadir (2) 




'Ala'u'd-Dln 'Alau'1-Haq 




Mawlana Khwajagi 




Mir Sayyid Ashraf Jahao- 

glr Samnanl (3) 

1405 . 











Shaykh Ahmad 







(1) He was a vicegerent of Naslru'd-Dm (see 45) 
and wrote Tuhfatun-NascCih, 'A Present of Good 

(2) He was a vicegerent of Nasiru'd-Dln (see 45) 
and wrote Munaqibus-$iddlqln, 'Virtues of Good Peo- 
ple 1 , containing the accounts of ufi saints. 

(3) Kachaucha, the seat of his shrine, is well- 
known for exorcism. His biography, Kitab-i-Ashrafi, 
The Book of Ashraf 1 , is a popular book among the 
ufis of India. He himself is the author of two books 
on ufism, Bishdratu'l-Muridln, 'Good News for the 
Disciples 1 , and Maktubdt a collection of letters. 

1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order, (contd.) 

Name Date of Place of 

Death Shrine 

65. Mir Sayyid Muhammad 

Gesu Daraz (1) 1422 Hyderabad 


66. Muhammad Mutawakkil 

Kantorl 1422 Bahraich 

67. Shaykh Yusuf Irchl 1431 Malwa 

68. Shaykh Ahmad 'Abdu'l- 

Haq (2) 1433 Radauli 

69. Sher Khan Bak (3) 1433 Delhi 

70. Qawwamu'd-Dln 1438 Lucknow 

71. Qadi Shihabu'd-Dm 1444 Daulatabad 

72. Nuru'd-Dln Qutb 'Alam 

Bangali 1447 Panduah 

73. Shaykh Kabir 1453 Gujrat 

(1) His sayings have been collected by one of his 
disciples, Muhammad, under the title of Jawdmiul- 
Kaldm, The Collection of Sayings. 1 He himself was a 
vicegerent of Nasiru'd-Din (45). 

(2) He was a vicegerent of Jalalu'd-Dm (51). His 
disciples when meet with each other say, *Haq, Haq! 
the Truth, the Truth. In this salutation a reference is 
found to the name of the saint himself. 

(3) He wrote several books in prose and poetry on 
various subjects. Among his books on ufism are, 
Yusuf -o-ZulayQia, written in imitation of the famous 
book of the same name by Jaml, and Miratu'l-Arifin, 
The Mirror of the Mystics. 1 



1. The Saints of the 

74. Abu 1-Fatah 'Ala'i 


75. Shaykh Muhammad 


76. Kaku Shah (1) 

77. Sa'du'd-Dln (2) 

78. Shah Miyanjl Beg 

79. Sayyid Muhammad b. 

Ja'far (3 >" 

80. Shaykh Muhammad 

Rajan (4) 

Chishti Order, (contd.) 

Date of Place of 
Death Shrine 

1457 Kalpi 

1465 Lucknow 

1477 Lahore 

1477 Khairabad 

1484 Mandu 

1486 Sirhind 

1495 Ahmedabad and 
Pak Patan. 

1495 Hissar 

81. Shaykh Junayd 

(1) His shrine was supposed to be in Shahidganj, 
Lahore, now famous for the Sikh-Muslim dispute. 

(2) He was a disciple of Shaykh Mayna (75) and 
wrote a commentary on the Futuhat-i-Makkiya in which 
he has incorporated much of the sayings of his plr as 
well as incidents from his life. He also wrote 
Majmaus-Suluk, containing the sayings of Shaykh 
Mayna and Makhdum-i-JahSniyan. 

(3) He was one of the vicegerents of Nasiru'd-Dln 
(45) and was an author of several books on religious 
subjects. The following books he wrote on ufism: 
Bdkrul-Maanl, 'Ocean of Things Spiritual,' Daqd'iqu'l- 
Mcfani, The Minute Details of Things Spiritual,' 
HaqcCiqiCl-Maanl, 4 The Realities of Things Spiritual/ 
Asrdr-i-Ruh, * Mysteries of Soul. 1 ! 

(4) He was first buried in Ahmedabad and later 
his body was exhumed and buried in Pak Patan. 

1. The Saints of the Chishti Order, (contd.) 



of Place of 

Death Shrine 


Shaykh Husayn <" 




Raji Hamid Shah 




Shaykh Hasan Tahir 




Shaykh Bakhtiyar 




Shaykh Muhammad 'Isa 




Mawlana Allah Dad 




Shaykh Ahmad Majid 





Shaykh Muhammad 








Gangoh (Delhi) 


'Abdu'l-Kablr Bala Pir 


it it 


Shaykh Baha'u'd-Din 




Shaykh Khanu 




Shaykh 'Ala'u'd-Din 




Sayyid Sultan 




Sayyid 'All Qawwam 




Shaykh Yusuf 




Shaykh Aman (2) 



(1) He wrote Sawanih Imam Qhazall, 'The Life 
of Imam Ghazal!,' and Tafsir-i-*Nurun Nabl, 'A Com- 
mentary on the Light of Muhammad/ the latter being 
in 30 volumes. 

(2) He wrote Itkbdtu'l-Akdiyyat, 'The Positiveness 
of the Oneness, 1 and a commentary on the Lawd'ih of 


1. The Saints of the Chishti Order, (contd.) 



of Place of 

Death Shrine 


Shaykh Hamza Daharsu 




Shaykh Hisamu'd-Din 




Mir Sayyid 'Abdu'l- 

Awwal (1) 




Shaykh Qadi han 




Shaykh Ajodhan 




Shaykh Salim 


Fatehpur Sikri 


Shaykh Hasan Muham- 





Naql Hayik (2) 




Muhammad Tahir (3) 




Nigamu'd-Dm Pikharl 




Piyara Chishti 








Rizqu'llah (4) 




'Uthman Zinda Pir 



(1) He was a descendant of Mir Sayyid Gesu 
Daraz (65). He is an author of many books on various 
subjects, the chief of these is Faydul-Bdri, a com- 
mentary on the collections of traditions by al-Bukharl. 
He is reputed to have written several treatises on 
ufism also. 

(2) His name is used as an incantation for the cure 
of snake-bite. 

(3) He is an author of several treatises on tradi- 

(4) He wrote several treatises on JJufism in Persian 
and Hindi. The famous ones in Hindi are Jut J^iranjan 
and Sdr Bachan. 

1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order, (contd.) 



of Place 


Death Shrine 






Shaykh Nizam 




Shaykh Jaha 




Shaykh Math < 




Mawlana' Abdullah < 3 > 








Sayyid Jiw 




Mir 'Abdu'l- Wahid (4) 




Haji Awes Tuzi 




Ahmad Sa'id Shoryani 




Nizamu'd-Din b. 

'Ujhman Zinda Plr 



(1) He wrote a commentary on the Futuhdt-i- 
Makkiya of Ibn 'Arabi. 

(2) The stones and pebbles of Gagrun because of 
him are believed to possess the power of healing the 
patients suffering from cholera. A piece of stone 
generally from the neighbourhood of his shrine, is taken 
and washed and the water is given to the patient for 

(3) For his antagonism to Shi'a Islam and also 
because of his oppositions to Akbar's new religion, 
Din-i'Ildhl, he was first exiled and then on his return 
from Mecca was poisoned, it is said, by the order of 
the Emperor. 

(4) He produced a treatise on technical terms of 
Qfism in poetry and also several other books on the 
subject of mysticism. 



1. The Saints of the Chishti Order, (contd.) 


Date of Place ot 

Death Shrine 


Shaykh Rahmat 


1616 Kasur 


Shaykh Muhammad b. 


1620 Burhanpur 


Shaykh Ahmad 

Shoryam (1) 

1621 Kasur 


Muhammad Salim 

1621 Lahore 


Mir Sayyid 

1622 Kalpi 


Shah Ala 

1624 Panipat 


Shaykh Jan Allah 

1630 Lahore 


Shah Muhammad 


1632 Ahmedabad 


Shaykh Muhammad 


1632 Ahmedabad 


Hajl Gagan 

1633 Kasur 


Shaykh 'Abdu'l-Jalll 

1633 Lucknow 


Shaykh 'Abdu'l-Karlm 

< 3 >1635 Lahore 

(1) He wrote Sawdlat-i-Ahmadi, 'Questions of 
Ahmad", in refutation of heresies. 

(2) He is said to have written 

'Forty two Treatises 7 , a book, perhaps on, ufism. 

(3) It is said that once while travelling he was 
very thirsty and was guided to water by a partridge and 
since then he forbade his disciples to eat the flesh of 
that bird, a custom which is still observed among his 
spiritual descendants. He wrote a commentary on 
FufUju'l-Hikam, and Asrar-i-'Ajibiyya, The Strange 
Mysteries', a book on ufism. 

1. The Saints of the Chishti Order, (confd.) 



of Place 


Death Shrine 


Mawlana Darweza (1) 




Abu Sa 4 ld 


Gangoh (Delhi) 


Allah Dad Nun 




Malik Muhammad (2) 




Makhdum 'Abdu'r- 





Mir Sayyid Ahmad Gesu 





Muhammad adiq b. 









Shaykh 'Arif 




Muhammad Ismail 




Shaykh Said Khan 




Shaykh Phogi Afghan 




Shaykh Panju 




Shaykh Junayd 




Shaykh Habib Khaybari 



(1) He is the author of Makhzan-i-Isldm, The 
Treasure House of Islam', a book on ufism which he 
left unfinished and was completed by his son after his 

(2) He wrote in Bhakha, the old Hindi, many 
books on various subjects the chief among them being 
Padmdwat, Dhoti J^dma, and Postin Ndma. On 
ufism he wrote : Zddus-Sdlikln, 'Provisions for Travel- 
lers, and Maq$udu t-Tdlibin, The Goal of The 
Seekers'. His little book Rashidiyya, on the rules of 
debate is a well-known treatise on the subject. 


1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order, (contd.) 







Date of 

Place of 

Plr Muhammad 
Hasan Muhammad 

Shaykh Muhammad 

Siddiq abirl 
Shaykh Muhammad 

Shah Abu'l-Mu'ali 



4 Abdur-Rashid 1709 

Sayyid Muhammad Sa'id 

Mlran Bhlkh 1729 

Kalimullah 1729 

Shaykh Nisamu'd-Dln 1730 
Shaykh Muhammad Salim 

Sabiri 1739 

Shah Bahlul Barki 1757 

Shaykh 4 Adadu f d-Dln 1759 
Shah Lutfullah 1773 

Maulana Fakhru'd-Dm 1785 
Sayyid ^Alimullah 1786 

Shaykh Nur Muhammad 1791 
Shaykh Muhammad Sa'id 

Sharaqpuri 1799 

Muhammad Sa'ld 1806 

^Abdul-Bari 1813 





Ameth, Saharan- 











Bahawalpur State 




1. The Saints of the Chishtl Order, (contd.) 


170. Shaylkh Khayru'd-Dm 

Khayr Shah 

171. Qadi Muhammad 'Aqll 

172. Hadrat Bandagl Sayyid 

abir 'All Shah 

173. Sayyid Muhammad 


174. Sayyid Imadu'd-Dm 

175. Bandagl Hafiz Musa 

176. Sayyid Niyaz Ahmad 

177. Ghulam Naslru'd-Din 

Kale Shah 

178. Muhammad Sulayman 

179. Ghulam Mustafa 

180. Qadi Khuda'Bakhsh 

181. Mirza Roshan Bakht 

182. Chore Shah Sirooj! 

183. Amanat 'All 

184. Hajl Ramdan 

185. FaydBakhsh 

186. Kbwaja Fakhru'd-Dln 

187. Sayyid Ghulam Mu'lnu'd- 

Dln Khamosh 

188. Sayyid Mir 'Abdullah 


Date of Place of 
Death Shrine 




Kot Mathan 


















Kot Matthan 












Kot Matthan 








Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
2. The Saints of the Suhrawardi Order. 


Date of 

Place of 



Sayyid Nuru J d-Dln 

Mubarak (1) 1249 Delhi 

2. *Shaykh BahauM-Dln 

Zakariyya 1267 

Jamal Khandaru 1268 

Shaykh Sadru J d-Dm 1283 
Shaykh Hisamu J d-Dln 1288 
Shaykh Hasan Afghan 1290 
7. *Sayyid JalaluM-Din 
Munlr Shah 
Mir Surkhposh 
Bukhari 1291 







*Shaykh Ahmad Ma'shuq 1320 



9. piy J uM-Din Rumi 

10. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar 

11. Shaykh RuknuM-Din 







Shaykh HamiduM-Din 




WajihuM-Dm U^hman 





S.alahu J d-Din Darwesh 




Shaykh 'Ala-'uM-Din 




Sayyid Mir Mah 



1. He was one of the vicegerents of Shaykh Shi- 
habu 4 d-Din Suhrawardi and held the office of Shaykhu'l- 
Islam in Delhi. 


^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
2. The Saints of the Suhrawardi Order, (contd.) 


Date of 


Shaykh Hajl Chiragh-i- 

Hind 1372 

18. 'Mir Sayyid JalaluM-Dm 


19. Makhdum Shaykh Akhi 

20. Sayyid llmuM-Dm 

21. KabiruM-Dm Isma'll 

22. Raju Qattal or Qantal 

23. SirajuM-Dm Hafiz 

24. Sayyid BurhanuM-Dln 

Qutb 'Alam 

25. Sayyid Shah 'Alam 

26. Shaykh 'Abdu^l-Latif 


27. Sayyid KablruM-Dm 


28. Shah-'Abdullah Qureshi 

29. SamauM-Dm 

30. 4 Abdu^l-Jalil Qutbu^l- 


31. Qadl NajmuM-Dm 
32 Sayyid Uthman Shah 

33. Shaykh llmuM-Dln 




Place of 


















1484 Gujrat 








2. The Saints of the Suhrawardi Order, (contd?) 

Name Date of Place of 

Death Shrine. 

34. Qadi Mahmud 1514 Gujrat 

35. Shaykh Musa Ahangar 

(Ironsmith") 1519 Lahore 

36. Sayyid HajrAbdu^l- 

Wahab 1525 Delhi 

37. Shaykh 'Abdullah 

Biyabam 1529 Delhi 

38. Shaykh Jamali 1535 Delhi 

39. Shaykh Adham Zaynu^l- 

'Abidln 1536 Delhi 

40. Sayyid JamaluM-Dln 1542 Delhi 

41. Mulla Flroz Mufti 1565 Kashmir 

42. Makhdum Sultan Shaykh 

Hamza 1576 Kashmir 

43. Shaykh Naurozl Reshi 1578 Kashmir 

44. Baba Da^ud Khaki 1585 Kashmir 

45. Sayyid Jhulan Shah Ghore 

Shah Bukhharl 1594 Lahore 

46. Sayyid Shah Muhammad 

b. 'Uthman Jhula 1602 Lahore 

47. Shaykh Hasan, known as 

Hassu Tell 1603 Lahore 

48. Mlran Muhammad Shh 

Mauj Darya Bukharl 1604 Lahore 

49. Sayyid JaUlu'd-Din 

Haydar 1612 Kashmir 

50. Baba Robi Reshi 1615 Kashmir 


2. The Saints of the Suhrawardi 

Name Date of 


51. Sayyid ImaduM-Mulk 1629 

52. Shah Arzani 1630 

53. Baba NasibuM-Dm 1637 

54. Sayyid ShihabuM-Dm 1631 

55. Sayyid 'Abdu^r-Razzaq 1638 

56. Sayyid Shah Jamal 1639 

57. Sayyid Mahmud Shah 

Naurang 1643 

58. Mawlana Haydar 1647 

59. Shah Dawla Daryal 1664 

60. Shaykh Jan Muhammad 1671 

61. Shaykh Muhammad 

Isma'll, known as 
Miyao Wadda 1674 

62. Shaykh Hasan Lalu 1689 

63. Shaykh Ya'qub 1694 

64. Sayyid Zinda 'All 1699 

65. Shaykh 4 Abdu*r-Rahlm 1703 

66. Baba Abdullah ' 1705 

67. Shaykh Jan Muhammad 1708 

68. Shaykh Hamid ' 1752 

69. Shaykh Karamullah 

Qureshl 1785 

70. Shaykh Sikandar Qureshl 1799 

71. Shaykh Shah Murad 

Qureshi 1800 

72. Shaykh Qalandar ShSh 

Qureshi 1832 

Order, (contd.) 

Place of 


Gujrat (Panjab) 













^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadirl Order. 










Date of 

Place of 

Shah Inayatullah 
Sayyid Muhammad 

Ghawth 1517 

Mir Sayyid Shah Firoz 1526 
Sayyid 'Abdu^l-Qadir II. 1533 
Sayyid Mahmud Hudurl 1535 
Sayyid 'Abdu^l-Qadir 

Gllam 1535 

Sayyid 'Abdu^r-Razzaq 1542 
Shah Latlf Barn 1543 

Mir Sayyid Mubarak 

Haqqanl 1549 
Sayyid Muhammad 

Ghawth Bala Plr 1552 
BahaVd-Dm Gllani 

Bahawal Sher 1565 
Sayyid * Abdulla Rabbanl 1570 

Sayyid Isma 4 il Gllani 1570 
Sayyid Hamid Ganj 

Bakhsh 1570 
Shaykh Da^ud Karmam 1574 

Shaykh Bahlul Daryal 1575 

Shaykh Abu Is^aq 1577 

Sayyid Mir MirSn 1578 

1515 Koh-i-Hakhaki 

Uch in Jhang 


Uch in Jhang 


Uch in Jhang 


Uch in Jhang 
Satghara (PanjabJ 


Uch in Jhang 








^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadirl Order, (contd.) 




Date of 

Sayyid Nur 1580 

Shah Qumes 1584 

Sayyid Ismail b. Sayyid 

Abdal 1586 

22. Sayyid Allah Bakhsh 

Gilani 1586 

23. Sayyid Shah Nur Huduri 1588 

24. Hadrat Musa Pak 

Shahld 1592 

25. Shaykh 4 Abdu^l-Wahab 1592 

26. Sayyid ufi BadnrM- 


27. Sayyid Kamil Shah 

28. Sayyid Husayn 

29. Shaykh Ni'matullah 

30. Shah Badar Gilani 

31. Shah ShamsuM-Dln 

32. 4 Abdu J l-Qadir Gilani III 1613 

33. Shah SbayruM-Din 

Abu J l-Mu'all 1615 

34. *Miyan Nattha 1617 

35. Sayyid 'Abdu'l-Wahab 

Gilani 1627 

36. Shaykh * Abdullah Bhattl 1627 

37. MullaHamid 1635 

Place of 

Chunian (Lahore) 
Sadhaura ( Ambala) 

Fort Rathor 






















* Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 

3. The Saints of the Qadiri Order, (contd.) 

Name Date of 

Place of 




*Miyan Mir Bala Plr 




Sayyid Ghulam Ghawth 




Sayyid Shah Bilawal 




Sayyid 'Abdu J l-Qadir 




Shaykh 'Abdu^-Haq 





Mir Inayatullah Shah 

Amari known as 

Miskin Shah 




Sayyid Muqlm Muh- 





-Shaykh Madhu 




^hwaja Biharl 




Shah Sulayman 




Sayyid Jan Muhammad 





Muhammad alih 




Sayyid *Abdu J r-Razzaq 

Shah Chiragh 




Shah Muhammad Mulla 





'^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadirl Order, (contd.) 


Date of 

Place of 

52, *Dara Shikoh (1) 

53. Shah aftullah Sayfu^r- 

Rahman 1669 

Hajl 'AbduM-Jamll 1671 

Hajl Muhammad Hashim 

Gilani 1676 

Sayyid Sarwar Din 
^ Huduri 1689 

57. Sayyid Muhammad Amir 

Gilani 1691 

Shaykh Hajl Muhammad 

Nawshah Ganj 

Bakhsh 1692 

1660 Delhi 






Chhani Sahnpal 


59. Sayyid Ja 4 far b. Hajl 

Muhammad Hashim 1696 Lahore 

60. Sayyid 'Adbu^l-Haklm 

Gilani 1697 Lahore 

(1) He wrote the following books: 

Sakinatu*l-Awliyd, on the life of Miyao Mir. 
Majma*ul-Bahryan, The Meeting of Two 

Oceans, in which he has attempted to reconcile Islam 

with Hinduism. 

Hasndtu'l-Arifm, dealing with Qadirl Order. 

Ramuz-i-Ta$awwuf, The Secrets of ufism, and Tariqat- 

i-Hacjiqat. The Path of Reality. 


^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadiri Order, (contd.) 

Name Date of 

Place of 




Sayyid Muhammad Fadil 





*Khwaja Muhammad 

Fudayl Nawshahl 




Shaykh Rahim Dad 




Sayyid 'Urnar Gilam 




Sayyid Hasan Gilam 




Shah Rida 




Shah Muhammad alih 



Chak Sada (Guj 



Shah Kanth 




Shaykh adruM-Dln 



. . 


Shah Dargahl 




Shaykh Taj Mahmud 




Shaykh 4 Abdu J l-Hamid 

Nawshahl 1713 

73. Sayyid Nur Muhammad 

b. Sayyid Muhammad 
Amir 1714 

74. Shaykh Khamosh 

Muhammad Naw- 
shahl 1715 

75. Hafig Barkhurdar Naw- 

shahl 1718 


Chhani Sahnpal 
Chhani Sahnpal 

^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadiri Order, (contd.) 











Date of 

Shaykb Fatih Muhammad 
GhiyahuM-Din 1718 

Sayyid 'AbduM-Wahab 1719 

Khwaja Hashim Darya 

Dil Nawshahi 1721 

Sayyid Ahmad Shaykh iTl- 
HindGllam 1722 

Sayyid Badru J d-Din 

Gilani 1722 

Shah Sharf 1723 

Shaykh Ismatullah Naw- 
shahl 1725 

Shaykh Ahmad Beg 

Nawshahl 1727 

Shah Inayat 1728 

Sayyid Hajl 'Abdullah 

Gllanl 1728 

Shaykh Jamalullah Naw- 
shahl 1729 

Shah Muhammad 

Ghawth GilanI 1739 

*Pir Muhammad Sachyar 1739 
^Shaykh 4 Abdu^r-Rahman 
Pak Rahman Naw- 
shahl ' 1740 

Place of 


Chhani Sahnpal 




Chhani Sahnpal 


Tehri 'Abdu^r- 


3. The Saints of the Qadirl Order, (contcf.) 

Name Date of 

Place of 




Sayyid 'Abdu^l-Qadir 

Shah Gada 




Shah Farid Nawshahl 




Shaykh Fatih Muhammad 





Shaykh Inayatulla 





Shaykh Sultan Mirgbml 




Sayyid Shah Husayn 




Miyan Rahmatullah 



Shaykh Nasratullah 




Mir Bahll Shah 




Shaykh Sa'dullah Naw- 




Shaykh Muhamad 'Asim 




Shah Sardar 





Sayyid Muhammad Shah 

Razzaq Gitani 




Shaykh Masahib Khan 





Shah adru t d-Dln b. 

Mir 'Abdu^r-Razzaq 




Shaykh Jan Mutiammad 





^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
3. The Saints of the Qadirl Order, (contd.) 


Date of 

Place of 



Shaykh 'Abdullah 

Shaykh Mahmud b. 

Muhammad 'Aglm 1801 
Sayyid 'Adil Shah Natthu 

Gilam 1805 

Sayyid Shadi Shah 1806 

Sayyid 'All Shah 1812 

Sayyid Sardar 'All Shahid 1813 
Sayyid QutbuM-Dln 1834 
Shaykh Muslim Khan 1838 
Sayyid Shah Bare ahib 1854 
Shah 'Abdu^l-'Azlz ' 1879 
Sayyid Qhawth ' All Shah 1881 

1797 Lahore 








4. The Saints of the Naqshbandl Order. 

1. *Khwaja Muhammad 

Baqibillah Berang 1603 Delhi 

2. *Shaykh Ahmad Faruql 

Mujaddid Alf-i-Thanl 1615 Sirhind. 

3. *Shaykh Jahir 1630 Lahore 

4. Khwaja Berang 1632 Delhi 

5. Mulla Husayn 1640 Kashmir 

6. Sbwaja Kbawind Hadrat 

Ishan 1642 Lahore 

7. Sbwaja Haji Khidr 1642 Sirhind 


* Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
4. The Saints of the Naqshbandl Order, (contd.) 





Date of 

Sayyid Adam Banawrl 1643 
Shaylkh Hamid 1644 

Shaykh Nur Muhammad 1649 
Mir AWl-'Ula ' 1650 

Shaykh Ahmad Said 1659 
Shaykh Muhammad 1664 

:1: Shaykh Muhammad 

Ma' sum 1668 

Shaykh Muhammad 1672 

Shaykh Muhammad Sharif 1672 
Khwaja MumuM-Dln (1) 1674 
Shaykh 'Abdu^l-Khaliq 1675 
Khwaja Da->ud Mishkati (2) 1685 
Shaykh Muhammad Amin 

Dar< 3) 1686 

Shaykh SayfuM-Dm 1686 

Shaykh Sa'di 1696 

Place of 















(1) He wrote the following: Fatawa-i-Naqsh- 
bandiyya, The Decisions of Naqshbandiyya 1 , Kanzus- 
Saddat, The Treasure of Virtue/ and Risdla Ridwdnl. 

(2) He is the author of Asrdrul-Abrdr, The Sec- 
rets of Good People'. 

(3) The authorship of Qatrat, The Drops, 
ascribed to him. 



'"Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
4. The Saints of the Naqshbandi Order, (conic/.) 


Date of 

23. Maulana Hajl Muhammad 




Ismail Ghauri 

24. Makhdum Hafiz ' 


25. Shaykh Muhammad 


26. Sayyid Nur Muhammad 

27. Khwaja Muhammad 

iddlq ' 1724 

28. Khwaja 'Abdullah Balkhl 1726 

29. Khwaja 4 Abdullah Bukharl 1728 

30. -Shaykh 'Abdu^l-Ahad b. 

Khazmatu^r-Rahmat 1729 

31. Shaykh Muhammad 

Farrukh 1731 

32. Hajl Muhammad Afdal 1733 

33. Haji Muhammad Muhsan 1734 

34. Shaykh Muhammad Fadil 1739 

35. ghwaja Hafig Sa'ldullah 1740 

36. *Shaykh Muhammad 

Zubayr 1740 

37. ShahGulshan 1742 

38. Shaykh 'Abdu^r-Rashid 1742 

39. NuruM-Din Muhammad 

Aftab ' 1743 

Place of 


















^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
4. The Saints of the Naqshbandl Order, (contd.) 

Name Date of Place of 

Death Shrine. 

40. Shaykh Hajl Muhammad 

Said 1752 Lahore 

41. ghwaja 'AbduVSalam 1758 Kashmir 

42. Shah Muhammad adiq 

Qalandar 1758 Kashmir 

43. Khwaja Muhammad A'zam 

Domri (1) ' 1771 Kashmir 

44. Khwaja KamaluM-Din 1774 Kashmir 

45. Hadrat Shah Shamsu'M-Din 

Hablbullah Mirza Jan-i- 

Jana Mazhar 1780 Delhi 

46. Maulwi Ahmadullah 1783 Panipat 

47. Shaykh Muhammad Ihsan 1791 Delhi 

48. Maulwi 'Alimullah 1796 Gangoh 

49. Maulwi Thanaullah 1797 Panipat 

50. Shah Dargahl 1811 Rampur 

51. afiuM-Dln afl t> u <> l-Qadar 1821 Lucknow 

52. Shah 4 Abdullah Ghulam 

V AH 1824 Delhi 

53. Shah Abu Said 1834 Tonk 

54. ShahRauf 1837 

55. Shaykh Muhammad Asghar 1839 Delhi 

(1) He is the author of the famous history of 

Kashmir known as Tarifeji 'Azaml, The History of 


^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 
4. The Saints of the Naqshbandl Order, (contd.) 


57. Maulwl Karamullah of 


58. Mawlana 'Abdu^l-Qbafur 

59. Mirza Rahimatullah Beg 

60. Sayyid Munawwar Shah 

61. Maulwi Khatib Ahmad 

62. Mawlana Muhammad Jan 

Shaykhu J l-Haram 

63. Shah Ahmad Sa'id 

64. Imam 'All Shah 

Date of 

Place of 




iur 1843 
g 1844 


h 1848 


: 1850 






Ratr C h 

a t r 


5. The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular Orders. 

1. -Sayyid Salar Mas'ud 


2. Shaykh Isma'il 

3. * l Aliu J l-Hujwirl 

4. Sayyid Ahmad Sakhi 


5. Sayyid Ahmad Tokhta 

6. Sayyid Ya'qub adar 


7. Mir Sayyid Husayn 

Khung Sawar 

1033 Bahraich 

1056 Lahore 

1072 Lahore 

1181 Multan 

1205 Lahore 

1207 Lahore 

1213 Ajmer 



^Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 


The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (contd.) 


Date of 

8. Sayyid 'Azlzu'd-Dm 


9. ufi Badhm 

10. Sayyid Math 

11. Khwaja 'Aziz 

12. Amir Kablr Sayyid 'All 


13. Shaykh NuruM-Dln 

'Abdu J r-Rahman 

14. Shaykh Nuru^-Dm 


15. Shaykh Badru J d-Dm 


16. Bulbul Shah 

17. Shaykh Ishaq Maghribl 

18. Shaykh SharfuM-Din 

b. (1) Yahya Munirl 

19. Sayyid Ishaq Gazrunl 

20. -Shaykh 'Abdulla Shat- 



Place of 


1287 Kashmir 

1296 Kashmir 

1296 Delhi 






Rajgir Hills 

1429 Mandu (Multan) 

(1) He is an author of several books on ufism the 
chief of these being Mahtubdt, 'Epistles/ Irshadu*s- 
Sdlikin, The Directions for The Travellers/ Madanu*l- 
Maam, _The Mine of Things Spiritual, and a commen- 
tary on Adabul-Muridin. 


:1 'Indicates that mention has been made of him in the text. 

5. The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (contd.) 


21. Shaykh 'All Flru 

22. Shaykh 'All b. Ahmad 

23. *Shaykh Badi'u'd-Din 


24. Shaykh NuruM-Din Wall 1438 

25. Shaykh BahaVd-Dm 

Ganj Bakhsh 

26. Shaykh Ahmad Katthu 

27. Shaykh Jamal Gojar 

28. Shaykh HilaluM-Dm 

29. Sayyid Muhammad 


30. Malik ZaynuM-Din 

31. ZabaruM-Din 

32. Shu'ayb 

33. Shah JalaluM-Dm 

34. Shaykh Sulayman b. 

4 Affan 

35. Sayyid Muhammad 


36. Baba Quds 

37. Sayyid GbyathuM-Din 


38. *Shaykh WajihuM-Din 

39. Baba Wale 

ate of 

Place of 







1 1438 




















1537 Delhi 







5. The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (contrf.) 

Name Date of 

Place of 




Ya'qub ufi 




Sayyid Muhammud 





Mir Muhammad b. 





Sayyid Yusuf Muhammad 





Muhammad Kamal 




Mawlana Shah Gada-i- 









Shaykh Musawl Baldl- 





Shaykh Muhammad 

Sharif known as Shok 





Shah Ni l matullah 




Shah Qasim Haqqanl 




Khwaja ZaynuM-Dln 





Shaykh Pir Shattarl 




Shaykh Nazlr 




Baba 'All 




Mir ahib Kashafi 




Mawlana Muhammad b. 

Muhammad Faruql 










The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (contd.) 


Shaykh Baql 
liaklm Sarmad 
Shaykh Da j ud 

Date of 


Shaykh Abu Turab Shah 

Gada 1661 

Najmu J d-Dln Baba 


Mir Muhammad 'AH 
Baba Zahid 
Sayyid Hamid 
Abu J l-Fatih 
Baba Habib Lattu 
Mir Taju 
Shah Muhammad Qadirl 

Suhrawardi, & Kub- 

Baba Uliiman Qadiri, 

Suhrawardi & 

Muhammad Hashim 
Mirza Hayat Beg 
Shaykh Husayn 
QSdl Haydar 
Mawlana 'Inayatullah 


Place of 

















1705 Kashmir 





The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (contd.) 


Date of 

Place of 

77. Sultan Mir Ju 1713 Kashmir 

78. Mir Abu J l-Fatih 1713 Kashmir 

79. Shaykh Muhammad 1714 Kashmir 

80. Qadi Dawlat Shah 

Husaynl 1714 Delhi 

81. Mirza Kamil 1718 Kashmir 

82. 4 Abdu J l-Latif 1721 Kashmir 

83. Mir SharfuM-Din 1722 Kashmir 

84. Mir Muhammad Hashim 

Gilani 1722 Kashmir 

85. Mawlana 'All Asghar 1727 Kanauj 

86. Baba Muhammad Mehdi 1737 Kashmir 

87. Shaykh Fatih Shah Shat> 

tari 1737 Lahore 

88. Plr Munammad Isma'll 

Kubrawi 1737 Kashmir 

89. ghwaja Ayyub Qurayshi 1742 Lahore 

90. Baba 4 Abdu J l-Baqi Kub- 

rawi 1744 Kashmir 

91. Rustam l All b. 4 All 

Asghar 1764 Kanauj 

92. Shah Wall Ullah Muhad- 

dith 1765 Delhi 

93. Mir Muhammad Ya'qub 

Gilani 1765 Lahore 



The Saints of the Minor or the Irregular 
Orders, (confd) 


Date of 

Place of 

94. Hafiz 'AbduM-Khaliq 


95. Sayyid Shah Husayn 


96. Sayyid v Abdu^l-Karlm 

Pir Bahawan Shah 

97. Maulwi Ghulam Farid 

98. Mufti Rahimullah 

99. Shaykh Nur Ahmad 


100. Shah l Abdu^l- 1 Aziz 

101. Sulfan Bala Din Awes! 

102. Shaykh Laddhe Shah 

103. Ahmad Shah 

1771 Bahawalpur 

1798 Lahore 

1801 Lahore 

1819 Lahore 

1820 Lahore 
1823 Delhi 
1825 Bahawalpur 
1837 Lahore 
1860 Kashmir 



The date of death is observed, and in the following list the 
dates are given according to the Muslim Calendar. 

1. Sultan Bahu, Bahu in 

Dist. Jhang ... 1st Muharram. 

2. Bhore Miyan, Rampur 4th 

3. FariduM-Din Shakar- 

ganj, Pak Patan ... 5th-7th 

4. Langar ahib, Hyder- 

abad ... 10th 

5. Salar Mas'ud Ghazi, 

Bahraich ... llth 

6. Shaykh Ibadu j l-Huda, 

Gwalior ... 19th 

7. Hajl Warith 'All Shah 21st 

8. Shamsu J l-Haq, Jabbi, 

Shahpur ... 21st 

9. Shah Jamalu J l-Huda, 

Rampur ... 23rd 

10. MutiVr-Rasul, IBudaun 25th 

11. Mir Ashraf Jahangir 

Samnanl, Kachaucha 25th-28th 

12. Warijh 'All Shah, Dewa 

Sharif ... 16th afar. 


13. Shah Jamalullah, Rampur 3rd Safar. 

14. Muhammad 'Abbas 'All 

Khao Naqshband, 

Amroha ... 5th ,, 

15. KhwajaMutma^in, Tunsa 6th 

16. ThanauM-Dm Zakariya, 

Tunsa ... 7th 

17. Shah Nizamu'd-Din 

Chishtl, Bareilly ... 12th 

18. Karlm Shah, Surat, ... 13th 

19. ShamsuM-Din Sayyal 13th-15th 

20. Sakhi Sarwar Sultan, 

Dhaunkal ... 13th 

21. 'Abdu^l-Quddus, Gan- 

goh ... 14th 

22. Shah Dargahl, Rampur 14th 

23. Imam 'All, Sialkot, ... 15th 

24. 'Alm^l-Hujwiri, Lahore 20th 

25. Shah Mayna, Lucknow 23rd 

26. Sa j in Fadal Ilahl, Kusur 25th 

27. Makhdum Shah 'All, 

Cwanpur ... 26th 

28. Shah Bulaqi, Murada- 

bad ... 27th 

29. Shaykh Ahmad Faruql, 

Sirhind ... 27th-28th 

30. adiq Shah, Cwanpur... 28th 

31. Plr Muhammad Naw- 

shah, Naushahra ... 4th Rabi'ul-Awwal. 


32. Khwaja Zarl Bakhsh, 

Jalalabad ... 4th Rabi'ul-Awwal. 

33. MuntakhibuM-Din, Au- 

rangabad ... 6th 

34. Miyan Mir, Lahore ... 6th 

35. Shah Hamdan, Kashmir 7th 

36. Makhdum 'AlauM-Din 

Sabir, Piran Kaliar 7th-13th 

37. Sakhl Sarwar, Lahore 8th 

38. Ghwthu-H-A'zam, Am- 

bala 9th 

39. Jamal Bahar, Monghyr 12th 

40. Khwaja Qutbu j d-'Din 

Kaki, Delhi ... 14th 

41. Nawshah Ganj Bakhsh, 

Naushahra ... 15th 

42. Shah Muhammad Said, 

Sharqpur ... 15th 

43. Abu^l-Mu'ali, Lahore 16th 

44. Shah Muhammad 

Ghawth, Lahore ... 16th 

45. Ghawth Shah, Panipat 17th 

46. NizamuM-Din Awliya, 

Delhi ... 18th 

47. Husayn Bakhsh, Far- 

rukhabad ... 19th 

48. Ghulam Qadir, Lahore 19th 

49. Talib Husayn, Far- 

ruhkabad ... 21st 


50. Shah Jamal, Lahore ... 22nd Rabi'ul-Awwal 

51. Fadlu^r-Rahman, Murad- 


52. Farid Thani, Mathan 


53. Mihran Shah, Ahmad 


54. Ghawthu J l-A 4 2am, Ba- 


55.. Gydrhunn Sharif of 
Ghawthu J l-A 4 gam. . . 

56. Ladora Dargah, Dar- 


57. Shah Dawla, Gujrat, 


58. ufl Muhammad Imam- 

uM-Din, Mukhtas- 

59. Ghawthu^l-A'sam, Ra- 


60. 'Abdu^-Hakim, Ghazi- 


61. NigamuM-Dln, Delhi ... 

62. Zinda Shah Madar, 


63. Pir Hayder Shah, Jalal- 

pur ...5th-7th 

64. Bibl Pakdamanan, 

Lahore ... 7th 

2nd Rabi'u'th-Tham 



12th Jamadi'l-Awwal 



65. FakhruM-Din, Delhi ... 7th Jamadi^th-Thanl. 

66. Hamid Qadiri, Lahore, 8th 

67. Hadrat Imam ahib, 

Sialkot ... 17th 

68. Baqi Billah, Delhi ... 28th-29th 

69. Kbwaja Mu'lnuM-Din 

Chishtl ... 6th-14th Rajab. 

70. Shah adar Diwan, 

Lahore ... 16th 

71. Bandagl Shah Lutfullah, 

Bijnor ... 1st Sha 4 ban. 

72. 4 Abdu J l-Kanm, Rampur 2nd 

73. BadruM-Dm Ishaq, Ajo- 

dhan ... 4th 

74. Sayyid Shah Ghawth, 

Budaun ... 5th 

75. Bandagl Shah, Sikandar- 

abad ... 9th 

76. Shah 'Abdu^l-Bari, Am- 

roha ... llth 

77. Khwaja Muhammad 

Hadrat Ishan, La- 
hore ... 12th 

78. Bawajl Nur Muhammad 

Naqshband, Chaw- 

rah ... 12th 

79. ShamsuM-Dln Turk, 

Panipat ... 19th 

80. Shh Altamash, Delhi 20th 


81. 'Abdu^l-Karlm, Sialkot 20th Shaban. 

82. Maulwl Ayyubl, Luck- 

now ... 21st 

83. Anwar, Kakori ... 22nd 

84. Sarmad Shahid, Delhi 22nd 

85. Bahlul Shah, Lahore ... 27th-29th 

86. Shaykh Bilawal, Lahore 28th 

87. Shamsu J d-Dln Hablbul- 

lah, Sirhind ... 1st Ramadan. 

88. Haji Ramadan Chishtl, 

Lahore ... 2nd 

89. 'Abdu J l-BarI Mahiri, 

Amroha ... 4th 

90. Muhammad Daru, Gan- 

goh ... 5th 

91. Bu 'All Qalandar, Pani- 

pat and Karnal ... 12th-13th 

92. Shah Muhammad Gosha 

Nashln, Ahmadabad 15th 

93. Muhammad Ghawth. 

Gwalior ... 15th 

94. Mulla Hamid Qadiri, 

Lahore ... 17th 

95. NaslruM-Dln Chiragh-i- 

*Delhl, Delhi ... 18th 

96. Najibullah Mutawwak- 

kil, Delhi ... 19th 

97. RuknuM-Din Abul- 

Hasan, Vellore ... 20th 



98. Hujjatullah GhayWl- 

Lisan, Delhi 

99, Shah Junayd, Ghazipur 

100. Shah 'Allmullah, Rae- 


101. Shaykh Hasan Afghan, 


102. Dlwan Muhammad Nur- 

u J d-Dln, Ajodhan ... 

103. Sharfu J d-Dm, Calcutta 

104. Miyao Wadda, Lahore 

105. Shaykh Salim Chishtl, 

Fatehpur Sikri 

106. Ahmad Sarwar, Murad- 


107. Shyakh Misrl, Bombay 

108. Wazir 'All, Rampur ... 

109. Habibu J r-Rahman, 


110. Amir Khusru, Delhi ... 

111. Shah 'All Hayder, Ka- 


112. Miyan 'Abdu^l-Haklm, 


113. Nisamu^d-Dln, Kakori 

114. Shah Taqi, Cambellpur 

115. Sayyid Muhammad Gesu 

Daraz, Gulbarga ... 

116. 'Ashiq 4 Ali, Dongriabad 

21st Ramadan. 




8th Shawwal. 



2nd Db'1-Qa'adah. 



117. Shah Wilayat 'All, Agra 18th Dh'1-Qa'adah. 

118. Shah 'Alam, Racpur ... 27th 

119. 'Abdu J l-Khaliq, Baha- 

walpur ... 28th 

120. Makhdum-i-Jahaniyap 

Jahan Gasht, Uchh 9th 10th Dhil-Hajj. 

121. Din Muhammad, Amrit- 

sar ... llth 

122. Hadrat Fadil, Batala ... 12th 

123. Basit 'All, Allahabad ... 18th 


'Abbasid, 133. 
Abdal, 105, 106, 207. 
'Abdu J l-Ahad, 277. 
'Abdu'l-'Aziz Makkl, 310, 311. 
'Abdu J l-Karlm, Makhdum, 240. 
'Abdu-4-Khaliq Ghujdawani, 188, 190. 
'Abdullah Ansari, 197. 

Bahrl, 162. 

Bayabani, 204, 205. 

Hanlf, 119. 
Karmani, 209. 

Khaki, 122. 

Shattari, 306, 307. 

'A6du J l-Qadir Gilanl, 42, 107, 110, 113, 172, 176-182, 

184, 187, 197, 211, 229, 253256, 276, 311. 
'Abdu'l-Qadir, II, 254, 255. 
'Abdu'l- Wahid b. Zayd, 14, 163, 174. 
'Abdu^l-Wali ghan ahib, 137. 
'Abdu^r-Rahim Khao, 242. 
'Abdu^r-Rahim Lodl, 243. 
'Abdu J r-Rab, 104. 
'Abdu^r-Razzaq, 274. 
'Abdu j s-amad, 242. 
Abel, 127. 
Abl Dara. 54. 


Abl alih, 176. 
Abu Ahmad, 175. 

Ahmad Yasawl. 188. 

'All of Sindh, 21, 187. 
Abu Amr Qazwinl. 125. 

Abu Bakr, 36, 161, 174, 190, 279. 

Abu Darda, 10. 

Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazall, see al-Ghazali. 

Abu Hayat, 255. 

Abu Ishaq Gazruni, 172. 

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, see Ibrahim b. Adham. 

Abu Ishaq Shaml Chishtl, 166, 174, 175, 193, 302. 

Abu^l-Fadl, 280. 

Abu^l-Farah Tartawsl, 172. 

Abu^-Hasan kharqani, 187, 188, 197. 

Abu->l-Hasan b. Sallba, 125. 

Abu^l-Jannab Ahmad b. 'Umaru 1-Khiwaqi, 173, 182. 

Abu^l-Layth, 211. 

Abu^l-Qasim, 59. 

Abu^l-Qasim b. Junayd, 171. 

Abu^l-Qasim Gurganl, 188. 

Abu Muhammad, 175. 

Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah, see Burhanu J d-Din Qutb 


Abu^n-NajlbSuhrawardl, 172, 173, 197. 
Abu Sa'ld, 72. 

Abu Said Abu^l-Khayr, 197. 
Abu Sa*id Mubarak Mukharraml, 176, 177. 
Abu Sa Id b. Mu'inuM-Din, 207. 

INDEX 379 

Abu Sa'id Tabrezi, 197, 

Abu alih, 176. 

Abu Sulayman Darani, 18, 19. 

Abu Yazld, see Bayazld. 

Abu Yusuf, 175. 

Abu Yusuf Hamadam, 168, 188, 197. 

adab-i-zahirl, 91. 

AdaVl-Muridin, 182. 

Adam, 24, 57, 58, 64, 82, 127. 

Adhamiyya, 163. 

adhan, 277. 

adh-DSahabi, 120. 

adh-dhat, 53. 

advaiia, 142. 

Afaliyyat, 54. 75. 


Ahl-i-$ukbat, 227. 

Ahmad Faruq, 276-285. 

Ahmad M'ashuq, 232235. 

abwdl, (Sing, hal), 67, 168. 

Ajmer, 196, 197, 200, 202209, 211, 213. 

Ajodhya, 216, 221. 

okas, 152. 

l Akasha, 118. 

akhfa, 61, 62. 

al^Ama, 54, 146. 

'Alam-i-Khalq, 61, 62, 65. 

'Alam-i-Kabir< 60, 61. 

'Alam-i-Malakut, 57, 104. 

'Alam-i-Mith&l, 57. 


'Alam-i-Ndsut, 57, 104. 

'Alam-i-Saghlr> 60, 61. 

'AlauM-Din 4 All 'Ahmad abir, see 'Ali Ahmad abir, 

'AlauM-Din of Bengal, 224. 

'AlauM-Din Kayqobad III, 36. 

4 AlauM-Dln Seljuqi, 36. 

Al-Beruni, 134. 

Aleppo. 37. 

Alexander the Great, 115. 

Alexanderia, 20. 

al-fardu*l-kamil. 82. 

iami \ 82. 

l, 35-30, 67, 71, 92, 117. 
Al-Mehdl. 82. 
Al-Muwaffiq, 134. 
Altamash 185, 212, 215. 
Alwar, 249. 

al-Wujudu*l-Mutlaq, 53. 
4 Ali, 121, 161, 162, 174, 178, 190, 211, 303. 
' AH Ahmad abir, 218, 220, 225-227. 
'Allu^l-Hujwiri, 69-72, 83, 90-92, 103-105, 112, 115. 

169, 171, 181, 315-317. 
'AliDinwarl, 175. 
4 AlI Farmadi, 188. 
4 Ali Ramitam, 189. 
4 Amar Makki, 22, 171. 
Amir Kbiisru, 223. 
Amir Sayyid Kull, 189. 
Amir Sultan Shamsu^d-Din, 185. 
Amrullah, 59. 

INDEX 381 

Ana*l-Haqq, 22, 23, 55, 75. 

Anasagar, 201, 203. 

Aniyyat, 23, 55, 84. 

Annihilation, 83, ff, 92, 

4 Aql, Primal Reason, 58. 

'Aqil, 121. 

Areopagite, 17. 

Arendoke, C van, 165. 

4 Arif , 17. 

'Arif Rewgari, 188. 

4 Arif, Shaykh, 306. 

Aristotle, 18. 

Asdba fl Marafati*$-Sahaba, 120. 

Asaf Jah. 280. 

Asceticism, 9-16. 

Ashabu^s-^afa, 6. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 136. 

Astrabad, 197. 

4 Aftar, see Faridu d-Din Attar. 

Af-Tariqat, 75, 160. 

Aurangzeb. 136, 273, 294, 296, 297. 

'Awarifu*l-Ma'arif, 42, 184. 

Awliya, (Sing, wall), 102, 106. 


iaba Farld, 44, 107, 208, 215-221, 225, 226, 310 
Baba Khaki, 122. 
Baba Ratan, 120. 
Baba SamasI, 189. 
Baba Tahir, 119. 


Bad! Vd-Dln, 280. 

Bad! Vd-Dm Shah Madar see Madr Shah. 

BadruM-Dm Sulayman, 219. 

Badl see Abdal. 

Baghdad, 26, 167, 168, 176, 177, 184, 188, 197, 211. 

Bahadurpur, 249. 

Baharistdn, 51. 

Baha J uM-Dm, father of Jalalu J d-Dm RumI, 36. 

BahaVd-Din, father of Khwaja Shamsu J d-Dln Hafiz, 


BahaVd-Din Naqshband, 186, 189, 190. 
BahaVd-Din Zakariya, 185, 212, 216, 229-231. 
Bahawal Shah, 258. 
Bahlul Shah Darya j i, 256. 
Bahlul Shahl Section of the Qadirl Order, 256-258, 265, 


Bahraich, 123. 

Bakhtiyar, a little of QutbuM-Din Kaki, 214. 
Balkh, 36, 133, 164, 199. 
Balban, 218, 223. 
Bale Miyan, 122. 
Baluchistan, 119. 
Bandagi, creatuxeliness, 83. 
Baqa, subsistence, 76, 83. 
BaqI billah, 275-279. 
Barabanki, 123. 
Barmak, 133. 
Bar Sudhayli, 17. 

Ba Shara 4 sections' |of|the Suhrawardl Order, 234-247. 
Bashlr. 138. 

INDEX 383 

Batala, 239, 240. 
Bay at, 87. 
Bayazid I, 188. 
Bayazid Bistaml, 21, 168. 

, on the doctrine of sukr, 'intoxication' 

169, 170. 

, in the chain of succession of the 

Naqshbandi Order, 187. 

, as a maldmati 317. 

Bdzgasht, one of the rules of the Naqshbandiyya, 191. 

Bengal 209. 

Be Shara' sections of the Suhrawardi Order, 234, 235, 


Bhagvatgiat, 134. 
Bha'l Bala, 157. 
Bhakti, 145. 
Bhawan Shah, 245. 
Blbi Pakdamanan, 121. 
Bihar, 256. 

Bihishti darwaza, 219. 
Bistam, 21. 

Bistamiyya, 161. 
Brahma Gupta, 133. 
Brahman, 142, 145-148. 
Brahma siddhanta, 133. 
Brown, J. P. 88, 178. 
Browne, F. G. 42, 49. 
Bu 4 All Qalandar, 312-314. 
Budaun, 220. 
Buddha, 144. 


Bukhara, 188, 189, 195, 220, 236. 
Burhdn-i-Nabawi, 103. 
BurhanuM-Din, 37. 
BurhanuM-Din Qufb-i-'Alam, 236. 
Bustan, 41-43, 184. 


Canton, 118. 
Carra de Vaux, 36. 
Ceylon, 119, 209. 
Chajju panthis, 120. 
Chakras, 148, 149. 
Chela, 140. 

Chengiz Khan, 32, 183, 216. 
Chilla, 175. 
Chisht, 174. 
Chishtis, 93. 
Chisht! Order, and musical festivals, 113, 215. 

, traced to Hasan Basri, 162. 

, founded by Abu Ishaq Shaml, 166. 

, one of the four main Orders, 174-176. 

, introduced in India, 193-208. 

, after the death of Kbwaja Mu'inuM- 

Din, 209-219. 

, and its sections 220-227. 
Chitagong, 107. 

Chitor, 239. 

Chuhas of Shah Dawla, 245, 246. 

Conversion, 73. 

Creative Existence, 143. 

Creative Truth, 57, 79, 143. 

INDEX 385 


Dafdll faqirs, 124. 

Damascus, 37, 160. 

Dancing Darwishes, 38. 

Dara Shikoh, 110, 134, 136, 175, 270-273. 

Dargah, 106. 

Darwish, 119, 130, 165. 

Das Gupta, 150, 152, 156, 158. 

Data Ganj Bakhsh, 115, 128, 129, 200. 

Da'ud, 249. 

Dawla Shah, 242-245. 

Dawla Shah! Section of the Suhrawardl Order, 242-247. 

Dawlat Shah, 31. 

Death, in the sense of self-mortification, 76, 77. 

De la Valle Possim, 152. 

Delhi, 185, 200, 206, 212-216, 221, 222, 225, 253. 

Devotions, classifications of, 90. 

, General acts of, 90-95. 

, The special acts of, 96-101. 
Dhikr, 1, 4, 55, 69, 70, 88. 

, one of the special acts of ufl devotion, 90. 

, Jail, 97, 190. 

, Khafi, 98, 190. 
Dhu'n-Nun Misrl, 18-20, 315. 
Din-i-Ilahi, 280. 

Divine Effulgence, 78-83. 
Divine Essence, 78, 82. 
Divine Love, 69. 
Diwan-i-Hafiz, 43, 47. 
Diwdn-i-Jdmi, 49. 


Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz, 38. 
I?iySVd-Dln Najlb Suhrawardi, 182, 184. 
D'Ohsson, 301. 
Du'd-i'Mdthura, 95. 
Durud, 95. 

Eckhart, 17. 

Ecstasy, 4 t 70. 

Egypt, 19, 315. 

Essence, 53, 54, 78, 82, 84, 146. 

Etah, 223. 

Eternal Beauty, 50. 

Existence, 80. 


Faghna, 189, 

FakhruM-Dln, son of Mu 4 InuM-Dln Ajmen, 207. 

FakhruM-Dln Iraqi, 318. 

FakhruM-Din Razl, 36. 

Fans, 21, 35, 76, 81. 

, the doctrine of, 83, 84. 

, the negative aspect of, 84-86. 

, the positive aspect of, 86. 

, ^liuM-Hujwirl^s teaching on, 129. 

, compared with the Buddhistic Nirvana, 150-153. 

, compared with the Upanishadic Moksa, 153-158. 
Fand fi*l-baqiqat, absorption in Reality, 67. 

Fand filldh wa baqd billdh, the annihilation and subsist- 
ence in God, 145. 
Fand wa baqd, annihilation and subsistence, 72, 126, 153. 

INDEX 387 

Farldi, section of the Chishtl Order, 215-219. 
FariduM-Din 'AftSr, 31-35. 
FarlduM-Dm Shakarganj, see Baba Farid. 
Fatehpur Sikri, 208. 
Fatiha, 179, 18O* * 
FSfima, MuhaJMad's daughter, 178. 
Fatima, wife of Wuhammad Qbawth, 253, 254. 
Fthi ma fihi, 38. 

Firdawsl, author of Shahnama, 34 
Firdawsl, a title of AWl-Jannab Ahmad, 173, 182. 
Firdawsiyya Order, 173. 
Fudayl b. 'lyad, 12-14, 163, 164. 

Gautama, 150. 

Gesu Daraz, 224. 

GJiaflat, heedlessness, 170. 

Ghawth, 104. 

Ghawthu*l-A'zam, 177. 

Gfaazi Khan, 243. 

GhSz! Miyao, 122-124. 

Gbfizi Sultan Muhammad, 247. 

QhiySthpur, 223. 

GhiySthuM-Din Tajghlak, 222. 

Ghujdawan, 188. 

Gita, 135. 

Giydrhmn Sharif, 179. 

Gnosis, 70. 


God, ufl conception of, 52-61. 

, Qfl conception compared with Advaita philoso- 
phy of the Upanishads, 142444. 

, ufi conception compared with Vishista-advaita 
of Ramanuja, 144-146. 

, the Qfi doctrine of TanazzuI$mT\d the Hindu 

doctrine of namarupa, 146-148. 
Gujrgt, 41,236, 307-309. 
Gujrat (Punjab), 242,244-246. 
fiulbarga, 225. 
Gulistan, 41,42. 
Gulshan-i-Raz, 43, 76. 
Gunas, attributes, 146. 
Guru, spiritual preceptor, 140. 
GurzmSr faqirs, 324. 


IJablb 4 Ajami 166-169, 174. 
tfabibiyya, 166, 167,174. 
Habs-i-dam, 99, 188. 
IJadlih-i-Qudsi, 54. 

, Kbwaj* Shamsu J d-Din, 43, 47, 48, 64, 65. 
Jaml Blbl, 206,207. 
tfaj, 90. 

IJijI Afdal, see Muhammad Afdal. 
IJfijI Shah Muhammad, 260-263. 
IJftkim 4 At&, 188. 


(emotional), 70. 
Haltftj, see Husayn b. Mansur. 

INDEX 389 

Hama ost, 52. 

Ramadan, 197. 

Hamdunu'l-Qassar, 315. 

Hamza, 224, 315. 

Hamza Shhi, 224. 

Hamzawis, 315. 

Hansl, 216. 

Haqiqat, reality, 71, 75, 181. 

Haqiqatu*l-Mukammadiyya, 55, 57, 59. 

Hartman, 188. 

Harun (a town), 195. 

HSrunu'r-Rashld, 133, 163. 

Harut, 127. 

Hasan, 104, 162. 

IJasan Basri, 11, 162, 163, 166. 

Hasan Khattall 125 ,130. 

Hasan Nizami, 223. 

Hasan Sari^u's Saqati, 167. 

Hasan Zanjani, 128. 

Hassu Tell 226, 267. 

Hay, The Living One, 181. 

HayStu^l-Mir, 256-259. 

Hayula, substance, 143. 

Hellenic culture, 18. 

Herat, 197, 198, 225. 

Hijaz, 110. 

Hinduism according to $ufts, 137-139. 

Hindu Philosophy, 142-158. 

IJira, 110. 

Hiryana, Professor, 145. 



IJisamiyya, a section of the Chishti Order, 224, 

IJisfimuM-Dln b. Mu'inuM-Dln, 207 

yisfimuM-Dln Bi&hari, 223. 

HKsamuM-Din Manikpurl, 224. 

IJisfimuM-Dln Nagore, 228. 

Hash dar dam. 191. 

Hw, 55. 

IJujjatullah, 295, 296. 

HuM, 81. 

Humayun, 307. 

IJusayn, 104, 162. 

Husayn b. Mansur, 21-25, 55, 130, 171. 

liusayn Shfihi, a section of the Qadirl Order, 265-269. 

Husrl, 125. 

Huwiyyat, 23, 55. 

Huzayra, princess, 218. 


Ibnu'VArabi, 24, 37. 

Ibn Batata, 119, 

Ibn Hlajar ^sqalfinl, 120. 

Ibn Ij'anbal, 10. 

Ibn Sad, 10. 

Ibn Sin, 58. 

Ibnu^l-Farid, 114. 

Ibrfthim b. Adham, 12, 13, 163-166. 

Ibrahim b. Faflk, 24. 

Ibrfihlm Kbawwfis, 91. 

Ibrahim Qandozl, 193. 

Ibrahim Sharql, 317. 

INDEX 391 

Iconium, 36. 

Ida, 149. 

Iby&u*l-UUim, 27, 28, 92, 184. 

Ijadiyya, 52. 

Ildhiyyat, 83. 

7/mf, cognitional knowledge of God, 70. 

'Ilm-i-Safina, book knowledge, 7. 

Ilm-i-Slna, heart knowledge, 7. 

7/mu*J Kalarn. 27. 

Illumination, 78-82. 

Imdn-i-Makmudi, 302, 

Indbat, repentance, 73. 

India, 187, 193, 169, 200, 211, 212. 

J-ne5s, 55, 84. 

Injil, 135. 

Intoxication, of the love of God, 169, 170, 172. 

Iraq, 110, 127. 

Isfahan, 47, 197. 

7sn<?, 69. 

Ism 4 Il, Hsfiz, 240-242. 

Isma 4 il Shahi, a section of Suhrawardi Order, 240-242 

Ismatullah, 206. 

Ismu-l A 4 ?am, 117. 

Istidrdj, 108. 


Jabarut, 56, 57. 75. 
Jafardiq, 168,169,187. 

JalSl b. Al^mad Kabir, see Makhdf2m-i-Jah&niyn. 
Jalab, attributes of God, 227. 


Jalall, a section of the Suhrawardl Order, 236, 237. 

JalaluM-Dln Rumi, 35-41, 84, 156, 197, 318. 

JalaluM-Dln Surkhposh, 236. 

Jamabaynu*lqurbayn, 84. 

Jamdli, attributes of God, 227. 

Jaml, Mulla Nuru'd-Din 'Abdu'r-Rafrman, 49-51. 

Jfin Muhammad, 242. 

Janissaries, 188. 

Jaypal Jogi, 203. 

Jihd, 96. 

Jehanglr, 208. 

Jesus, 23. 

Jihadu'l-Akbar, 96. 

Jihadul-Asghar, 96. 

JllSn, 176. 

Jili, 23, 24, 53, 59, 74, 80. 

Journey of a ufl, significance of, 73. 

, of Reality 74. 

, of creature, 74. 

, the three great, 75. 
Junayd, Abu'l-Qasim, 22, 125, 164, 166, 171-175. 
Junaydiyya, a religious order, 171-174, 182. 


K&ld, a title of QutbuM-Din, 214. 
Kankan, 119, 133. 
Karamat, 108-111. 
KarbalS, 121. 
Karkh, 167. 

a religious order, 167. 

INDEX 393 

Karma, 151. 
Karman, 146. 

Karmniyya, a section of the Chishti Order, 209. 
Karnal, 314. 
Kashf, 27. 

Kashfrfl-Mabi&b, 83, 125, 126, 164, 167, 188, 299. 
Khafi, an organ of spiritual apprehension, 61-63. 
phalli, brother of Muhammad Ismail SuhrawardI, 242. 
Khalq, the created universe, 57. 
Khanwadah, 160, 172, 174. 
Khatm, 95. 
ghawla, 10. 

ghaybar Pass, 118, 119. 
Khidr, 111, 115-117, 181, 188. 
ghidr Rumi, 310-312. 
ghidr SwistanI, 270. 
Khilwat dar anjuman, 191. 
n, 197. 

dat 9 168. 
ghubthiydt, 42^ 
ghulasatu*l-Arifm, 229. 
Khurasan, 160. 
Khusru Khan, 223. 
Kbwarizm Shah, 36. 
Kbwas KhSo, 242. 
Kitabu*l-Ishdrat, 58. 
Kitabu*t-Tau>asin, 22. 
Knowledge, 67, 70. 
Kokileswar Sastari, 148. 
Krishna, 138. 


Kubrawl, sec FirdawsL 

Kubrawiyya, 173. 

Kufa, 300. 

Kufr, 76, 138, 139. 

Kulal, 189. 

Kulliyat-i-Shams-i-Tabriz, 38. 

Kulthum, 292. 

Kumayl, 162. 

Kundalini, 149. 

Laccadive, 119. 

Lahore, 110, 121, 128, 130, 200, 238, 242. 

Lahut, 24, 56, 75. 

LSI Husayn, 265-269. 

LSI ShahbSz, 247-248. 

La&if, 61-63, 99, 148, 286. 

Latlfa, 63. 

Laf BarrI, 256. 

La$lfa-i-Ghaybiyai 48. 

Law&ih, 51, 56. 

Le Petit St. Jean, 165. 

Light of Allah, 58. 

Light of Muhammad, 58, 160. 

Lisanu* l-&hay$ 48. 

Literary History of Persia* 48. 

Logos, 30, 58. 

Lucknow, 51. 

Ludhiana, 51. 

INDEX 395 


Macdonald, D.B. 17, 171. 
Macrocosm, 61. 
Madarl Order, 302-306. 
Madar Shah, 302-306. 
Madhu 267-269. 
Madras, 118. 
Magi, 199. 
Mahabat Khao, 170. 
Mahant, 202. 
Mahmuda, 100. 

Mahmud Anjlr Faghwam, 189. 
Mahmud Ghaznawi, 122. 
Mahmud Shabistarl, 43-46. 
Majrria*ul-Bahrayn> 136. 
Makanpur, 305. 

Makhdum-i-Jahaniyan Jahan Gasht, 236-238. 
Makhdumi section, 237-238. 
Makran, 119, 133. 
Malabar Coast, 118, 119. 
Maldkut, 75. 
Maldive, 119. 
Malikzada Ayyaz, 223. 
Malwa, 307. 
Mamun, 133. 
Man of God, 39. 
Mansur, 133. 
Mantiqu*t-Tayr, 32, 33. 
Maqdmat, 67, 178. 
Mar'ashi, 166. 


Ma'rifat, 67, 70, 181. 

Ma'rufu'l-Karkhl, 18, 19, 167. 

M'arSf Shah, 260. 

Mfirut, 127. 

Massignon, Louis, 22. 

M'asum, 291, 223-295. 

Maihnawi Sharif, 35, 38, 63, 197. 

Mathnawi Jaml, 49. 

Maunat, 108. 

Mawaddat, 170. 

Mawdud. 175. 

Mawlawl, a religious order, 38. 

Maya, 35. 

Mazdr, 106. 

Mecca, 90-92, 120, 200. 

Medina, 185, 201. 

Mehna, 197. 

Memoirs of the Poets, 31. 

Merv, 113. 

Mesopotamia, 19, 119, 187. 

Microcosm, 61, 74. 

Mimshfid Dinwarl, 166, 174, 175. 

Miracle, 108. 

Mini. 307. 

Mlrtn Muhammad Shah Mawj-i-DaryS Bukbfiri, 238- 


Mirn Shfihi section, 238-240. 
Mir^at-i-Madari, 302. 
-i-Mas'Gdi, 123. 
Sayyid Gesudarfiz, 224, 225. 

INDEX 397 

MirzS JSn-i-Jaho Mazhar, 138, 139. 

Mishkatu*l-Anwdr, 27, 30, 35. 

Miyan Kiel, a section of the Qidiri Order, 265-274. 

Miyn Mir, 110, 111, 269-274. 

Miyan Nattha, 271-273. 

MiySn WaddS, 240-244. 

Moksa, 150, 153, 154, 157. 

Monastic Orders, 185. 

Mongols, 183. 

Mount Lukam, 125. 

Muadh b. Jabal, 57. 

Muawiya, 105, 119. 

Mubarak ghilji, 221. 

Muhammad Afdal, 138, 139. 

Muhammad b. Qasim, 119. 

Muriammad Fudayl, 261, 262. 

Muljammad Ghawtb, 253. 

Muhammad Isma'll, see Miyan Wadda. 

Muhammad Shah 'Alam, 236. 

Muhammad Ta,ghlak, 223. 

Muhammad YadgSr, 198. 

Muharram, 121. 

MuhlVd-Dln, see *AbduM-Q5dir JilSnl, 

Mta l InuM-Dln Chishti, 110, 125, 129, 193-208, 305. 

Mujahada, 90, 96. 

Mujahadatu*n-Hafs, 96. 

MujSwir, 122. 

Mu'jiza. 108. 

Mukti, 158. 

Mullt NSruM-Din *Abdu a r-Rakmin Jiml, see Jiml. 


Mulls Shah, 27. 
Multn, 185, 212, 216, 231-233. 
Mundqibu^l-Arifin, 37. 
Mun'im, 170. 


Hadhpr, 124. 

Nadhir, 138. 

Nadirah, 274. 

Kadis, 149. 

Hafbatu*l-Uns, 20. 

Nafi-athbat, 100. 

Nafs, 62. 76-78, 92. 

Najd, 300. 

Najib, see Nujubd. 

NajmuM-Din GhawthuM-Dahar, 311-313. 

NajmuM-Dln Kubra, 59, 173, 182-184. 

NajmuM-Dln Sutfhra, 212, 213. 

Namarupa, 147, 148. 

Namaz, 90, 92, 94. 

Nacfib, see Nuquba. 

Naqshbandi Order, 185-192, 275-298. 

Naqshbandiyya, 49, 137, 161, 174. 

Nasir Mast, 244. 

Naslru^d-Dln Astrabadi, 197, 225. 

Nasut. 24, 75. 

Natthe''MiyfiD, 111. 

Nature, 54. 

Nawshah, 262. 263. 

Nawshh Ganj Bakhsh, 261. 

INDEX 399 

Nava Vihara, 133. 

Nazar bar qadam, 191. 

Negation and affirmation, 100. 

Neo-Platonism, 17, 20, 53. 

Nibbana, 152. 

Nicholson, Professor, 18, 20. 38, 71, 74, 84. 

Nigdh dasht, 191. 

NilGfar Kfafinam, 185. 

Nimat, 170. 

Ni'mat KhatUn, 242, 243. 

Ni'matullfih, 249-251. 

Nirguna, 146, 147. 

Nirvana, 150-152. 

Nlshapur, 25, 31, 36, 196, 197. 

Nishpranca Ideal, 144, 145. 

Nizam of Hyderabad, 208. 

NizSmiyyah College, 26. 

NizSmiyyah Section, 220-224. 

Nizimu'd-Din, 94. 

NizamuM-Dln Awliyi, 113, 128, 214, 219-224, 227. 

Nizamu-'l-Mulk, 26. 

Nujuba, 106. 

Nuquba, 106. 

NOruM-Dln Mubarak Qbaznawl, 185, 228. 

NuruM-Dln Qibla 'Alam, 224. 

NuruM-Mub-ammadiyya, 58. 


Om, 153. 

Oneness, 84. 

Oneness of the Essence, 54. 


Orders, 174-192, 187, 190, 193. 
Orenburg, 188. 

Padmas, 149. 

Pak 'Abdu'r-Rahman, 262-264. 

Pakpatan, 107, 219. 

Pak Rahmams, 262-264. 

Pandits, 133, 202. 

Pandnama, 32, 33. 

Panipat, 314. 

Panjab, 111, 200, 216, 219. 

Pantheism, 168. 

Pas anfds, 99. 

Path, 67-72, 74, 75, 161. 

Penukondah, 237. 

Perfect Man, 74. 

Perfect Unit, 81. 

Persia, 119, 121, 185, 186. 

Pingla, 149. 

Pir, 87,89, 99, 106, 140, 141, 160, 162, 179, 188, 189, 190, 


Piran-i-Kaliar, 219, 225, 226. 
Pir-i-Gha'ib, 103. 
Pir Karim, 209. 

Pir Muhammad Sachyar, 262-264. 
Plrzadas, 120. 
Plato, 18. 
Platonism, 30. 
Platts, 42. 

INDEX 401 

Plotinus, 132. 
Prithviraj, 200, 205. 
Prophyry, 18. 
Pseudo-Dionysius, 17. 
Pure Essence, 53. 
Purgative life, 69. 
Purusa, 149. 


Qadiri Order, 113, 172, 175-182, 197, 253-255. 

Qadiriyya, 137, 162, 174, 194. 

Qadr, 28. 

Qalandarl, 124. 

Qalandarl Order, 309-314. 

Qalb, 61-65. 

Qandhar, 233. 

Qaran, 299, 300. 

Qasim b. Abu Bakr, 187. 

Qasr-i-'Arifm, 189. 

Qawwal, 112. 

Qawwdli, 112. 

Qayyum, 81, 285-298. 

Qayyumiyat, 285, 288. 

Qumesiyya, 255, 256. 

Qumes Shah, 255, 

Quniya, 36. 

Quran, 6, 93, 94, 100, 102, 112, 115' 130, 131, 132, 135, 

136, 138, 195, 210, 241. 
Qurb-i-fara*id, 84. 
Qurb-i-nawdfil, 84. 


Qushayri, 7, 30. 

Qutb, 104. 

QutbuM-Dln Aybak, 206. 

Qutf>uM-Din Blnadal, 312. 

QutfmM-Dm Kakl, 197, 209, 215, 228, 311. 


Rabija, 12, 14-16, 109, 162. 

Radha Krishna, Sir, 156. 

Radauli, 123. 

RSmanuja, 144, 145. 

Ramayana, 135, 140. 

Ram Chandra, 138, 139. 

Ramitan, 189. 

Rimpur, 39. 

Rapture, 169. 

Raq^ 113. 

Rasulabad, 237. 

Rasul Shahl section, 249-252. 

Reality, 67. 

Rehatsek, 51. 

Religious Orders, 

, the origin of, 159-173. 

, the main, 174-192. 

, the Chishtl, 193-227. 

.the Suhrawardl, 228-252. 

, the Qadiri Order, 252-274. 

, the Naqshbandl t 275-298. 

.the Uwaysl, 299-302. 

, the MadSrI, 302-306. 

INDEX 403 

, the Shattarl, 306-309. 

, the Qalandari, 309-314. 

, the Malamatl, 314-318. 
Renunciation, 73. 

Repentance, 73. 
Rewgar, 188. 
Rhys Davids, 151. 
Ris&il, of Sa'di, 42. 
Riwayat, 125. 
RiyaduM-Dln, 207. 
Ruh, 61-63, 65, 76. 
RuknuM-Dln, 32. 
Rum, 110. 

Sabiri Section, 225-227. 

Sada Suhagin, 249. 

Sadhaura, 256. 

Sa'dl, 41, 42, 184. 

Sa 4 d Shamsu J d-Dln, 113. 

Sa 4 dullah, 265. 

SadruM-Dm, 231, 232. 

Safar dar watan, 191. 

Safaru*l-abd, 74. 

Safaru>l-Haq, 74. 

Saflnatu*l-Awliyd, 175. 

afluM-Dln, 254. 

Sahl b. 'Abdullah Tastarl, 172. 

Said gharraz, 83. 

Saints, of early ufism, 12-15. 


, the veneration of, 102-104. 

, the hierarchy of, 104-106. 

, of the early days of Islam in India, 118-131. 

, of the fourteen ^hdnwadas, 163-173. 

, of the Chishti Order, 174-176, 193-227. 

, of the Qadirl Order, 176-182, 253-274. 

, of the Suhrawardl Order, 182-186, 228-252. 

, of the Naqshbandl Order, 186-189, 275-298. 

, of the Uwaysl Order, 299-302. 

, of the Madari Order, 302-306. 

, of the Shattan Order, 306-309. 

, of the Qalandari Order, 309-314. 

, of the Malamatl Order, 247-252. 
Sakmatu^l Awliya, 110, 271. 

SalSr Mas'ud Ghazl. 122-124. 

alat, 90. 

$alatu*l Ma bus, 93. 

Salik, 67. 

Sallm Chishti. 208. 

Salaman-o-Absal, 51. 

Salmanu^l- Farsi, 187. 

Sama, 112-115, 215. 

Samanyas, 147, 148. 

Samarqand, 195. 

Sammasi, 189. 

Sanjar, 193. 

Sankhya, 134, 147. 

Saqatf, 168. 

Saqa^iyya, 167. 

SariuVSaqatf, 160, 162, 171. 

INDEX 405 

Sasvata, 152. 

Satisfaction, 72. 

Sayrani^llah, 76. 

Sayr fillah, 75. 

Sayr ilallah, 75. 

Sayyid Bukharl, 236. 

Sayyid Siknadar, 276. 

Schroder, 152. 

Seal o? Sainthood, 82. 

Self-annihilation, 168. 

Self-mortification, 77, 96. 

Sell, Canon E., 185. 

Seven Valleys, 34. 

Shah Jamal, 267. 

Shah Muhammad Ghawth, 307, 308. 

Shajra, 95. 

Shakargani, see Baba Farid. 

ShamsuM- 4 Arifin Ghawri, 242. 

ShamsuM-Din, a title, 59. 

ShamsuM-Dln Aflaki, 37. 

Shamsu^d-Dia Hafiz, see Hafig. 

ShamsuM-Dln Tabrezi, 36-38. 

ShamsuM-Dm Turk, 226, 227. 

Shankara, 147,148. 

Shaqdyiqun'-Wb'maniya, 168. 

SharfuM-Dm Bu 4 AU Qalandar, 312-314. 

Sh^rfuM-Dln lima 4 il Jabaruti, 60. 

Shanal, 87, 181, 215. 

Shariurs, 115. 

Order, 306-309. 



Shaykh, see ptr. 

Shaykh Sa'di, 31. 

ShaykhuM-YunSni, 132. 

Sher Shah, 242, 307. 

Ske'ru*l-Ajam, 47. 

Shibli, 47, 125. 

Shihbu J d-Dln Muhammad Qbawri, 205, 206. 

ShihSbu J d-Dm Suhrawardl, 7, 30, 42, 184, 185, 197, 211, 


Shirtz, 41,47,184. 
Shu'ayb, 216. 
Shuhudi, 284. 

ShuhQdiyya, 52, 142, 144, 284. 
Sikandar Lodi, 253. 
?ila, 283. 
Silsila, 160. 
Sindh, 118, 133, 247. 
Sipa Salar, 61-63. 
SirSjuM-Din, 224. 
Sirawanl, 125. 

Sirhind, 205, 276, 278, 282, 289, 290, 291. 
SistSn, 193. 
Sitr Mu'alla, 123. 
Sobriety, 169, 170, 172. 
Sokhar, 189. 
Srinagar, 107. 
Stages, 67, 68-72. 
States, 67, 72, 73, 76. 
Subsistence, 76, 83. 

INDEX 407 

ufi, speculation concerning God, 52. 

, derivation of the word, 6. 

, significance of the journey of a, 73. 

, stages of the journey of a, 68. 

, devotions of a, 90. 

, notable features of the practices of a, 102-117. 

, speculation concerning God compared with 

Hindu Philosophy, 142-148. 
and also see, 161, 162, 164, 169, 170, 184, 191, 196, 

210, 211, 212, 215, 227. 
ufism, beginning of, 7, 

, the earliest form of, 8, 

, speculative elements in, 17-25. 

, the influence of Hellenic philosophy, 18, 

, the Pantheistic elements in, 21-25. 

, finds recognition in Islam, 25-30. 

, classic periods of, 31. 

, music in, 112. 

, introduction in India 118, 

, in relation to Indian thought, 133-158. 
see also, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 171, 184, 185. 
SufySn Thawri, 164. 

Suhag, 248, 249. 

Suhagl section, 248, 249. 

Suhrawardl Order, 175,182-186,212,228-234. 

, sub-sections, 234-252. 

, Ba Shara 4 sections, 234-247. 

, Be Shara' sections, 247-252. 
Suhrawardiyya, 162, 172, 174, 197. 

Sukr, 169. 


Sulayman Shah, 260. 
Sultanu*l-adhkar, 99. 
Sultan Sarang Ghakkar, 242. 
Svetakdta, 144, 147. 
Svetasvatra, 146. 
Swarup, 148. 
Syria, 36, 37, 127. 

Tabar Hind, 120. 
Tabriz, 197. 

Tadhkiratu*l-Awliyd, 14, 32, 244 
Taghlaqabad, 222. 
Tahdrat, 90. 
Tahmld, 96. 
Tajalli, 78-83. 
Tajrid, 120. 
Takhr, 96. 
Takia, 185. 
Tamim Ansari, 118. 
Tamimu^d-Darl, 10. 
Tanazzuldt, 52-57. 
Taqlld, 26. 

Tarjuamnu*l-Asrar, 48. 
fanqa-i-Khwajagdn. 189. 
Tariqa-i-Naqshbandiyya t 189 
Tarlqai, 67, 181, 188. 
Tartar, 193. 

Taitawsiyya, 172, 174, 176. 
Ta$awwuf, 6, 210, 211, see Sufism. 

INDEX 409 

Td 5m, 22. 
Tashkand, 188. 
Tathagatha, 15. 
Tawajjuh, 88, 99. 
Tawakkul 28, 71, 73, 165. 
Tawayt, 73. 

Tau^fd, 28, 71, 168, 171. 
Tawhidu*dh-dhat, 78. 
Tar'hldu>l-afaL 28, 78. 
Tcwhidu*s-sifdt. 78. 
Tcyfur! ^lanwada, 187. 
i ayfuriyya, 168, 169, 171. 
tayfur Sham!, 304, 305. 
Titus, Dr. M. T., 120. 
Torah, 135. 
Triad, 53. 
Turkey, 185, 187. 
Turkistan, 127. 
TOs, 25. 


'Ubudiyyat,58, 83. 

Uchh, 217, 236, 238, 253, 254, 255 

Uddalaka, 144. 

4 Umar, 161, 300. 

4 Umar b. 'Abdu^AzIz, 105. 

Umayyad, 11. 

Ummatullah, 206. 

Umm Salma, 162. 

Union with God, 34, 67, 72. 


Unity, 54, 56. 

Unity of all existence, 33. 

Unity in God, of Essence, 78. 

, of attributes, 78. 

, of acts, 78. 
Universal Self, 71. 
Universal Soul, 156. 
Universal Succour, 82, 

Upanishads, 135, 136, 140, 143, 144-147, 153, 154. 

Urquhart, Dr. 140, 141. 

'Urs, 107, 114, 115, 123, 202, 207, 219, 226, 246. 

U&l, 161, 162. 

'Uthman, 161. 

'Uthman tx Maz l un, 10. 

'UthmSn, a saint, 119. 

'UjhmSn HSruni, 196. 

Uwaysiyya, 299-302. 

Uwaysu^l-Qaram, 162, 299-302. 


Vedanta, 140, 154. 

Vedas, 135, 137. 

Veils of light and darkness, 67. 

Veneration of the saints, 102. 

Venkataramana, 141. 

Vicar of God, 82. 

Vidya< 145. 

Vinnana, 152. 

Visheshas, 147, 148. 

INDEX 411 

Vishistadvaita, 144, 145. 
Visitation to a shrine, 106, 107, 


Wajd, 70, 169. 
WajihuM-Dm, 308, 309. 
Wahab, 118. 
Wafrlat, 55, 75. 
Wafydiyyat, 75. 
Wahid, 55. 
Wakidiyyat, 56, 75. 
Wali, see Awliya. 
Wasl 72. 
Wild see Awtdd. 
A^orld of Command, 75. 
World of Creation, 75. 
Wujudl, 284. 
Wujudiyya, 52, 142, 284. 
Wuquf-i-adadl, 192. 
Wuquf-i-qalafa, 192. 
Wuquf-i-Zamanl, 192. 

Yad dasht, 192. 

Yadgar, Muhammad, 198. 

Yad karo, 191. 

Yajanavalkaya, 154. 

Yasi, 188. 

Yogi, 148. 

Yognadis, 149. 


fog Sutra, 134. 
Yusuf Chishti, 225. 
Yusuf-Zulaykha, 43, 50, 51. 

Zabur, 109. 

Zabld, 60. 

Zahid, 17. 

Zaydiyya, 163. 

Zinda plr, 256. 

Ziyarat, see visitation. 

Zubayr, 296-298. 

Zuhd, 69, 70, 73. 

Zuhra Blbl, 123. 

Zulfa, a companion of Rabi'a, 109. 

Zulayklja, mother of NigamuM-Dln Awliya, 220. 

Printed and Published by C. O. Forsgren, at the Lucknow Publishing 
House, Lucknow. 1739-3-36.